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[108]

[109] cf. 8.496.

τῷ: local, cf. “ὤμοισιν Α” 45.

ἐρεισάμενος: not an attrib. partic. with “ γε”, but a pred. partic. of manner; cf. “κοιρανέων” v. 207.

110 = “Ζ 67, Ο 733, Τ” 78. See on v. 79.

θεράποντες Ἄρηος: see on 1.176; cf. “ὄζος Ἄρηος” v. 540.

For this “λόγος ἐσχηματισμένος”, cf. the speeches of Clearchus and his “ἐγκέλευστοι”, Xen. An. i. 3. 9 f. Agamemnon does not desire his arguments to be convincing; he reminds his men covertly of the promise of Zeus that they should capture Troy, and that nine years of the ten were already past; he calls that man “δυσκλέα” who returns to Argos with his end unattained, esp. since they had already remained so long before Ilios; he exaggerates the disparity of numbers of Achaeans and Trojans.

111-118 = 9.18-25.

[111] μέγα ἐνέδησε: fast entangled. Agamemnon in testing the temper of his army complains of his infatuation only as a pretence; in v. 114 he utters unconsciously the unpleasant truth, while in the Ninth Book he uses the same words in bitter earnest.

[112] σχέτλιος: terrible, cruel god. See on v. 38.—“ὑπέσχετο κτλ”.: see on 1.514.

[113] 113 = v. 288, 5.716.

ἐκπέρσαντα: for the acc., cf. 1.541. The partic. here contains the leading thought; they were to sack Troy before their return; see § 3 v.

ἀπονέεσθαι: always stands at the close of the verse, with lengthened initial syllable (§ 41 g). For the pres. inf. after “ὑπέσχετο”, cf. “ὑπόσχηται τόδε ἔργον ἄνδρας δυσμενέας σκοπιαζέμεν” (spy out) 10.39 f.

[114] “νῦν κτλ”.: “but now I see that he planned” etc.

ἀπάτην: the poet's hearer thought esp. of the deceitful Dream, but this was not in Agamemnon's mind here.

καί: introduces a specification of his general statement, as v. 74.

κελεύει: he infers this direction from their lack of success.

[115] δυσκλέα: emphatic position. The hiatus may be explained as weak (§ 9 d), “α_” losing half its quantity (but see § 18 l).—“πολὺν κτλ”.: sc. in battle and in the plague.

116 = 14.69, cf. 13.226.

μέλλει: is about to be, doubtless is, cf. “Α 564, μέλλεν μέν ποτε οἶκος ὅδ̓ ἀφνειὸς καὶ ἀμύμων ἔμμεναι α” 232 f. doubtless this house was etc.

[117] “δή: ἤδη” as vs. 134 f.

κατέλυσε κάρηνα: overthrew the heads, i.e. the citadels; cf. “ὅτε Τροίης λύομεν λιπαρὰ κρήδεμνα” (lit. head-bands) “ν 388, Π” 100.

[118] ἔτι καί: hereafter also, cf. 1.96. —“τοῦ κτλ”.: cf. rerum cui summa potestas Verg. Aen. x. 100, “α 70, Ι 25, 39, Ν 484, Ω” 293, 311.

[119] cf. “φ 255, ω” 433.

γάρ: refers to “δυσκλέα” v. 115.

τόδε γε: “if anything is a disgrace, this is.”—“καὶ κτλ”.: even for future generations to learn, cf. (“Ἀχαιοὶ”) “οἴσουσι κλέος εὐρὺ καὶ ἐσσομένοισι πυθέσθαι γ” 204.

[120] τοιόνδε τοσόνδε: with deictic -“δε”, so brave and so many as we here, cf. v. 799, qualis quantusque Verg. Aen. iii. 641.

[121] ἄπρηκτον: pred.; lit. unaccomplished, without result, fruitless, cf. v. 452.

πόλεμον πολεμίζειν: cognate acc., cf. “μάχην ἐμάχοντο Μ” 175.—“πολεμίζειν κτλ”.: as v. 452, 3.67, 435.

[122] παυροτέροισι: cf. “Τρῶες δ̓ αὖθ̓ ἑτέρωθεν ἀνὰ πτόλιν ὡπλίζοντο παυρότεροι, μέμασαν δὲ καὶ ὣς ὑσμῖνι μάχεσθαι” | “χρειοῖ ἀναγκαίῃ” (of stern necessity), “πρό τε παίδων καὶ πρὸ γυναικῶν Θ” 55 ff., “οἱ δὲ μάχονται” (sc. “Τρῶες”) | “παυρότεροι πλεόνεσσι Ν” 738 f., 15.407.—“τέλος κτλ”.: no end has yet appeared; a fuller expression for “ἄπρηκτον”, instead of “without attaining our end,” “without gaining decisive victory.”

[123] “εἴ περ γὰρ κτλ”.: in case we should wish, a concessive clause with potential opt. and “κέ”, of what is conditionally conceivable, cf. “Θ 205, Ν 288, β” 246.—The thought is completed in v. 127, “if we should take only one Trojan as cupbearer for a squad of Achaeans.”

γάρ: refers to “παυροτέροισι”.

[124] “ὅρκια ταμόντες: ὅρκιον” is strictly what belongs to theὅρκος” (cf. “ἱστία Α” 480), thus the victim slain to confirm a solemn oath. The victim's throat was cut (“Γ 292, Τ” 197, 266), hence “ὅρκια ταμεῖν” was to make a solemn treaty, like foedus icere, ferire foedus; cf. “Γ 73, 94, 105, Δ 155, Τ” 191.

ἄμφω: dual with reference to the two nations.

[125] Τρῶες μέν: sc. “κ̓ ἐθέλοιεν.— λέξασθαι”: collect themselves, as “Θ 519, ω” 108.—“ἐφέστιοι κτλ”.: equiv. to “οἳ ναίουσι κατὰ πτόλιν” v. 130.

ὅσσοι: the rel. pron. follows the emphatic word, as “Α 32, πάντα γὰρ οὐ κακός εἰμι, μετ̓ ἀνδράσιν ὅσσοι ἄεθλοι” (“in all the games of men”) Od. 8.214.

[126] διακοσμηθεῖμεν: should be divided and arranged, cf. disponere. For the transition to the finite const., see on 1.401. For “κοσμέω” of marshalling troops, instead of the Attic “τάσσω” (§ 2 v), cf. vs. 476, 554, 3.1.

[127] ἄνδρα: cf. v. 198.

ἕκαστοι: i.e. each squad of ten; in appos. with “Ἀχαιοί”. The pl. is used because of the number in each company, cf. 3.1.

[128] δευοίατο: Att. “δέοιντο” (“δέοιεν”), see §§5 f, g, 26 t.

[129] τόσσον πλέας: according to 8.562 f., there were 50,000 Trojans and allies. For the numbers of the Achaeans, see on v. 494 ff. For the form “πλέας” (“πλέονας”), cf. “πλέες Λ” 395, and see § 22 h. This form is found also in an Aeolic inscription of Mitylene.

[130] ἐπίκουροι: pred., as allies. Obs. the strong contrast with “Τρώων”.

[131] πολλέων ἐκ πολίων: const. with “ἄνδρες”. For the similarity of sound of the two words (parechesis) see § 2 a.

ἔνεισιν: are therein, cf. v. 803, “οἵ πέρ τ̓ ἐπίκουροι ἔνειμεν Ε 477, ἐν γάρ οἱ” (Ilios) “πολέες τε καὶ ἄλκιμοι ἀνέρες εἰμέν Φ” 586.

[132] μέγα πλάζουσι: drive me far away, i.e. hinder my attaining my end; cf. 1.59. For the adv. use of “μέγα”, see on 1.78.

οὐκ εἰῶσι (from “ἐάω”): do not allow, i.e. prevent, as 11.550.

ἐθέλοντα: concessive, in spite of my desire.

[133] cf. “Δ 33, Θ 288, Ι 402, Ν 380, Φ” 433.

[134] δὴ βεβάασι: already have past.

Διὸς ἐνιαυτοί: cf. “Διὸς ὧραι ω” 344, “ὅσσαι γὰρ νύκτες τε καὶ ἡμέραι ἐκ Διός εἰσιν ξ” 93.

[135] δοῦρα: timbers, as “δόρυ νήιον ι” 384; for the form, see § 18 f.

σπάρτα: ropes, cables, of reeds or rushes. The ship's ropes in Od. 2.426 were of oxhide; a ship's cable at the home of Odysseus, Od. 21.391, was made of papyrus.

λέλυνται: plural verb with neut. subj., as v. 36, although “δοῦρα σέσηπε” has preceded.

[136] αἱ δέ: but those others, explained by “ἄλοχοι κτλ”.

τέ: correlative with “καί”, in free position, since “ἡμέτεραι ἄλοχοι” are closely connected in thought with “νήπια τέκνα”.

[137] εἵαται ποτιδέγμεναι: as 7.414 f., “Ι 628, β 403, ι” 545. See on 1.134. For the form “εἵαται”, see § 34 j.

ποτιδέγμεναι: fem. to agree with “ἄλοχοι”, who were more prominent before their minds than “τέκνα”.

[138] αὔτως: Att. “ὡσαύτως”, in the same way as before, i.e. simply, wholly, (with “ἀκράαντον”), see § 24 h.

ἀκράαντον: verbal adj., cf. “κρήηνον Α” 41, “ἐπεκραίαινε” v. 419.

139-141 = 9.26-28. 139 = “Ι 704, Μ 75, Ξ 74, 370, Ο 294, Σ 297, ν” 179; cf. Od. 12.213.

εἴπω: for the subjv., see 1.137.

[140] φεύγωμεν: cf. v. 74.

[141] οὐ ἔτι: belongs to the idea of expectation implied in the fut.; “we can no longer hope,” “to capture Troy is no longer a possibility.”

εὐρυάγυιαν: nine times an epith. of Troy, of Athens Od. 7.80, of Mycenae 4.52.

[142] cf. “Γ 395, Δ 208, Ζ 51, Λ 804, Ν 468, ρ 150, φ 96, πᾶσιν ὀρίνθη θυμός, ἐκίνηθεν δὲ φάλαγγες Π” 280.

τοῖσι: dat. of interest, see § 3 g.—This undersired impulse was called forth by the longing for home awakened by vs. 134 ff.

[143] πᾶσι μετὰ πληθύν: in appos. with “τοῖσι”, in contrast with the “γέροντες” who had been present at the council. For the acc. with “μετά”, cf. “καὶ βουλῇ μετὰ πάντας ὁμήλικας” (of the same age) “ἔπλευ ἄριστος Ι 54, Ρ 149, π” 419; the dat. would be regular.

πληθύν: “the rank and file of the army,” cf. vs. 278, 488.

[144] κινήθη: cf. v. 95.

φή: as, an obsolescent particle, also 14.499; distinguished by its accent from “φῆ [ἔφη”].

κύματα μακρά: long-stretching billows, cf. longi fluctus Verg. Georg. iii. 200.

[145] πόντου Ἰκαρίοιο: in appos. with “θαλάσσης”, as the part with the whole, cf. “σκοπέλῳ” v. 396; see § 1 u. The “πόντος” is a particular tract of the “θάλασσα” (see on 1.350). The Icarian high sea received its name from Icaria, a small island off Samos; it was notorious for its frequent storms.

τὰ μέν: anaphoric, cf. v. 101, 1.234.

Εὖρός τε Νότος τε: thought of as united, as is shown by “ἐπαΐξας”. “A southeast wind.” A single wind never raises a storm in Homer; cf. “ὡς δ̓” “ἄνεμοι δύο πόντον ὀρίνετον ἰχθυόεντα Βορρῆς καὶ Ζέφυρος, τώ τε Θρῄκηθεν ἄητον” (blow) 9.4 f.

[146] ὤρορε: gnomic aor., freq. in comparisons, § 2 k. For the form, see § 25 k; distinguished from “ὄρωρεν” v. 797 (§ 31 f).

ἐπαΐξας: rushing upon it, cf. (venti) incubuere mari . . . una Eurusque Notusque ruunt Verg. Aen. i. 84.

Διός: he is “νεφεληγερέτα Α” 511, cf. 5.522. Zeus sends rain 16.385, thunder and lightning 8.133, wind and storm 16.365, snow 12.279 f., hail 10.6, meteors 4.75, the rainbow 16.547. cf. “Διὸς ἐνιαυτοί” v. 134.

[147] Ζέφυρος: this was a cold and stormy wind to the people of Aeolis and Ionia, for it came over the mountains of Thrace, cf. 4.276 ff., 7.63 f., 23.200, 208; it is called “δυσαήςfierceblowing (23.200), and “κελαδεινόςloudroaring (23.208); it is never a gentle ‘zephyr’ in Homer, unless perhaps in the fairy-land Phaeacia (Od. 7.117), and possibly in Elysium (Od. 4.569 f.).

βαθύ: lit. deep, i.e. high.

ἐλθών: see on “ἰών Α” 138.

[148] λάβρος ἐπαιγίζων: violently dashing upon it;λάβρος” is pred., see § 38 a.

ἐπί τε: and thereupon, i.e. as Zephyrus descends.

ἠμύει: sc. “λήιον”, an independent addition to the picture, without direct relation to the comparison, cf. v. 210; see § 2 e. The const. of the dependent sent. is abandoned.—cf. ‘With ported spears, as thick as when a field | Of Ceres ripe for harvest waving bends | Her bearded grove of ears, which way the wind | Sways them.’ Milton Par. Lost iv. 980 ff.

[149] πᾶς᾿ ἀγορὴ κινήθη: a return to v. 144.—Both comparisons are meant to depict the whole scene: the first (vs. 144-146) describes the sudden confusion with which the assembly dispersed; the second (vs. 147 -149), the uninterrupted rush in one direction, toward the ships.

ἀλαλητῷ: dat. of manner, in which sense a partic. is often used.

[150] νῆας ἔπ̓: i.e. “ἐπὶ νῆας”, § 37 c “β”. —“ἐσσεύοντο, ἵστατο, κέλευον κτλ”.: descriptive impfs., much like the hist. pres. (which is not Homeric).

ποδῶν δ̓ ὑπένερθε: from under their feet.

[151] ἵστατ̓ ἀειρομένη: lit. was placing itself as it arose, as 23.366.

[152] “ἑλκέμεν κτλ”.: cf. “ἐρύσσομεν κτλ. Α” 141.

[153] οὐρούς: the trenches, the later “ὁλκοί”, by which the ships were drawn from the sea upon the land, and from the land into the sea, cf. 1.308.

ἐξεκάθαιρον: some had not been used for a long time and had become filled with sand.—“ἀυτὴ κτλ”.: as 12.338, 14.60, cf. “τῶν ὕβρις τε βίη τε σιδήρεον οὺρανὸν ἵκει ο 329, καί μευ κλέος οὐρανὸν ἵκει ι” 20.

[154] ἱεμένων: subjective gen. with “ἀυτή”, not gen. abs.; see § 3 f.

ὑπὸ δ̓ ᾕρεον: they look out from under; the opposite of 1.486.

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