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Book 1 (*a

Vs. 1-7. Prooemium: The wrath of Achilles, from its very beginning, and the destructive consequences which followed in accordance with the will of Zeus. This is the principal theme of the Iliad. The First Book serves as an introduction to the whole poem; it narrates the story of the strife between Achilles and Agamemnon, and the decree of Zeus, which is made on the intercession of Thetis. — The events narrated in A occupy 21 days.

mh=nin: wrath, lasting anger, the “memorem iram” of Verg. Aen. i. 4; cf. vs. 81, 247, 488. This receives prominence as being most important for the subject of the poem.

qea/: cf. “a)/ndra moi e)/nnepe mou=sa a” 1; see on 2.484. For the following caesural pause, see § 40 c.

*phlhia/dew: for the patronymic, see § 21 d; for the synizesis, see § 7.

*)axilh=os: for the single “l”, see § 41 f“h”. Achilles was the son of Peleus and the sea-goddess Thetis (see vs. 351 ff.). He was the mightiest warrior of the Greek leaders before Troy (v. 280, 2.769), although one of the youngest (9.438 ff.). His home was in Phthia (2.681 ff.) of Thessaly. See on v. 488.

[2] ou)lome/nhn: destructive, deadly; cf. Milton Par. Lost i. 2 “forbidden fruit . . .
whose mortal taste
Brought death into the world.
” The thought is amplified in the following rel. clause, cf. v. 10, 2.227; see § 1 h, t.

muri/a: countless; not a numeral in Homer, see § 23 i. — For the hiatus, allowed when the final vowel has been elided, see § 9 e.

a)/lgea: i.e. the defeats caused by the absence of Achilles from the conflict.

e)/qhken: caused (as 3.321, see § 2 v), nearly equiv. to “teu=xe” below.

[3] polla/s: the second clause of the rel. sent. is closely connected with the first by the anaphoric relation of “polla/s” to “muri/a” (cf. Od. 1.1-3); while the third clause is added in the form of a contrast, “au)tou\s de\ ktl.

i)fqi/mous: the fem. form “i)fqi/mas” is used by Homer only of persons; see § 20 a.

*)/ai+di proi+/ayen: sent off to Hades, a vigorous expression for a violent death, as “*e 190, *z 487, *l” 55; cf. “*)ai/da| proi+a/yai doro\s a)/gran” Aesch. Sept. 309, “multos Danaum demittimus OrcoVerg. Aen. ii. 398. For the use of “pro/”, cf. “pro\ h(=ke” v. 195.

*)/ai+di: a metaplastic form of “*)ai/dhs” (§ 19 f.), which in Homer is always the name of a person, the ruler of the nether world (§ 2 v.).

[4] h(rw/wn: did not have the later meaning of heroes in the Eng. sense (§ 2 v).

au)tou/s: themselves, i.e. their bodies as contrasted with their souls, as “*y 66, z 329, l” 574, 602. They would have cared less about the rites of burial, if they had not considered the body to be the man himself.

e(lw/ria: booty, cf. “kusi\n d) e)/peiq) e(/lwra ka)pixwri/ois | o)/rnisi dei=pnonAesch. Supp. 808 f., “canibus date praeda Latinis | alitibusqueVerg. Aen. ix. 485 f. For the preceding hiatus, see § 9 b.

teu=xe ku/nessin: since the bodies often had to lie unburied, cf. “*b 393, *q 491, *l 395, *s 271, 283, *x” 66 ff., 339. Dogs are the scavengers of the East. cf. ‘Him that dieth of Ahab in the city the dogs shall eat; and him that dieth in the field shall the fowls of the air eat’ 1 Kings xxi. 24, ‘And the Philistine said to David, “Come to me and I will give thy flesh unto the fowls of the air, and to the beasts of the field”’ 1 Sam. xvii. 44. To be left unburied was a dreaded fate; so Hector at the point of death besought Achilles, “mh/ me e)/a para\ nhusi\ ku/nas katada/yai *)axaiw=n *x” 339.

teu=xe: for the omission of the aug., see § 25 a, e.

[5] dai=ta: of the food of brutes, as 24.43; cf. 2.383.

*dio\s . . . boulh/: instead of “*dio\s mega/lou dia\ boula/s”, as Od. 8.82, is joined paratactically (§ 3 n f.) to the preceding rel. clause; the will of Zeus was accomplished in the consequences of the wrath of Achilles. cf. ‘Such was the will of heaven’ Milton Par. Lost ii. 1025.

e)telei/eto: for the form, see on 2.536, § 29 i.

[6] e)c ou(= ktl.: since first, since once; the starting-point for “mh=nin ou)lome/nhn”. This expression takes the place in Homer of the prose “e)pei\ a(/pac, e)pei\ ta/xista”, cf. v. 235, “e)pei\ dh\ to\ prw=ton d” 13. “prw=ton” and “prw=ta” are used adv. with little difference of meaning, cf. vs. 276, 319.

ta/: for the short vowel lengthened before the following consonants, see § 41 h.

diasth/thn e)ri/sante: were divided (lit. separated) in strife.

[7] *)atrei+/dhs: tetrasyllabic, § 21 f.; for the use of the patronymic, see § 21 b. Agamemnon, son of Atreus, and grandson of Pelops (2.104 ff.), reigned at Mycenae (2.569 ff.). As the leader of the expedition against Troy, he is prominent through the whole poem. The first part of the Eleventh Book is devoted to his brave deeds in war (“*)agame/mnonos a)ristei/a”). He is described by Helen as ‘a good king and a brave warrior’ (3.179).

a)/nac a)ndrw=n: elsewhere precedes a proper name; only here is it found after a patronymic. It is generally applied to Agamemnon, § 1 q. For the apparent hiatus, see §§ 9 f, 14 a.

di=os: godlike, glorious (“eu\genh/s”), a standing epith. of Achilles and of Odysseus. No special excellence of character is implied. Obs. the metrical adaptation to the names of these two heroes, allowing the bucolic diaeresis, at the close of the verse, see § 40 i; cf. “*foi=bos *)apo/llwn, *palla\s *)aqh/nh. di=os *)axilleu/s” closes the verse more than 50 times; “di=os *)odusseu/s”, more than 100 times.

[8] Vs. 8-52. The injured Chryses. The avenging Apollo. The scene opens in the 9th year of the war before Troy (2.295). During their siege of the city, the Greeks supported themselves by marauding expeditions. On one of these forays they captured Thebe (vs. 366 ff.) and brought away as part of the booty the daughter of Chryses, priest of Apollo (v. 370). She was assigned to Agamemnon, to be his slave, as his “ge/ras”, prize of honor. See on vs. 124 f.

ti/s t) a)/r: and who then? question from the standpoint of the hearer, suggested by v. 6. cf. ‘Who first seduced them to that foul revolt? — Th' infernal serpent’ Milton Par. Lost i. 33. Some god must have decreed the calamity; the Homeric theology recognized no blind chance.

e)/ridi cune/hke: brought together in strife, cf. “qew=n e)/ridi cunio/ntwn g” 66 as the gods came together in strife, “qeou\s e)/ridi cunela/ssai g” 134.

cune/hke: for the augment, see § 25 h.

ma/xesqai: sc. “e)pe/essin”, cf. v. 304, 2.377 f. Inf. of result, where “w(/ste” might have been used in prose, cf. “manteu/esqai” v. 107, “a)/gein” v. 338, “a)na/ssein *b 108, e)rize/menai *b” 214. Some of these examples may be taken as infs. of purpose, which cannot always be clearly separated from the inf. of result in Homer.

[9] *lhtou=s: cf. v. 36. Apollo was the mediate cause of the trouble, since the pestilence occasioned the quarrel.

o(: for the dem. use of the art., see § 24 i.

basilh=i: Agamemnon, “a)/nac a)ndrw=n”.

xolwqei/s: see on v. 18.

[10] nou=son: Att. “no/son”, § 5 e; it is called “loimo/s” v. 61.

a)na\ strato/n: up through the camp (cf. “kata\ strato/n” v. 318), as the plague spread from tent to tent; cf. v. 53.

kakh/n: the adj. is explained by the following (paratactic consecutive) clause, the first word of which takes up the thought of the adj. For the order of words, connecting “kakh/n” with what follows, see § 1 h.

laoi/: soldiery, cf. 3.186 and Agamemnon's epith. “poimh\n law=n, *b” 243, shepherd of the people.

[11] to\n *xru/shn: that Chryses, well known to the hearers from stories or other songs. Nowhere else in Homer is the art. used with a proper name; cf. 2.595.

h)ti/masen: slighted.

a)rhth=ra: receives prominence from its rhythm and position, almost equiv. to “though he was” etc. He is called “i(ereu/s” below.

[12] qoa/s: cf. “nhusi\ w)kupo/roisin” v. 421; a standing epith. of the ships even when they were on shore, § 1 p.

e)pi\ nh=as: i.e. to the camp, where the ships were drawn up on land, cf. 2.688. — For the position of the prep. between the adj. and noun, cf. v. 15; see § 1 l.

[13] luso/menos: to release for himself, to ransom. The act. is used of him who receives the ransom, vs. 20, 29.

qu/gatra: Homer knows her only by her patronymic “*xrushi/s” (v. 111, see § 21 g) daughter of Chryses.

fe/rwn: bringing with him, prob. on a wagon. cf. 24.275 ff., 502.

a)perei/si) a)/poina: bullion, either of gold, silver, or copper, as “*z 48, *x” 340; or vessels of precious metal, as 23.741 ff.; or clothing, as 24.229 ff.

[14] ste/mmat) *)apo/llwnos: cf. Apollinis infula Verg. Aen. ii. 430. This ribbon, or chaplet, of white wool, marked the priest's official character; he came under the god's protection, but as a suppliant carried the fillet, instead of wearing it. cf. laurumque manu vittasque ferentem

Chrysen Ovid Ars Am. ii. 401.
e(khbo/lou: he was the Archer Apollo. For similar epiths., see § 4 c. — For the loss of quantity in the final diphthoug before an initial vowel, cf. v. 17; see § 41 o.

*)apo/llwnos: for the length of the first syllable, as vs. 21, 36, etc., see § 41 f.

[15] xruse/w|: it was adorned with golden studs, see on v. 219, 2.45; cf. v. 246. So the soul of the seer Teiresias had a “xru/seon skh=ptron” in Hades, Od. 11.91. — For the synizesis, see § 7.

a)na\ skh/ptrw|: on a staff; const. with “ste/mmat) e)/xwn”. Princes, judges, priests, and heralds carried “skh=ptra” as symbols of authority. A “skh=ptron” was placed in the hands of him who was about to address the assembly, as a sign that he “had the floor,” cf. v. 245, “*g 218, sth= de\ me/sh| a)gorh=|: skh=ptron de/ oi( e)/mbale xeiri\ | kh=ruc b” 37 f. The Spartans also carried stout staffs, and Athenian gentlemen carried canes.

pa/ntas: the bard's hearers easily made for themselves the necessary limitations for such general expressions.

[16] *)atrei+/da du/w: for “du/w” with the dual, cf. “*ai)/ante du/w *b 406, *g 18, le/onte du/w, *e” 554. This dual form is infrequent. Menelaus, king of Sparta (2.586), as husband of Helen, is associated with his brother Agamemnon; cf. “*b 408, *k” 25 ff., “*)axaiw=n di/qronon kra/tos” Aesch. Ag. 108, “dikratei=s *)atrei=dai” Soph. Aj. 252.

kosmh/tore: “kosme/w” is used in the sense of the later “ta/ssw”, cf. “*b 554, *g” 1, § 2 v.

[17] 17 = 23.272, 658; cf. “*h 327, 385, *y” 236, — The usual introduction to a speech (§ 1 w) is omitted. — For the use of the speaker's very words, instead of indir. disc., see § 1 c.

e)uknh/mides: a standing epith. of the Achaeans (§ 1 q); in historical times, Herodotus (vii. 92) mentions greaves as worn by the Lycians in the army of Xerxes.

[18] qeoi/: monosyllable by synizesis, see § 7 a, d. — Cf. di tibi dent capta classem deducere Troia Hor. Sat. ii. 3. 191.

[19] po/lin: for the length of the ultima, see § 41 p.

oi)/kade: homeward, always of the return to Greece, not like “oi)ko/ndeinto the house; see § 15 g.

[20] pai=da de/: made prominent because of his love for his daughter; instead of the “e)moi\ de/” which is expected in contrast with “u(mi=n me/n” v. 18.

lu=sai: corresponds to “doi=en”. “As I pray that you may be victorious and have a safe return, so may ye restore to me” etc.; cf. the prayer of Priam for Achilles, “su\ de\ tw=nd) a)po/naio, kai\ e)/lqois | sh\n e)s patri/da gai=an *w” 556 f., where the return of Hector's body is the condition implied for the prayer. The inf. is used for the opt., as Od. 7.313; cf. the inf. and imv. in parallel clauses, vs. 322 f., 3.459.

ta/ t) a)/poina: he points to the gifts which he brought with him.

[21] “a(zo/menoi ktl”.: a prime motive for granting the request; the Achaeans were to honor the god in the person of his priest. For the apparently neglected “*v” of “e(khbo/lon”, see § 14 e. The spondee in the fifth foot (see § 39 h f.) gives an emphatic close to the sentence, cf. vs. 11, 157, 291, 600.

[22] The first hemistich = “a 11, b” 82.

e)peufh/mhsan: for the usual “e)ph/|nhsan” (7.344), because of the religious fear which was required by the priest. It is followed by the inf. as being equiv. to “e)ke/leusan e)peufhmou=ntesthey bade with pious reverence; cf.*b 290, ou)k e)leai/reis a)/ndras” . . .

misge/menai kako/thti u” 202 f. “thou dost not in pity hinder men from suffering misery.” The sacral meaning of “eu)fhme/w” favere linguis seems to be later than Homer.

[23] ai)dei=sqai: repeats “a(zo/menoi”.

a)glaa/: important epith., introducing a motive for the action.

de/xqai: 2 aor. inf. from “de/xomai”, see § 35.

[24] “a)ll) ou)k ktl”.: a sharp contrast to “a)/lloi me/n”, giving prominence to the neg.; but not to the son of Atreus.

qumw=|: local, in heart; see § 1 v.

[25] kakw=s: harshly; cf. the use of “kakh/n” v. 10.

a)fi/ei: for the form, as from a verb in -“e/w”, see § 34 a; for the omission of the aug., see § 25 a. Homer is fond of using the impf. to describe an action as in progress (see § 3 j), cf. “teu=xe” v. 4.

kratero/n: strong, stern.

e)pi\ mu=qon e)/tellen: laid upon him his command.

e)pi/: const. with “e)/tellen”, §37 a, b.

mu=qon: had not yet received the idea of fiction which is contained in the Eng. myth.lo/gos” is found but twice in Homer.

26-32. Agamemnon first rejects the admonition to fear the god and then refuses the request itself.

[26] “mh\ ktl”.: see to it that I do not, let me not, etc. This prohibitive use of “mh/” with the 1 pers. sing. is very rare.

kixei/w: “kixw=”, 2 aor. subjv. from “kixa/nw”, § 34 d.

[27] au)=tis i)o/nta: returning, cf. “pa/lin plagxqe/ntas” v. 59, “do/menai pa/lin” v. 116.

[28] “mh/ nu/ toi ktl”.: lest perhaps etc., adds to the preceding command the result that was to be feared if the command were disregarded, cf. “*g 414, *w” 568 f.

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