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[33] 33 = 24.571, cf. v. 568, “Γ 418, Κ 240, Ω” 689.

ἔδεισεν: “fear came upon him.” For the quantity of the antepenult, cf. vs. 406, 568, 3.418; see § 41 j “β”, lβ. γέρων: γεραιός” v. 35.

[34] βῆ: set out, cf. 2.183. For the accent, cf. “φῆ Β” 37; see § 25 b.

ἀκέων: in terror at the harsh words. The fem. “ἀκέουσα” is found v. 565, but “ἀκέων” is generally indeclinable.

[35] πολλά: earnestly, cognate acc. used as adv. with “ἠρᾶτο”, see § 38 b, and on v. 78.

ἀπάνευθε κιών: i.e. as he left the Achaean camp.

[36] τόν: rel. pron., see § 24 l.

[37] f. ἀργυρότοξε: the use of the epith. instead of the name gives a touch of intimacy to the address, as “γλαυκῶπι ν” 389 addressed to Athena by Odysseus; Athena addresses Apollo as “ἑκάεργε Η” 34 (cf. v. 110). — The gods' instruments are of precious metal even where the metal is not best adapted to the work, cf. “Ε 724, 731, Ω” 341, and on v. 611.

Χρύσην, Κίλλαν: Mysian cities, seats of the worship of Apollo, on the gulf of Adramyttium. They disappeared before the classical period. Cilla is mentioned also Hdt. i. 149. Chrysa was the home of the priest, who received his name from it.

ἀμφιβέβηκας: “dost guard.” The figure is taken from a beast standing over its young to protect it, cf. “Ε 299, ἀμφὶ δ̓ ἄῤ αὐτῷ βαῖν̓, ὥς τις περὶ πόρτακι μήτηρ Ρ 4, ὡς δὲ κύων . . . περὶ σκυλάκεσσι” (whelps) “βεβῶσα ὑλάει” (barks) “μέμονέν τε μάχεσθαι υ” 14 f. cf. Gradivumque patrem Geticis qui praesidet arvis Verg. Aen. iii. 35.

[38] Τενέδοιο: cf. est in conspectu Tenedos, notissima fama

insula, dives opum, Priami dum regna manebant Verg. Aen. ii. 21 f.
ἀνάσσεις: in its original meaning, art protecting lord.βασιλεύω” is not used of the gods in Homer.

[39] Σμινθεῦ: “Σμινθεύς” is a short, familiar form (§ 21 e) for “Σμινθοφθόρος”, epith. of Apollo as the averter of the plague of field mice.

εἴ ποτε: if ever, a form of adjuration.

χαρίεντα: proleptic, to thy pleasure, lit. as a pleasing one.

ἐπὶ ἔρεψα: roofed over, i.e. completed, built. The suppliant believes that he has made the god his debtor by his services, and he claims favors in return; cf. vs. 503 f., 8.238 ff., “Ο 372, δ” 763. The gods themselves recognized this obligation, “Χ 170, Ω” 68; in Od. 1.60 f. Athena reproaches Zeus for his neglect of Odysseus in spite of the latter's burnt offerings.

νηόν: Homer follows the so-called Attic second declension in but a few words, § 17 f.

[40] δή: nearly equiv. to “ἤδη”.

κατά: const. with “ἔκηα. — πίονα”: as covered with fat, cf. v. 460.

μηρία: these and the synonymous “μῆρα” are the thigh pieces, with more or less flesh, as cut from the “μηροί” (v. 460) thighs of the victims, and sacrificed to the gods as burnt offerings. For the details of a sacrifice, see vs. 458 ff., 2.421 ff.

[41] “τόδε μοι κτλ”.: a formula, after which ‘this desire’ is expressed by the opt., as here; by the imv., as vs. 456, 505, 8.243; by “ὡς” with the opt., as Od. 17.243; cf. “Ζεῦ πάτερ, αἲ γὰρ τοῦτο τελευτήσειας ἐέλδωρ:
ὡς ἔλθοι μὲν κεῖνος ἀνήρ, ἀγάγοι δέ δαίμων φ

” 200 f.

κρήηνον: imv. from “κραιαίνω”.

[42] τίσειαν: the verb is placed first, as containing the sum of his desire.

Δαναοί: used only of the Greek army in the Trojan war. But in the Iliad the poet uses “Ἀχαιοί” (the most frequently recurring designation of the Greeks), “Ἀργεῖοι” or “Δαναοί”, to suit the convenience of his verse; see on v. 79, § 4 b.

43 = v. 457, 16.527.

ὡς . . . ἔκλυε: as “Ε 121, Π 249, Ψ 771, Ω 314, γ 385, ζ 328, ι 536, υ” 102.

[44] βῆ . . . καρήνων: as “Β 167, Δ 74, Η 19, Χ 187, Ω 121, α 102, ω” 488.

βῆ: set out; the motion is continued in “ δ̓ ἤιε” v. 47.

Οὐλύμποιο: Olympus in Homer is always the Thessalian mountain as home of the gods (not heaven itself) as is indicated by its epiths., “ἀγάννιφος” v. 420 snow-capped, “νιφόεις Σ 616, μακρός” v. 402, “πολυδειράς” v. 499, “πολύπτυχος Θ” 411; while “οὐρανός” is “ἀστερόεις Δ 44, εὐρύς Γ 364, μέγας Ε 750, πολύχαλκος Ε 504, σιδήρεος ο 329, χάλκεος Ρ” 425. cf. on v. 195. But see

ἀπέβη γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη
Οὐλυμπόνδ̓ ὅθι φασὶ θεῶν ἕδος ἀσφαλὲς αἰεὶ
ἔμμεναι. οὔτ̓ ἀνέμοισι τινάσσεταιοὔτε χιὼν ἐπιπίλναται

καρήνων: const. with “κατά”. For its use for the summits of mountains, cf. “Β 167, 869. — κῆρ”: acc. of specification, as “ἦτορ, θυμόν, φρένα”, all freq. with verbs of emotion (§ 1 v).

[45] ὤμοισιν: dat. of place, see § 3 d.

ἀμφηρεφέα: i.e. closed both above and below as it hung on the shoulder, see on 2.389. The explanation of the lengthened ultima is uncertain. Apollo as god of the bow always carries bow and quiver, cf. his words “σύνηθες ἀεὶ ταῦτα βαστάζειν ἐμοί” Eur. Alc. 40; so he is represented in works of art.

[46] ἔκλαγξαν: seems to represent to the ear the sound of the bow and string, cf. “λίγξε βιός Δ” 125. cf. tela sonant humeris Verg. Aen. iv. 149.

[47] “αὐτοῦ κινηθέντος: αὐτοῦ” contrasts the god with his arrows (§§ 1 h, 24 g). For the gen. abs., see § 3 f.

νυκτί: a time of dread, cf. “ἔσθορε φαίδιμος Ἕκτωρ νυκτὶ θοῆ ἀτάλαντος ὑπώπια Μ” 462 f., “λ 606, υ” 362, ‘He on his impious foes right onward drove,

Gloomy as night’ Milton Par. Lost vi. 831 f. Comparisons are a notable characteristic of Homer's style. They are less frequent in this First Book of the Iliad than elsewhere. cf. v. 359, 2.87 ff., 146 ff., 337 ff., 394 ff., 455-483. See § 2 e ff.

[48] μετά: into the midst of the camp.

ἰόν: an arrow.

[49] δεινή: attrib. with “κλαγγή”. cf. horrendum stridens sagitta Verg. Aen. ix. 632.

γένετο: arose, was heard, cf. “ἄσβεστος δὲ βοὴ γένετο Λ 50, Ψ” 688.

βιοῖο: from the bow, ablatival gen. (§ 3 d), cf. “καπνὸς γίγνεται ἐξ αὐτῆς Χ” 149 f.

[50] οὐρῆας καὶ κύνας: mules and dogs in the baggage train of the army.

ἐπῴχετο: attacked with his deadly missiles.

ἀργούς: swift, cf. “τῶν ἀρχαίων ἀργὸν τὸ ταχὺ προσαγορευόντων” Diod. iv. 42.

[51] αὐτάρ: stronger than “δέ”, correl. with “μέν” v. 50. See on “αὖ Β” 768, § 3 r.

αὐτοῖσι: the Greeks themselves, contrasted with their domestic animals; more emphatic than “βροτοῖσι”.

βέλος: for the quantity of the ultima, see § 41 m.

ἐχεπευκές: biting, sharp, cf. “πικρὸν ὀιστόν Δ” 118.

ἐφιείς: iterative in meaning, like “βάλλε” following.

[52] βάλλε: shot, with emphatic position at the close of a sent. and beginning of a verse; cf. vs. 143 f., 241, 296, 501, 506, 523, 526, Od. 9.196.

πυραί: pl. since a new pyre was built each day.

νεκύων: so-called gen. of material. — This is a poetic form of the statement that multitudes perished from the pestilence.

[53] Vs. 53-100. Assembly of the Greeks. Speeches of Achilles and Calchas.

ἐννῆμαρ: ἐννέα is a round number in Homer, as “Ζ 174, Μ 25, Ω 107, 610, 664, 784, η 253, ι 82, κ 28, μ 447, ξ” 314. cf. ‘Nine times the space that measures day and night | To mortal men’ Milton Par. Lost i. 50.

ᾤχετο: the arrows are personified, cf. “ἆλτο δ̓ ὀιστὸς ὀξυβελής, καθ᾽ ὅμιλον ἐπιπτέσθαι μενεαίνων 4.125 f. eager to fly into the throng, “Λ 574, Φ” 70.

[54] τῇ δεκάτῃ: the art. calls attention to this as the decisive day. The adj. agrees with “ἡμέρῃ” or “ἠοῖ” implied in “ἐννῆμαρ.” cf. the omission of “χειρί” v. 501, “βουλήν Β 379, δοράν Γ 16, χλαῖναν Γ 126, πυλέων Γ” 263; and the use of neut. adjs. as substs., see on v. 539.

δέ: may stand after the second word in the clause since the first two words are so closely connected.

ἀγορήνδε: The agora of the Achaeans was at the centre of their camp, a little removed from the sea, by the ships of Odysseus; cf. 8.222 f., with 11.806 f., 2.208. The “ἀγορή” in Homer was not yet degraded to the name of market place, see § 2 v; it corresponds to the meeting place of the Athenian “ἐκκλησία”.

καλέσσατο: caused to be summoned, cf. 2.50. Other princes than the commander-in-chief had authority to call an assembly of the people.

[55] τῷ: equiv. to Att. “αὐτῷ”, lit. for him.

ἐπὶ φρεσὶ θῆκε: put into (lit. upon) his heart, as 8.218. The Homeric Greeks did not think of the head as the seat of the intellect.

λευκώλενος: freq. epith. of Hera (§ 1 q), not often of women, as 3.121; cf. “βοῶπις” v. 551.

[56] ῥά: you see, with reference to the scene depicted in vs. 51 f.

ὁρᾶτο: the act. and mid. forms, “ὁρῶ” and “ὁρῶμαι, εῖδον” and “ἰδόμην, ἴδω” and “ἴδωμαι”, are used in Homer without appreciable difference of meaning (§ 32 a); cf. vs. 203, 262, 587, “Β 237, Γ” 163.

57 = “Ω 790, β 9, θ 24, ω” 421. — “ἤγερθεν κτλ”.: the two verbs are thought to express the beginning and the completion of the act; but we may compare the ‘assemble and meet together’ of the Prayer Book. For the fulness of expression, see § 1 s.

ἤγερθεν: aor. pass. from “ἀγείρω”. For the form, see § 26 v.

[58] δέ: for its use in the apodosis, see § 3 n; cf. vs. 137, 194, 280, 3.290.

ἀνιστάμενος: The members of the assembly are seated (2.99), the speaker stands in their midst holding a staff (see on v. 15).

[59] Ἀτρεΐδη: he addresses Agamemnon as chief in command.

νῦν: i.e. as things now are.

ἄμμε: Aeolic form for “ἡμᾶς” (§ 24 a).

πάλιν πλαγχθέντας: driven back, i.e. unsuccessful, without having taken Ilios. cf. 2.132.

[60] εἴ κεν φύγοιμεν: the opt. is used instead of the subjv., because escape is thought of only vaguely.

θάνατόν γε: contrasted with “ἀπονοστήσειν”. “If indeed we may expect to return, and are not rather to die here.”

[61] εἰ δή: if now, as seems likely.

δαμᾷ: fut., see § 30 b.

[62] ἄγε: has become a mere interjection, and is used with the pl., as “Β 331, Γ” 441; but “ἄγετε” also is used, as 2.72, 83.

μάντιν: a soothsayer, augur, who foretold the future chiefly from the flight of birds.

ἔρειομεν: let us ask; 2d aor. subjv., as if from “ἔρημι” (§ 34 d).

ἱερῆα: a priest of a definite divinity and sanctuary who predicted from the observation of sacrifices, cf. “θυοσκόος χ” 318. Here some Trojan priest seems to be meant, since a priest could not desert the sanctuary of which he had charge, and so there were no priests in the Greek camp before Troy. The kings performed the sacrifices and offered prayers for the army; cf. 2.411 ff., 3.275 ff.

[63] ὀνειροπόλον: dream-seer. A dream-oracle is described by Vergil, Aen. vii. 86-91. — “καὶ γὰρ κτλ”.: for a dream also, as well as other signs.

γάρ τε: closely connected, like namque.

ἐκ Διός: Zeus sends to Agamemnon (2.6) a dream that calls itself “Διὸς ἄγγελος”. Athena also sends a dream to Penelope (Od. 4.795).

[64] ὅς κ̓ εἴποι: potential opt. in final sense, since the end aimed at is considered as a possible result of the principal action (“ἐρείομεν”), cf. “Η 342, Ω” 149.

ὅτι: wherefore.

τόσσον ἐχώσατο: conceived such heavy anger; inceptive aor.

τόσσον: for the doubled “ς”, see § 12 a.

Ἀπόλλων: Achilles assumes that the pestilence was sent by the god of health and disease.

[65] εἴ τε . . . εἴ τε: indir. questions explaining the previous verse, as Od. 3.90 f.; cf. 2.349.

γε: for the repetition of the subj., see on v. 97.

εὐχωλῆς, ἑκατόμβης: because of an unfulfilled vow or a hecatomb which has not been offered, cf. “ἱρῶν μηνίσας Ε” 178 angry on account of the omission of sacrifices, “μισθοῦ χωόμενοι, τὸν ὑποστὰς οὐκ ἐτέλεσσεν Φ” 457. — For the gen. of cause, cf. v. 429, “Β 225, 689, 694, τῆσδ̓ ἀπάτης κοτέων Δ” 168. — Homer does not hold strictly to the original meaning of hecatomb, cf. v. 315; a hecatomb of 12 heifers is mentioned 6.93, 115, and one of rams in 4.102.

[66] “αἴ κεν κτλ”.: if perchance, in the hope that, he may please. H. 907.

ἀρνῶν: part. gen.

τελείων: constr. with both nouns. Only unblemished victims were well pleasing to the gods. Thus the heifers offered to Athena were ‘sleek, untouched by the goad, upon whose necks the yoke had never rested,’ “Ζ 94, Κ” 293.

[67] βούλεται: for the short modevowel in the subjv., see §27 a, c. — “ἀντιάσας κτλ”.: to partake of the sacrifices and ward off from us (lit. for us, see § 3 g).

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