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Book 9 (Ι

[2] φύζα, regulariy flight accompanied by fear; but the latter idea predominates in the present context: ‘panic.’

φόβου, as commonly in Homer, ‘flight.’

βεβολήατο, § 142.4, a.

[4] ὀρίνετον, aorist subjunctive or present indicative? Cf. § § 143; 144. II; 145; 197.

ιχθυόεντα, § 159.

[5] The northwest wind is meant.

[7] ἔχευεν, gnomic aorist § 184).

[8] Like a wild storm at sea was the spirit of the Achaeans, rent alike by fear and grief.

[10] φοίτα, the tense expresses repeated action.

[13] εἰν ἀγορῇ, § 35.

ἄν, § 46.

[18] 18-25. See notes on parallel passage, B 111-118.

[19] τότε refers to the occasion of the deceptive dream which Zeus sent to Agamemnon before the dawn a few days previous (B 8 ff.).

[26] 26-28. Agamemnon made this same proposal before the first day of battle, B 139-141. Then he spoke the words insincerely, to test his men's bravery; but now he speaks in good earnest.

[33] agrees with the predicate noun “θέμις”. In the assembly (“ἀγορῇ”) there is equality of speech, for the heroes at least.

[34] This disparagement of Diomedes's courage occurs in a speech of Agamemnon, in the course of the first day of battle (4.370-400). It begins “ μοι, Τυδέος υἱὲ δαΐφρονος ἱπποδάμοιο, τί πτώσσεις;

‘Ah me, son of the valiant knight Tydeus, why do you cower?’ But Agamemnon does not, in the passage referred to, actually use the words “ἀπτόλεμον καὶ ἀνάλκιδα” (l. 35).

[37] διάνδιχα, with one of two gifts, ‘by halves.’ Diomedes's taunt seems unjustifiable, for according to Helen's testimony (3.179) Agamemnon was “ἀμφότερον, βασιλεύς τ᾽ ἀγαθὸς κρατερός τ᾽ αἰχμητής”, ‘both a good king and a brave fighter.’

[39] τε, agreeing with predicate noun “κράτος”.

[40] δαιμόνι᾽ε), cf. A 561.

[42] ὥς τε (=Attic “ὥστε”) νέεσθαι, is set ‘on returning.’

[43] πάρ, § 46. Supply “έστί”.

[46] διαπέρσομεν, § § 143; 144, II.

With “εἰ δὲ καὶ αὐτοί” supply “ἐθέλουσι φυγεῖν”.

[47] φευγόντων, imperative. Compare Agamemnon's proposal, l. 27.

[53] πέρι, adverb, ‘exceedingly.’

[54] μετά, a rather remarkable use with the accusative. In Attic the genitive would follow.

[55] ὅσσοι, supply “εἰσί”: ‘of all the Achaeans.’

[56] πάλιν ἐρέει, ‘will gainsay.’

ἀτὰρ οὐ τέλος ἵκεο μύθων, ‘but you did not come to the completion of your speech’; you did not touch the really vital point, namely the quarrel between Achilles and Agamemnon, which has led to the present disasters. “And yet thou hast not gone so far, but we must further go” (Chapman).

[57] κε ... εἴης, ‘you might be.’

[59] The verse is bracketed, as not a part of the original poem, because the construction of two accusatives after “βάζεις” is unusual (“μ᾽ , Π” 207, may stand for “μοι”), and because the latter part of the line contains a weak repetition of l. 58.

[61] ἐξείπω, § 191. Nestor promises that he will complete the unfinished speech of Diomedes.

[62] ἀτιμήσει, with “κε” (l. 61), § 190.

οὐδὲ κρείων Ἀγαμέμνων, ‘not even lord Agamemnon.’ By these words Nestor makes it clear that what he has to add will be likely to irritate the king of Mycenae. He is hinting at the real cause of the recent calamities, the quarrel with Achilles. What he has to propose is a reconciliation between the two chiefs. Yet he will not humiliate Agamemnon by speaking out before the whole assembly, both chiefs and common soldiers. He proposes that Agamemnon give a dinner to the elders (l. 70), the preliminary of a council. Then, before this select body, he apportions the blame firmly (beginning with l. 96) and proposes the remedy. His tact and his years win Agamemnon's respect; and the king finally yields every point.

[63] 63, 64. These lines are bracketed, because probably not a part of the original poem. They seem like the interpolation of a later gnomic poet. In the present context, πολέμου ἐπιδημίοο (‘civil war’) must refer to the quarrel between Agamemnon and Achilles, and ἐκεῖνος, if applied to this concrete case, indicates Agamemnon.

[64] ἐπιδημίοο, § 74.

[67] λεξάσθων, from root “λεχ”, ‘lie’; ‘let them take their post.’

[70] δαίνυ δαῖτα, ‘give a feast’ (cognate accusative).

[72] εὐρέα, Attic “εὐρύν”.

[73] πολέσιν, § 106.

[75] χρεώ, subject of a verb of motion like “ἵκει” understood.

Ἀχαιούς is a limit of motion.

[76] ἐσθλῆς, supply “βουλῆς”.

[84] ὑόν, § 107.1.

[88] τίθεντο, ‘made ready for themselves.’

[91] ἑτοῖμα, predicate adjective after προκείμενα, ‘lying ready before (them).

[92] Cf. A 469.

[97] ἐν σοὶ μὲν λήξω, σέο δ᾽ ἄρξομαι. Compare Theocritus,

Ἐκ Διὸς ἀρχώμεσθα καὶ ἐς Δία λήγετε, Μοῖσαι

“From Zeus let us begin, and with Zeus end, ye Muses.”

[99] θέμιστας, cf. A 238.

σφίσι, dative of advantage.

[100] τῷ § 117.

πέρι, ‘beyond others,’ ‘most of all.’

[101] κρηῆναι δὲ καὶ ἄλλῳ κτλ., ‘and to falfil the words for another as well whenever the spirit bids anyone speak out for the common good.’ Supply ἔπος as object of “κρηῆναι”.

[102] σέο δ᾽ ἕξεται, ὅττι κεν ἄρχῃ, ‘whatever he proposes [or ‘initiates’] will depend upon you.’ Whatever any one else suggests will depend for its final execution on your will; and so the credit of it will redound to you.

[106] ἐξ ἔτι τοῦ ὅτε, ‘even from the time when.’

[107] Ἀχιλῆος depends on “κλισίηθεν”.

[108] ‘Not at all with our approval.’ Recall Nestor's words, A 275, 276, and 282-284.

[109] μάλα (l. 108) ... “πόλλ̓” (=“πολλά”), ‘very earnestly.’

[115] ψεῦδος, adverbial accusative, equivalent to “ψευδῶς”, ‘falsely.’

[116] ἀντί νυ πολλῶν ἀνδρῶν, ‘equal to many men,’ ‘a match for many men.’

[117] φιλήσῃ, § 197.

[121] ὀνομήνω, § 191.

[122] ἀπύρους, ‘that fire has not yet touched,’ as is proved by 23.268.— A Homeric τάλαντον of gold was a weight much less in value than the Attic talent of silver; the latter was equivalent to about $1,080 in our money. The value of the Homeric talent, however, although it must have been vastly less than this, is unknown. Two talents of gold are mentioned as a fourth prize in connection with the chariot race, 23.269, while the third is a caldron untouched by fire, and the fifth an urn. What may be a similar caldron is mentioned, 23.885, as equivalent in value to an ox.

[124] ἄροντο, ἄρνυμαι.

[125] γένοιτο, protasis of the less vivid future condition.

τόσσα of this line is correlative with “ὅσσα”, l. 127.—Line 126, which awkwardly interrupts the construction, is rejected by some editors.

[127] ἠνείκαντο, φέρω. Cf. “ἐνείκω”, Z 258.

[129] αὐτός, Achilles.

[130] ἐνίκων φῦλα γυναικῶν, ‘surpassed womankind,’ at the time of the division.

[131] μέτα, ‘among them,’ counting as eighth, however, and not included in the seven, as is proved by T 246; further, the seven were Lesbians, while Briseis was from Lyrnessus, a town of Mysia (B 689, 690).

ἀπηύρων, § 63.4.

[132] ἔπι, ‘besides.’

[133] τῆς, equivalent to Attic “αὐτῆς”, ‘her,’ possessive genitive.

[138] εἰσελθὼν κτλ.: as our text is punctuated, this may be taken to mean ‘entering into the council of chiefs, when we Achaeans apportion the booty.’ If a comma were placed after “εἰσελθών” (the common punctuation), and that after “νηησάσθω” were removed, the participle might be taken with the preceding verb thus: ‘entering into the city, let him load his ship’ etc.

[141] εἴ κεν followed by optative, of a remote future supposition, has been observed A 60 also; cf. § 208

Ἄργος ... Ἀχαιικόν, the Peloponnesus; see note on A 79.

οὖθαρ ἀρούρης, imitated in Vergil's “ubere glaebae,” Aen. I, 531, and III, 164; “divitis uber agri,” VII, 262.

[146] τάων, genitive plural of “”, § 115.

[147] ἔπι, ‘besides.’ Not only may Achilles neglect the custom of making presents to the bride's father and so possess his bride free (“ἀνάεδνον”, l. 146), but Agamemnon will of his own accord give rich presents along with her as peace-offerings (“μείλια”). See note on X 472.

[153] νέαται (= Attic “ἔσχαται”) Πύλου, ‘on the borders of Pylos.’

[155] θεὸν ὥς, § § 37; 123, 5.

τιμήσουσιν with κε, § 190.

[156] τελέουσι, future indicative, § 151. The people will honor him, like a god, with offerings (“δωτίνῃσι”, l. 155) of first-fruits, and they will pay rich taxes (“λιπαρὰς θέμιστας”) imposed on them by royal command.

[157] μεταλλήξαντι, i. e. “μετά” + “λήξαντι”, § 39.

[158] δμηθήτω, δαμνάω or “δάμνημι”. A scholiast calls attention to a similar passage from Aeschylus:

μόνος θεῶν γὰρ Θάνατος οὐ δώρων ἐρᾷ:
οὐδ᾽ ἄν τι θύων οὐδ᾽ ἐπισπένδων ἄνοις,
οὐδ᾽ ἔστι βωμὸς οὐδὲ παιανίζεται:
μόνου δὲ Πειθὼ δαιμόνων ἀποστατεῖ.

Fragment 161 (Wecklein)

‘For Death alone of the gods loves not offerings; nor by sacrifice nor by libation may you accomplish aught, nor has he altar nor is he hymned; and from him alone of divinities Persuasion holds aloof.’

[162] Γερήνιος, see note on B 336.

[164] διδοῖς § 132), ‘you offer.’

[165] ὀτρύνομεν, aorist subjunctive § 144, II).

[166] ἔλθωσ᾽ι) with οἵ κε (l. 165) is a relative clause of purpose. The Attic equivalent is the relative with future indicative.

[167] ἂν ... ἐπιόψομαι, § 190.

[168] Φοῖνιξ, the old tutor of Achilles, who also commanded one of the five divisions of the Myrmidons (16.196). When Achilles refused to take further part in battle, his men shared his inactivity, however restive they may have been. Phoenix, though holding aloof from fighting, was doubtless keen to observe the progress of the battle; and for this purpose absenting himself from the quarters of the Myrmidons and the company of Achilles, he seems to have associated with the active chiefs, in council at least. So he was present at the feast of the elders. Whereupon Agamemnon availed himself of Phoenix's presence—whether this was accidental or not—to help the two envoys, Ajax and Odysseus. But Phoenix was distinctly not an envoy; he simply accompanied the envoys, as did the two heralds, Odius and Eurybates. The envoys are regularly spoken of as two (ll. 182, 185, 192, 196, 197). Achilles disregarded Phoenix's presence in his formal welcome to the two envoys (l. 197). The old man took a part in the interview, however (ll. 434 ff.), because he was a privileged person.

Many critics believe that the seeming inconsistencies show that the lines relating to Phoenix are interpolations of later times.

ἡγησάσθω, ‘lead the way.’

[170] Odius, the herald, is not elsewhere mentioned. Of Eurybates it can hardly be believed that he is the same as the herald of Agamemnon who (A 320) was sent to take away Briseis and so would be particularly hateful to Achilles. The name is suggested by the herald's occupation and may well have been borne by different men. Odysseus had a herald named Eurybates also (B 184), who is very likely meant in this context.

[171] φέρτε, § 131.

175, 176. Cf. A 470, 471.

[177] ἔπιον, πίνω.

[180] Ὀδυσσῆι, with ἐπέτελλε (l. 179), on which πειρᾶν (l. 181) also depends: ‘enjoined earnestly [“πόλλ̓”] on them ... to try.’

[182] παρὰ θῖνα, ‘along the strand’; cf. A 327.

[183] γαιηόχῳ, ‘earth-holder,’ Poseidon is called—by identification with the sea, which seems to mariners to embrace the lands.

[188] πόλιν Ἠετίωνος, cf. A 366.

[189] κλέα, for “κλέεα”, which some editors write “κλέἐ”. Cf. “δυσκλέα”, l. 22.

[191] ὁπότε, ‘until.’

[192] ἡγεῖτο, Odysseus preceded Ajax.

[194] αὐτῇ σὺν φόρμιγγι, ‘lyre and all.’

[197] φίλοι κτλ., ‘right welcome men are you that have come—some great need surely must urge you—who of [all] the Achaeans are dearest to me, despite my wrath.’—With χρεώ (l. 197) supply “ἱκάνει ὑμᾶς”. A different interpretation is: ‘surely I have great need’ (of friends); the words supplied are then “ἱκάνει με”.

[202] καθίστα, present imperative, Attic “καθίστη”.

[204] ὑπέασι, Attic “ὕπεισι”, from “ὕπειμι” (“εἰμί”).

[206] κάββαλεν, ‘set down’; for the spelling cf. E 343.

ἐν πυρὸς αὐγῇ, ‘in the bright light of the fire.’ It will be recalled that the embassy occurs in the evening; and perhaps all the light in the hut is furnished by this fire.

[209] τῷ, ‘for him,’ Achilles.

[211] μέγα, ‘to a large flame.’

[212] κατὰ ... ἐκάη, tmesis.

213, 214. ‘He spread out the glowing embers and extended the spits over them; and he sprinkled all with holy salt, resting the spits on the supporting stones.’

[214] ἁλός, genitive of material. The salt is said to be called ‘holy’ because of its preservative power.

[219] τοίχου τοῦ ἑτάροιο, ‘by the opposite wall,’ a genitive of place.

[221] The envoys had just feasted with Agamemnon (l. 177); so it may be inferred that these formulary lines mean that they ate only so much now as courtesy demanded.

[224] δείδεκτ᾽ο) (for “δέδϝεκτο”?) from “δειδίσκομαι” (“δεδϝίσκομαι”?), ‘pledged.’

[225] χαῖρ᾽ Ἀχιλεῦ, ‘your health, Achilles!’

ἐπιδευεῖς, predicate adjective after “ἐσμέν” understood.

[226] Odysseus purposely mentions the name of Achilles's great enemy at the outset: he hints that they were sent by him, although, for fear of a rebuff, he does not openly say so.

ἠμὲν ... ἠδέ (l. 227)=“καὶ ... καί”.

[227] πάρα γὰρ κτλ., ‘for there are set forth many satisfying viands to feast upon.’

δαίνυσθ᾽αι), infinitive of purpose.

[228] μέμηλεν, supply “ἡμῖν”.

[229] μέγα πῆμα ... εἰσοράοντες, ‘looking on the great distress.’

[230] δείδιμεν=“δέδϝιμεν”, § 62.1.

ἐν δοιῇ, supply “ἐστί”: ‘it is uncertain whether the ships be safe or perish.’

[232] Achilles may well feel that his prayer (A 408, 409) is being realized.

αὖλιν, perhaps originally “αὔλιδ᾽”(“α”), but made to conform to ordinary Attic usage § 80). Classical Greek had a verb from this word, “αὐλίζομαι”, familiar in Xenophon's Anabasis.

[234] οὐδ᾽ ἔτι φασὶν σχήσεσθ᾽αι), ‘and they say they will no longer be restrained’; in the Greek idiom the negative precedes “φημί”. Cf. Xen. Anab. I, 3, 1: “οἱ γὰρ στρατιῶται οὐκ ἔφασαν ἰέναι τοῦ πρόσω”.

[236] 236, 237. The lightnings of Zeus, propitious to the Trojans, and the confidence of Hector are told of in the preceding book (8.75, 133, 141, 170, 175).

[242] πυρός, cf. B 415.

[243] ὀρινομένους, ‘stirred out’ like wasps, says a scholiast.

[244] δείδοικα=“δέδϝοικα”. Cf. “δείδιμεν”, l. 230.

[245] ἤῃ, present subjunctive, third singular, of “εἰμί”, a conjectural form for the MS. “εἴη”.

[247] ἄνα, cf. Z 331.

καὶ ὀψέ περ, ‘late as it is.’ It will be recalled that there have been but two days of battle included in the time since Achilles withdrew.

[248] ἐρύεσθαι: if a nice distinction be drawn between “ἐρυ?́ω”, ‘drag,’ and “ῥυ?ομαι”, ‘preserve,’ ‘save,’ the spelling here should be “ῥυ?εσθαι”, which some editors introduce. Compare “ῥυ_σίπτολι” (or “ἐρυσίπτολι”), Z 305.—“ὑπό”= ‘from under.’

[249] οὐ δέ τι μῆχος κτλ., ‘and there is no means to find a cure for mischief once done.’

ἔστ᾽ may represent “ἔστι” or “ἔσται”.

[252] πέπον, ‘dear friend.’ Cf. the different sense, B 235.

[253] Nestor and Odysseus went to Phthia to persuade Peleus to allow Achilles to go to the Trojan war (cf. H 127, 11.765-784). On that occasion Peleus is supposed to have spoken the words quoted here.

[257] ἔριδος, ‘strife,’ but not, of course, with reference to any particular occasion. Achilles's high-strung temperament was known to his father.

[260] παύἐ (“παύεο”): this MS. reading is significant. For consistency's sake, “φράζευ” in l. 251 should read “φράζἐ”, since the formation of the two words is identical. The principle has wide application.

[261] δίδωσι, ‘offers’; cf. l. 164, “διδοῖς”.

[262] εἰ δέ, interjectional, like “ἄγε δή”. A probable emendation is “εἶα”. Cf. A 302.

καταλέξω, with “κε”, aorist subjunctive, § 192.

[263] κλισίῃσιν, the plural indicates that Agamemnon's lodge contained more than one room.

264-299. Repeated with necessary changes of person from ll. 122-157.

[273] ἀπηύρα, § 63.4.

[279] νηήσασθαι, § 213.

[288] ἄγεσθαι, § 213.

[300] ‘And if the son of Atreus has become too hateful to you, in your heart—himself and his gifts—yet do you have pity for the rest of the Achaeans, at least.’

μᾶλλον with ἀπήχθετο signifies ‘too hateful’ for you to forgive and forget.

κηρόθι, § 155.3.

[301] δ᾽=“δέ”: such a clause as the present is commonly considered a relic of the old paratactic construction; but it is probably better to regard “δέ” as equivalent in force to a weakened “δή”, not as a conjunction. Cf. A 58, 137.

Παναχαιούς, cf. modern “Pan-American.”

[303] σφι=“παρὰ” (or “ἐκ”) “πάντων”, ‘in the esteem of all.’

[306] A summary of the points made by Odysseus: (1) The danger of the ships is emphasized (ll. 231, 232, 235, 241); (2) Achilles is reminded of the parting words of his father Peleus and urged to be reasonable and gentle (ll. 252, 255, 256, 260); (3) Agamemnon's offer of gifts to effect a reconciliation is dwelt on at length (ll. 263-299), although it is not stated that Agamemnon is in any way sorry for the injury done to Achilles; (4) a plea for pity of the Greeks follows (l. 300), in close connection with which is (5) a suggestion how Achilles may win great glory (l. 303); and (6) an attempt is made to arouse his jealousy of Hector's success (ll. 304306).

[309] ‘I must speak out my will unreservedly.’ In these words Achilles foreshadows his own unfavorable reply.

[311] ἄλλοθεν ἄλλος, Latin aliunde alius.

[312] ‘As hateful as the gates of Hades’ expressed to Achilles hatefulness in the superlative degree. Hades was most hateful of all the gods to mortals (l. 159), because through his gates the dead must pass. ‘Hateful as black death’ is the expression in 3.454.

[313] ὅς χ᾽ ἕτερον μὲν κεύθῃ ... ἄλλο δὲ εἴπῃ, ‘who hides one thing [i. e. the true feeling] ... and says another.’

[316] ἐπεὶ οὐκ ἄρα τις χάρις ἦεν

μάρνασθαι, ‘since, as now appears [“ἄρα”], there is no gratitude for fighting.’ See note on 3.183.

[318] 318-320. ‘An equal share [of booty] falls to him who stays behind and to him who may battle ever so hard, and in equal honor are held both the coward and the brave man too. The man of no deeds and the man of many deeds die alike.’—By μένοντι (l. 318) and κακός (l. 319) Achilles alludes to Agamemnon, who he distinctly says (l. 332) stays behind.— Instead of εἰ μάλα τις πολεμίζοι (l. 318), “μάλα πολεμίζοντι” would form a natural antithesis to “μένοντι”.—For ἰῇ see § 108.1.

[320] This line looks like the interpolation of a gnomic poet. Compare ll. 63 and 64.

κάτθαν᾽ε), § 46, § 184.

[321] οὐδέ τί μοι περίκειται, ‘nor is aught more [“περί”] gained for me,’ ‘it profits me nothing.’

[322] πολεμίζειν, infinitive of purpose.

[323] προφέρῃσιν, § 197.

[324] μάστακ̓, generally understood as “μάστακα”, accusative singular, in a meaning (peculiar to this place) of ‘food.’

κακῶς δέ τέ οἱ πέλει αὐτῇ, ‘although it fares ill with her herself’ (“οἱ αὐτῇ”).

[325] ἴαυον, ‘passed’ sleepless nights.

[326] πολεμίζων κτλ., ‘warring against men that fought in defense of their wives.’ The dative (as here, “ἀνδράσι”, l. 327) after verbs of fighting denotes the enemy. Homeric men who defended their cities against invaders knew that if defeated they should be slain, while their wives and children would be enslaved.

[327] μαρναμένοις, an emendation of the MS. “μαρνάμενος”.

[328] πόλι_ς, § 81, § 103.

[329] πεζός, ‘on land.’

[331] δόσκον, § 154.

[332] δ᾽ ὄπισθε μένων, an imputation of cowardice.

[333] διὰ ... δασάσκετο, tmesis.

[334] γέρα^, neuter plural; observe the short ultima; it occars also B 237.

[336] εἵλετ᾽ο), supply as object ‘my prize,’ i. e. Briseis.—‘But he has a wife,’ already, adds Achilles, alluding to Clytaemnestra, whom Agamemnon, when sailing to Troy, left behind in Mycenae.

ἄλοχος appears always to be used by Homer of a wedded wife: so it fits Clytaemnestra, but does not apply to Briseis, unless its use in this instance be extraordinary.

[338] ἀνήγαγεν, ‘led up,’ said of the journey from Greece ‘up’ to Troy. Agamemnon is greatly in the wrong: although waging this war on account of Helen, stolen away by Paris, he himself has committed as grievous an offense as Paris. Does he think Paris's act a crime, and his own insignificant? Or does he think that Atreus's sons alone of mortal men hold their wives of value?

[341] ὅς τις, supply “ἐστί”.

[342] τὴν αὐτοῦ, ‘his own wife.’

[346] καὶ ἄλλοισιν βασιλεῦσιν may be a bitter allusion to Agamemnon's own words, A 174.

[347] φραζέσθω, ‘let him consider how,’ with infinitive.

νήεσσι, dative of interest (advantage).

δήιον, scansion, § 28.

[349] ἤλασε τάφρον, ‘ran a ditch.’ Cf. note on A 575.

[352] μετ᾽ Ἀχαιοῖσιν, ‘amid the Achaeans.’ Achilles was indeed a ‘great bulwark’ for the Achaeans, when he was fighting, as Nestor truly said (A 284). He was greater than the wall and moat which unsuccessfully served as a defense in his absence.

[353] ἀπὸ τείχεος, ‘away from the city wall.’

[354] ὅσον, ‘only so far as.’

φηγόν, see note on Z 237.

[355] As object of ἔμιμνε supply “με”, with which οἶον agrees.

[358] εὖ, cf. “ἅλις”, l. 279, to which it is similar in meaning.—After προερύσσω, Achilles would regularly continue with an expression like “πλεύσομαι”, ‘I shall sail,’ with the subject of which the participles “ῥέξας” (l. 357) and “νηήσας” (l. 358) would agree. Instead, the construction abruptly changes.

[360] ἔπ᾽ι), ‘over’ the Hellespont.

[363] ἤματι ... τριτάτῳ, compare the account in the Cypria (note on Z 292), which gave the voyage from Sparta to Troy as three days long, in fair weather. Diomedes voyages from Troy to Argos in four days (Od. 3.180). Cf. also Xen. Hellenica, II, 1, 30.

[364] ἐνθάδε ἔρρων, ‘on my sorry voyage hither.’ The verb implies that the journey was attended with misfortune.

365 ἄλλον, ‘besides.’

367-369. ‘But my prize even he who gave took from me again with in sult—lord Agamemnon Atrides. To him tell § 213] all.’

[372] αἰὲν ἀναιδείην ἐπιειμένος, cf. A 149.—οὐ δ᾽ ἂν ἐμοί γε κτλ., but though he be ever so shameless, he would not dare to look me [emphatic, as “γε” shows] in the face.’

[375] ἐκ (‘utterly’) ... ἀπάτησε, tmesis.

μ᾽ε) is to be taken with “ἤλιτεν” as well as with “ἀπάτησε”. Agamemnon deceived Achilles by proving false in friendship.—The ancient commentators call attention to the short sentences and broken lines, 375-378, which mark Achilles's intense nature.

[376] ἅλις δέ οἱ, supply “ἐστί”: ‘)tis enough for him [to have tricked me thus far].’

ἕκηλος ἐρρέτω, ‘let him go to his ruin undisturbed.’ Cf. l. 364.

[377] εὑ, § 110.

[379] τε καί ‘or even.’

[380] ὅσσα τε, § 123.3.

καὶ εἴ ποθεν ἄλλα γένοιτο, ‘and if from some source he should get wealth besides.’

[381] οὐδ᾽ ὅσα, ‘not even if he should offer me as much wealth as’: between “οὐδ᾽” and “ὅσα” there must be understood “εἰ τόσα δοίη” from l. 379. The wealth is thought of as tribute from subject lands. Orchomenus was the rich city of the Minyans in Boeotia—seat of the Graces, as Pindar sings.

[382] Αἰγυπτίας, in scansion either the antepenult must be treated as short, or “-ιας” must be pronounced as one syllable (yas) by synizesis.

[383] ἑκατόμπυλοι, a “round” number, not necessarily exact.

ἑκάστας, with “πύλας” understood from the preceding adjective. A city “gate” is regularly plural in Homer, consisting, as it did, of two folding leaves. Cf. “Σκαιὰς πύλας”, l. 354.

[387] πρίν γ᾽ ἀπὸ ... δόμεναι, ‘before he atones for.’ Achilles plainly did not want gifts from Agamemnon; the only real satisfaction that he could have was the utter humiliation of the king. This is why he asked his mother Thetis to persuade Zeus (in A) to send victory to the Trojans and defeat to the Achaeans; this is what he accomplished when (in O) the very ships of the Achaeans were threatened with fire.

[388] γαμέω, future, § 151.

[394] Aristarchus's reading “γυναῖκά γε μάσσεται”, ‘shall seek out a wife,’ instead of the vulgate γυναῖκα γαμέσσεται, ‘shall marry a wife to me,’ has the advantage of avoiding the infrequent feminine caesura of the fourth foot § 21).

398-400. ‘And there my manly heart was right well inclined to marry a wedded wife, a fitting mate, and to enjoy the possessions that aged Peleus had amassed.’

[399] γήμαντι agrees with μοι (l. 398). The time referred to in “ἐπέσσντο” is prior to the Trojan war.

[401] ἀντάξιον, predicate adjective with “ἐστί” understood; the plural adjective might be expected, agreeing with “τόσα” understood (antecedent of “ὅσα”. ll. 401 and 404).

[402] ἐκτῆσθαι, ‘used to possess,’ represents “ἔκτητο” of direct discourse. The great wealth of Troy ‘in time of peace’ (“ἐπ᾽ εἰρήνης”) is elsewhere (18.288, 289, 24.543) referred to; but the treasures became greatly depleted in purchase of provisions from abroad during the long siege (18.292).

[403] πρι?̀ν ... πρι?ν, § 30.

[404] ἐέργει, ‘encloses.’

[405] Πυθοῖ, later Delphi, famous for rich offerings. In later days Herodotus tells how Croesus, for example (Herod. I, 50, 51), made magnificent presents to Delphi, as to the only true oracle.

[406] ληιστοί, supply “εἰσί”.

[408] 409. A literal translation: ‘but a man's spirit may be neither won as spoil nor caught, so as to return again, when [once] it has passed the barrier of the teeth.’

ἐλθέμεν, syntax, § 212.

λεϊστή is only another spelling of “ληϊστή”, on which see § 28, § 29.

[409] The spirit of life is thought to pass out through the mouth at death. Pope renders freely ll. 401-409:

Life is not to be bought with heaps of gold; Not all Apollo's Pythian treasures hold, Or Troy once held, in peace and pride of sway, Can bribe the poor possession of a day! Lost herds and treasures we by arms regain, And steeds unrivall'd on the dusty plain: But from our lips the vital spirit fled, Returns no more to wake the silent dead.

[410] με is object of “φερέμεν” (l. 411).

[413] ὤλετο, ‘is lost,’ emphatic conclusion of future condition.

[415] For long syllable before “δηρόν” see § § 37; 62, 2.

[416] This line, which is but a weak repetition, was omitted by Zenodotus and rejected by Aristarchus. The interpolator evidently did not feel the force of “ἔσται” (l. 413), which is understood also at the end of l. 415.

[418] The meaning is: ‘since there is no longer hope that you will gain the goal [i. e. ‘the overthrow’] of lofty Troy.’

δήετε, cf. note on 16.852.

[419] ἑθεν, § 110.

[422] γέρας, ‘meed,’ ‘honorable service.’

[424] σαῷ, subjunctive, contracted from “σαόῃ”, like “γνῷ” (A 411) for “γνόῃ-” The clause expresses purpose.

[425] ἥδε [“μῆτις”], i. e. the attempt to persuade me to return to active warfare.

[426] ἐμεῦ ἀπομηνίσαντος, ‘while I have given way to wrath, apart from my comrades’ (“ἀπο-”), or perhaps simply ‘during the outburst of my wrath.

[429] From the long speech of Achilles (ll. 307-429) one gets much insight into his character. He is high-mettled, and can not endure to be called second to anybody; he is far from mercenary, putting honor far above riches; on the other hand, he is unforgiving, treasuring an insult to himself until his enemy shall have drained his cup of bitterness to the last drop. It was not the loss of Briseis, of course, that wounded him so much as the sting to his pride inflicted by Agamemnon's act.

The more impassioned the speech, the less it yields to so concise analysis as is possible in the case of Odysseus's (note on l. 306). While Achilles heeds most of Odysseus's arguments, he does not answer them quite in order. To the words of Odysseus about the danger of the ships, he retorts that Agamemnon may consult with Odysseus and the rest of the princes how best to ward off the hostile fire (ll. 346, 347). He does not notice at all the reference to his father's words that reminded him to be of gentle character. The gifts—a chief inducement in Odysseus's speech—he emphatically rejects (ll. 378-387), and with them the offer of Agamemnon's daughter in marriage (ll. 388-391). Already he has stated that he has gained enough (ll. 365-367); with this he will load his ships (l. 358). he says, in answer to Agamemnon's invitation to share in a future division of the spoil of Troy (ll. 277-282); in Phthia, his home, he will seek a wife (ll. 394-397), and there already Peleus has acquired property for him (l. 400). He nowhere shows signs of pity for the distress of the Greeks (cf. ll. 315, 316); he actually advises them to go home (ll. 417-420), alluding effectively to the words of Odysseus that Zeus manifestly favors the Trojans (ll. 236-238). As for winning great glory, great indeed is the cost (ll. 401-416), and in how unworthy a cause (ll. 337-343)! About the present success of Hector he cares just enough to remind the king that so long as he—Achilles—had a part in fighting, wall and moat were unnecessary (ll. 348-352) and Hector was far less venturesome (ll. 352-355).

[434] εἰ μὲν δὴ κτλ., ‘if then you are really planning to return.’

[437] λιποίμην, with passive sense, § 185.

[438] σοὶ δέ μ᾽ ἔπεμπε, ‘bade me accompany you’: “σοί” is a dative of advantage, ‘sent me along for you.’ So the words seem to have been understood by Cicero who instances (De Oratore, III, 15, 57) “ille apud Homerum Phoenix, qui se a Peleo patre Achilli iuveni comitem esse datum dicit ad bellum, ut efficeret oratorem verborum actoremque rerum” (‘the well-known Phoenix in Homer, who says he was given by father Peleus to the young Achilles for his companion in arms, to make him a speaker of words and a doer of deeds’).

[440] νήπιον κτλ., ‘a young lad, not yet familiar with leveling war nor with discussions [“ἀγορέων”, l. 441] in the assembly.’

πολέμοιο, syntax, § 174 (4).

[441] ἵνα, ‘where,’ relative adverb.

445, 446. The sense is: ‘not even if a god should promise to smooth away the wrinkles of my old age, and make me young, in manhood's bloom.’

[447] Ἑλλάδα, see note on A 79.

[480] ἄναχθ᾽=“ἄνακτα”.

[481] ὡς εἴ τε, ‘like as.’

[482] πολλοῖσιν ἐπὶ κτεάτεσσιν, ‘guardian of his great possessions’: “ὧν ... συνήγαγεν ... φύλακα” (scholium). On this use of “ἐπί” cf. Z 424, 18.529.

[485] καί σε τοσοῦτον ἔθηκα, ‘and I made you what you are.’

488, 489. ‘Until I seated you on my knees and fed you with dainty food, carving for you first, and pressing the wine to [your lips].’

ὄψου is partitive genitive.—The dainty food may have been such as Astyanax had (X 500, 501), ‘who, seated on his father's knees, ate only marrow and rich fat of sheep.’

[491] οἴνου, in construction like “ὔψου”, l. 489.

[493] =ὅτι, § 123.7. The gods granted no offspring to Phoenix in consequence of his father's curses.

[496] οὐδέ τί σε χρή, ‘it befits you not.’

[499] μέν, § 31.

502-512. The allegory of the Suppliant Prayers. In the “Λιταί” Phoenix covertly alludes to Agamemnon, who, he suggests, is now penitent. Agamemnon was misguided and sinned, as in fact he himself confessed (l. 119), though not to Achilles. Now he makes full atonement. If Achilles will accept the atonement, he will be benefited thereby; if he spurns it, he will put himself in the wrong, becoming subject to the same sin of arrogance which before seized Agamemnon. And in his turn he will pay the penalty. The Prayers are appropriately called ‘daughters of Zeus,’ since Zeus is the god and protector of suppliants (Od. 9.270).

[503] As suggested by the scholia: the Prayers are called ‘lame’ because men come haltingly to ask forgiveness; ‘wrinkled,’ because the faces of the penitents express sorrow; ‘downcast in gaze,’ because they can not look straight at those whom they have wronged.

[504] ἀλέγουσι κιοῦσαι, ‘anxiously go.’

Ἄτη is sinful arrogance, blindness of heart, described T 91-94: “πρέσβα Διὸς θυγάτηρ Ἄτη, πάντας ἀᾶται.
οὐλομένη: τῇ μέν θ᾽ ἁπαλοὶ πόδες: οὐ γὰρ ἐπ᾽ οὔδει
πίλναται, ἀλλ᾽ ἄρα γε κατ᾽ ἀνδρῶν κράατα βαίνει
βλάπτουσ᾽ ἀνθρώπους: κατὰ δ᾽ οὖν ἕτερόν γε πίδησεν

‘August daughter of Zeus is Ate, who deludes all men. Hurtful one! Soft indeed are her feet, for she moves not on the ground, but over men's heads she walks, blinding mankind; and of two one at least she takes in her toils.’ Cf. Proverbs xvi, 18: “Pride goeth before destruction, and a haughty spirit before a fall.” An example was Uzziah (II Chronicles xxvi, 16): “But when he was strong, his heart was lifted up to his destruction.”

[505] οὕνεκα, in sense of “τοὔνεκα”.—With πάσας supply “Λιτάς”.

[507] αἳ δ᾽ ἐξακέονται ὀπίσσω, “while Prayers, to heal her wrongs, move slow behind” (Pope).

[509] δέ, cf. l. 301.

ὤνησαν, ἔκλυον, § 184.—510. ἀνήνηται, ἀναίνομαι.

[512] They pray ‘that Ate may overtake him so that he may be blinded in mind and pay the penalty.’

[513] πόρε, with “τιμὴν ἕπεσθαι κτλ.” as object, ‘grant that respect attend.’

[514] ‘Pay such respect to the daughters of Zeus as bends the minds of other men, noble as they are,’ to yield to Prayers.

515-517. A present contrary to fact condition, expressed in terms of the less vivid future, § 207.1.

[519] νῦν δ᾽έ), ‘but as it is.’

διδοῖ, see note on l. 164.

[522] τῶν μὴ σύ γε κτλ., ‘do you not throw reproach on their words or on their coming [“πόδας”] hither. But your anger before this was no cause for blame at all.’ The latter implies a converse statement: to continue in anger now, after the supplication of Agamemnon, does deserve reproach.

[600] μή τοι ταῦτα νόει, i. e. like Meleager.

[601] ἐνταῦθα, i. e. to such an extremity of obstinacy as is seen in the story of Meleager.

φίλος, § 169.

[602] ἐπὶ δώροις, ‘on condition of the gifts.’

[605] τιμῇς, commonly explained as equivalent to “τιμήεις”, ‘honored.’

[608] χρεώ, supply “ἱκάνει”, or “ἵκει”, as l. 75.

Διὸς αἵσῃ, ‘by the award [or ‘allotment’] of Zeus,’ by the fortune that Zeus has meted to me.

[612] Cf.

Desine meque tuis incendere teque querellis.

‘No more vex thee and me with thy complaints.’

[615] καλόν [“ἐστι”], ‘it is right.’

κηδέμεν, ‘to injure.’

[617] λέξεο, § 153.

[618] ἅμα δ᾽ ἠόι § 92) φαινομένηφιν § 155.1), ‘at daybreak.’

[622] νόστοιο μεδοίατο, ‘might bethink themselves to go.’ This was a suggestion to Odysseus and Ajax that it was useless for them to tarry longer.

[625] μύθοιο τελευτή, i. e. the object of our mission.

[628] ἕαται, § 142.4, b.

[629] θέτο, ‘has made.’

[630] σχέτλιος, ‘implacable!’ § 170.—οὐδὲ μετατρέπεται κτλ., ‘nor does he even heed the love of his comrades—that love with which we honored him’ etc.

[632] νηλής, ‘unpitying!’

κασιγνήτοιο φονῆος ποινήν, ‘pay from the murderer of a brother’: “παρὰ φονῆος”, in Attic. “ποινή” of this sort is the Anglo-Saxon wergild.

[633] [ποινὴν] οὗ παιδὸς ... τεθνηῶτος, ‘or pay for his own son slain.’

παιδός is objective genitive. This primitive custom of indemnity for manslaughter is alluded to also 18.497-500. If not allowed to make this atonement, the guilty man had to flee the land. See Gardner and Jevons, Manual of Greek Antiquities, p. 407.

ἐδέξατο, § 184.

[634] μέν, ‘the slayer.’

[635] τοῦ δέ ... κραδίη, ‘while the heart of the other,’ i. e. the brother or father of the slain man.

[636] Ajax, who before has been addressing Odysseus, now turns directly to Achilles, with “σοὶ δ᾽ ἄλληκτόν τε κτλ.

[637] 637, 638. Ajax either fails to understand or ignores the fact that Achilles is angry on account of his wounded honor, not on account of the loss of Briseis alone.

[639] ἐπί, ‘in addition to.’

σὺ δ᾽ ἵλαον ἔνθεο θυμόν, ‘then do you make the spirit in your breast gracious.’ Ajax speaks to Achilles as to a god.

[640] αἴδεσσαι δὲ μέλαθρον, ‘and respect the roof’ that shelters us. Cf. l. 204. We are your guests, Ajax means; then show us the respect that is our due, by yielding to us.

δέ (after “ὑπωρόφιοι”)=“γάρ”.

[642] ὅσσοι, cf. l. 55.

[645] The force of τι is very important: ‘to a certain extent you have seemed to speak everything in harmony with my own desire.’ But Achilles can not forgive Agamemnon, for all the pleading. And now the very thought of him calls forth another burst of anger. Attention is called, in the scholia, to Achilles's change of attitude in the course of this interview: to Odysseus he said that he should said for home the next morning (ll. 357-361); and this is what Odysseus later reported to Agamemnon (ll. 682, 683, 690-692); to Phoenix he said that he would take into consideration the matter of going or staying (ll. 618, 619); and to Ajax he intimates that he will fight against the Trojans when dire necessity forces him (ll. 650655).

[646] 646-648. ὁππότ᾽ ἐκείνων μνήσομαι κτλ., ‘whenever I recall those deeds, how Atreus's son did me outrage in the presence of the Argives, as if I were some honorless outlander.’

[647] ἀσύφηλον, translated ‘outrage,’ is doubtful in respect to meaning.

[648] μετανάστην = Attic “μέτοικον”. The South African Uitlander (outlander) affords a suggestive modern instance of the prejudice against the intruding foreigner.

[654] τῇ ἐμῇ κλισίῃ, ‘this lodge of mine.’

[657] παρὰ νῆας, cf. A 327.

[668] While Scyros is still understood by some, as it was in ancient times, to have been a city of Phrygia, it is also identified with the island of that name. Accepting it as the well-known island, a scholiast relates that Achilles captured Scyros when the army was mustering at Aulis, because Dolopians were there who had revolted from the rule of Peleus; and he distributed the spoil among his companions in arms. Here too he became the father of Neoptolemus. According to this account, Achilles visited Scyros first when a warrior in full armor; and the later story of his rearing there was unknown to Homer. Later in the poem Achilles refers to his son Neoptolemus growing up in Scyros (T 326-333). And Neoptolemus is mentioned in the Odyssey as well, when Odysseus says he brought him away from Scyros (Od. 11.509).

[671] δειδέχατ᾽ο), § 142.4, c; cf. note on l. 224.

[673] μ̓=“μοι”.

[680] Cf. l. 347 for Achilles's own words.

[684] ἂν ... παραμυθήσασθαι, indirect form of “ἂν ... παραμυθησαίμην”, l. 417. This is the only example in Homer of “ἄν” with infinitive of indirect discourse.—For ll. 684-687, cf. ll. 417-420. It is noticeable that Odysseus reports from Achilles only what Achilles said directly to him, and passes over what was said to Phoenix and to Ajax; see note on l. 645.

[688] εἰσί, ‘are here.’

εἰπέμεν § 212), ‘to tell,’ ‘to confirm.’

[694] This verse was rejected by the Alexandrians; it is probably introduced from elsewhere (cf. 8.29), and in this context is inappropriate.

[698] μηδ᾽ ὄφελες λίσσεσθαι, ‘would that you had not besought’; a wish impossible of fulfilment.

[699] διδούς, ‘offering.’

καὶ ἄλλως, ‘even as it is.’

[700] ‘Now you have urged him far more to haughty thoughts.’ Chapman translates: “He's proud enough beside,
But this ambassage thou hast sent will make him burst with pride.

[701] κεῖνον ... ἐάσομεν, ‘let us leave him alone’; but the verb may be future indicative.

... , ‘whether ... or.’—On κε with subjunctive see § 192.

[705] τεταρπόμενοι, τέρπω, § 128: ‘having got enjoyment,’ ‘satisfied.’

[706] τὸ γὰρ κτλ., ‘for this [i. e. food and drink] is might’ etc.

[708] ἐχέμεν § 213), ‘marshal.’

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