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§ 7. The narrative continued. The ship accordingly sailed for Egypt with the defendant's partner on board, while he remained at home. The fact is, these men were in collusion with Cleomenes, who had been making a large profit by raising the price of corn.

Κλεομένους Boeckh (Publ. Ec. p. 84) calls him Alexander's Satrap in Egypt. and he refers to the second book of Aristotle's Oeconomics for other examples of ‘this notorious corn-dealer's contrivances.’ Like the Roman governors of provinces, he seems to have looked principally to his own interests. Apparently he had created a monopoly of corn, and so could sell it at his own prices. He was appointed governor by Alexander in 332, and was put to death by Ptolemy in 323. (See Introduction, p. 247—9.)

παλιγκαπηλεύων ‘By re tailing,’ or perhaps ‘by petty jobbing.’ Hesych. παλιγκάπηλος: μεταβόλος: τὸ αὐτὸ ἀεὶ ἀγοράζων καὶ πωλῶν. [Schol. on Ar. Plut. 1156 ἀπὸ τοῦ ἐμπόρου ἀγοράζων καὶ πωλῶν. (Dem.) 25 § 46 κάπηλος πονηρίας καὶ παλιγκάπηλος καὶ μεταβολεύς. See Buchsenschütz. Besitz u. Erwerb, p. 455 n. S.]—συνιστὰς, ‘by settling the prices of corn.’ Kennedy translates, ‘by buying up corn for resale and keeping it at his own price.’

[G. H. Schaefer on p. 219, 20: ‘accendens pretia, flagellans annonam.’ Prof. Kennedy: ‘By regrating and manipulating the price of corn.’ In England severe statutes were passed from the time of Edward VI downwards, against all ‘regraters,’ ‘engrossers,’ and ‘forestallers of the market.’ They were repealed in 1772, and the alleged offence of buying up or bargaining for goods on the way to market, to sell them at a higher price, has ceased to be a subject of criminal prosecution. See Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, IV 5, on the corn laws. For part of the Athenian law on the subject, cf. Lysias, Or. 22 κατὰ τῶν σιτοπώλων, esp. § 6 παρεσχόμεθα τὸν νόμον (against engrossing), ὃς ἀπαγορεύει μηδένα τῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει πλείω σῖτον πεντήκοντα φορμῶν συνωνεῖσθαι. S.]

καὶ οὗτοι Dionysodorus and Parmeniscus. By πάντες οὗτοι above (not ἄμφω), he appears to include other traders.

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