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[67]

[68] 68 = 101, “Β 76, Η 354, 365, β” 224. — For such stereotyped verses, cf. vs. 73, 201; see § 1 w.

ἄρα: here refers to the partic., like “εἶτα” in prose, as “Β 310, α” 441.

τοῖσι: dat. of interest, for them, see § 3 g; cf. vs. 247, 450, 571.

[69] οἰωνοπόλων: soothsayers, in a general sense, as “οἰωνός” is used for omen. This expression is used of Priam's son Helenus, 6.76, and Calchas is “θεοπρόπος οἰωνιστής Ν” 70. He was a warrior as well as a seer; see on 2.832.

ὄχα: used only as a strengthening prefix with forms of “ἄριστος. ἔξοχαpre-eminent is more common.

[70] ὅς: long by position, since “ᾔδη” once began with vau, cf. 2.38; see § 41 q. — “ᾔδη”: for the Homeric forms of “οἶδα”, see § 34 k. — This verse describes the seer's power in its full extent, cf. novit namque omnia vates

quae sint, quae fuerint, quae mox ventura trahantur Verg. Georg. iv. 392 f.; 3.109.
πρό τ̓ ἐόντα: and which were before, i.e. past.

ἐόντα: forms of “εἰμί” in Homer regularly retain the “ε” of the stem (§ 34 g).

[71] ἡγήσατο: he led the way, guided; here metaphorically of the seer who interpreted the portents relating to the voyage; cf. 2.322 f. So on the Argonautic expedition, the seer Mopsus gave the word for setting out. No expedition was complete without a soothsayer, even in the time of the Persian war, cf. Hdt. ix. 37.

Ἴλιον εἴσω: concludes the verse, as “Ρ 159, 163, Σ 58, 439, Ω 145, τ” 182, 193.

Ἴλιον: here like “Τροίη”, of the kingdom of Priam, not the city itself.

εἴσω: only with verbs of motion; much like “εἰς”. It follows its acc.

[72] ἥν: possessive pron., see § 24 a.

διά: by the help of. For the thought, see on 2.832.

Ἀπόλλων: the sun god, the god of physical and intellectual light, — the prophet of Zeus and the patron of prophecy; cf. “Πολυφείδεα μάντιν Ἀπόλλων θῆκε βροτῶν ὄχ̓ ἄριστον ο” 252 f.

[73] 73 = v. 253, “Β 78, 283, Η 326, 367, Ι 95, Ο 285, Σ 253, β 160, 228, η 158, π 399, ω” 53, 453.

σφίν: constr. with “ἀγορήσατο”.

ἐὺ φρονέων: “φίλα φρονέων Δ 219, ἀγαθὰ φρονέων α” 43.

ἀγορήσατο: “took the floor.”

[74] κέλεαί με: Calchas as “μάντις” felt himself called to speak by the words of Achilles, v. 62.

διίφιλε: cf. “ἀρηίφιλος Γ” 21; for the length of the antepenult, see § 18 a.

μυθήσασθαι: interpret, as “ὄρνιθας γνῶναι καὶ ἐναίσιμα μυθήσασθαι β” 159.

[76] τοίγαρ ἐγών: always at the beginning of a verse. — “ἐρέω κτλ”.: “Ζ 334, ο 318, π 259, ς 129, ω” 265, I will speak etc., solemn form of introduction; cf. ‘Behold now I have opened my mouth, my tongue hath spoken in my mouth’ Job xxxiii. 2.

[77] μέν [“μήν”]: surely and truly, as “Κ 322, Ξ 275, Τ” 109.

πρόφρων: const. with ἀρήξειν. It is always used predicatively, where the Eng. idiom would prefer an adv.; see § 38 a; “πρόφρονι θυμῷ” and “προφρονέως” are used with the same general force.

ἔπεσιν καὶ χερσίν: equiv. to the prose “λόγῳ καὶ ἔργῳby word and deed; cf. v. 395.

ἀρήξειν: for the fut. inf. after words of promising or hoping, cf. “μέμασαν τεῖχός τε ῥήξειν καὶ ἐνιπρήσειν πυρὶ νῆας Μ” 197 f., “ἐπῆλθε περησέμεναι μεμαῶσιν Μ” 200.

[78] ἄνδρα: obj. of “χολωσέμενshall enrage.

μέγα: used adv. with “κρατέει”, cf. v. 103, “πολλόν” v. 91, “πολύ” v. 112; it strengthens all three degrees of comparison in Homer, cf. 2.274, 239, 480; see § 38 b.

[79] καί οἱ: for “καὶ ”. The rel. const. is abandoned as often in later Greek; cf. vs. 3 f., 162, 506; see § 1 d, G. 156, H. 1005. The last half of the verse repeats the same thought in reverse order.

Ἀχαιοί: used here without distinction of meaning from “Ἀργείων” at the beginning of the verse, see on v. 42; cf. 3.226 f. “Ἀργεῖοι” is never used at the close of a verse, while “Ἀχαιῶν” could not begin the verse.

[80] γάρ: introduces a further explanation of his special need (cf. “πρόφρων” v. 77) of protection.

ὅτε χώσεται: Att. “ὅταν χώσηται”, whenever his wrath is roused. For the short mode vowel, see § 27 a. For the hypothetical rel. sent. without “ἄν” or “κέ”, cf. vs. 230, 543, 554, Od. 1.352.

χέρηι: a subject, man of low degree; a positive to the comp. “χερείων” v. 114 (Att. “χείρων”).

[81] “εἴ περ κτλ”.: for even if, with the subjv., as “ δ̓ εἴ πέρ τε τύχῃσι μάλα σχεδόν, οὐ δύναταί σφιν χραισμεῖν Λ” 116 f., 22.191 on v. 82.

χόλον: a burst of anger, while “κότος” is the lasting grudge which plans for revenge, and the “μῆνις” of Achilles led him simply to withdraw from the fight (see on v. 1). “χόλον” is emphasized in contrast with “κότον” by “γέ” and by its chiastic position (§ 2 o).

καταπέψῃ: digest, suppress; cf. “Ἀχιλεὺς . . . ἐπὶ νηυσὶ χόλον θυμαλγέα πέσσει Δ” 512 f.

[82] ἀλλά: after “εἴπερ”, as Lat. at after si, yet; the apod. is really contrasted with the prot. (§ 3 n). The reciprocal relation of the thoughts is marked by the “τέ . . . τέ” (§ 3 o), cf. v. 218, 3.12, 33 f., “τὸν” (sc. a hound) “δ̓ εἴ πέρ τε λάθῃσι” (sc. a fawn) “καταπτήξας ὑπὸ θάμνῳ”,

ἀλλά τ̓ ἀνιχνεύων θέει ἔμπεδον Χ” 191 f.
ἔχει: holds fast, cherishes.

ὄφρα: temporal, until.

τελέσσῃ: sc. “κόσον”, accomplishes his wrath, i.e. does what he plans in his wrath.

[83] ἐν στήθεσσιν: not capriciously, nor for the sake of the verse, separated from “ἔχει κότον”, but added with greater emphasis than it could have at the close of the verse.

φράσαι: aor. mid. imv., make clear to thyself, consider;φράζω” in Homer does not mean tell.

εἰ: whether.


84 = “Ι 307, 606, 643, Λ 607, Τ 145, 198, Φ 222, Ψ” 93, cf. v. 215, “Σ 187, Ω” 138. The first hemistich (with “τήν” occasionally for “τόν”) is used in Homer more than 100 times.

[85] θάρσησας: cf. v. 92.

μάλα: const. with the imv., as v. 173.

[86] οὐ μά: no, in truth;μά” is a par ticle of swearing with the acc., which prob. depends upon a verb implied. In affirmative asseverations “ϝαὶ μά” is used, as v. 234. The neg. is repeated in v. 88 for greater earnestness, as 23.43 f., Od. 3.27 f.

διίφιλον: only here as epith. of a divinity.

τε εὐχόμενος: he prayed to Apollo as his patron, the god of prophecy who revealed to him what he declared to the Greeks.

Κάλχαν: voc. like “Αἶαν Η” 288.

[87] θεοπροπίας: a collateral form to “θεοπρόπιον” v. 85, see § 19.

ἀναφαίνεις: art wont to reveal, cf. “φαῖνε ἀοιδήν θ” 499.

[88] ἐμεῦ ζῶντος: while I live; in a threatening tone. — “ἐπὶ χθονὶ κτλ”.: a poetic expression for “ζῶντος”, cf. “ὁρᾷ φάος ἠελίοιο Σ 61, ἐπὶ χθονὶ σῖτον ἔδοντες θ” 222, vivus vidensque Terent. Eun. i. “Ι”. 28. For the fulness of expression, see § 1 s; cf. vs. 57, 99, 160, 177, 288 f., 553, “Γ 71, Ξέρξης μὲν αὐτὸς ζὴ τε καὶ βλέπει φάος” Aesch. Pers. 297, ‘as sure as I live and breathe.’

[89] βαρείας: heavy, i.e. violent.

χεῖρας ἐποίσει: cf. “χεῖρας ἐφείω” v. 567.

[90] οὐδ̓ ἤν: not even if, generally as here after a neg. “This promise will hold even if.”

Ἀγαμέμνονα: Calchas had indicated him clearly in vs. 78 f.

[91] πολλόν: for its inflection, see § 20 f.; for its adv. use, cf. “μέγα” vs. 78, 103; “πολύ” v. 112.

ἄριστος: mightiest, as commander-in-chief of the army; cf. 2.82, 580, see on 2.108. — The Homeric heroes were always frank of speech; Achilles calls himself “ἄριστος Ἀχαιῶν” vs. 244, 412; Odysseus says that his fame reaches to the heavens, “καί μευ κλέος οὐρανὸν ἵκει ι” 20; Hector challenges the bravest of the Achaeans to fight “Ἕκτ<*> δίῳ Η” 75. cf. sum pius Aeneas fama super aethera notus Verg. Aen. i. 378 f. But the formula “εὔχομαι εἶναι” often contains no idea of boasting, and may mean only claim to be, affirm himself to be.

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