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[186]

[188] ὅν τινα μέν: correlative with “ὃν δ̓ αὖ” v. 198.—“βασιλῆα κτλ”.: prince or noble who had not been present at the council of the Gerontes.

κιχείη: iterative opt. with “ὅν τινα”, cf. 1.610.

[189] “τὸν δὲ κτλ”.: apod. to the hypothetical “ὅν τινα”. For “δέ” in apod., cf. v. 322; see § 3 n.

ἀγανοῖς: cf. vs. 164, 180.

[190] δαιμόνιε: the connection decides whether this is used in a respectful, a pitying, or a reproving tone, cf. v. 200, “Α 561, Ω” 194 (addressed by Priam to his sorrowing wife).

κακὸν ὥς: for the length of the ultima of “κακόν”, cf. “ὄρνιθα_ς ὥς” v. 764, “Γ 2, πέλεκυ_ς ὥς Γ 60, θεὸς ὥς Γ” 230. Praepositive “ὡς” is not used in Homeric comparisons, and when “ὡς” follows the word to which it belongs, it is accented; cf. 3.196. cf. “ὡς ὅτε” v. 209, “ὥς τε” v. 289, “ὡς” v. 326.

κακόν: coward.κακός” and “ἀγαθός” have no moral quality in Homer. They are useless and useful, according to the circumstances of the case; here, “κακόν” is useless in war.

[191] ἄλλους λαούς: “λαούς” is virtually in appos. with “ἄλλους”, see § 1 u. The others, namely the soldiers.

[192] For the ‘sigmatism,’ cf. 1.179 f.

σάφα: Att. “σαφῶς” which is not found in Homer; similarly the adv. of “ὠκύς” is always “ὦκα, τάχα” is freq., “ταχέως” only 23.365; see § 38 h.

νόος: mind, purpose.

[193] πειρᾶται: cf. v. 73.

ἴψεται: cf. 1.454.

[194] ἐν βουλῇ: const. with “οἷον ἔειπεν”.

οὐ πάντες ἀκούσαμεν: the speaker politely includes himself with the persons addressed, as v. 342, Od. 7.307. The 1st pers. is used in a different tone in v. 203.

[195] μή τι: beware lest perchance, cf. 1.26.

χολωσάμενος: see on “Α 387, Γ” 413.

κακὸν, υἷας: for the two accs. after “ῥέξῃ”, cf. 3.351, 354.

[196] θυμὸς δὲ μέγας: terrible is the anger.

[197] “τιμὴ κτλ”.: “he is king dei gratia; the rest must obey.” cf. v. 205; see on 1.176.

[198] δήμου ἄνδρα: the common people are contrasted with the nobles of v. 188. The ultima of “δήμου” remains long, cf. “δίσκου οὖρα Ψ 431, ἐπὶ δίφρου εἷσαν Ω” 578; see § 41 “ο.

[199] σκήπτρῳ: he uses the staff in a similar way vs. 265 f.

ἐλάσασκε: iterative aor. from “ἐλαύνω, ἐλάω” (§ 36 d).

[200] ἄκουε: give ear; pres. as a general injunction, “be obedient.”

[201] σέο: not enclitic since there is a contrast in the comparison.

φέρτεροι: cf. 1.281.

σὺ σε: closely connected with the rel. clause by the anaphoric relation of “σύ” to “σέο”, as “Δ 61, Θ” 103. The Eng. idiom prefers the subord. const., “while thou art”; see § 3 q. “ἐσσί” is to be supplied, as “Υ 434, Φ 439, Χ 288, Ψ” 588.

[202] ἐναρίθμιος: counted, not a mere cipher, cf. in numero nullo Cic. de Or. iii. 56. 213.

βουλῇ: as 1.258; not in its technical meaning of council. Here again appears the freq. contrast of strength of body and mind. See on 1.258.

[203] “οὐ μέν πως κτλ”.: a drastic form of expression, suited to the common soldiery. “Agamemnon alone commands here, the rest of us must obey.”

[204] For the asyndeton, cf. 1.117.

οὐκ ἀγαθόν: as a pred. subst. (not a good thing), cf. triste lupus stabulis Verg. Ecl. iii. 80.

εἷς κτλ.: asyndeton of contrast, see § 2 m.

[205] ἔδωκε: granted, sc. “βασιλεύειν”, implied in “βασιλεύς” (unless v. 206 is read).

[206] cf. 9.99.

σφίσι: for them;Ἀχαιοί” from v. 203 is before the mind.

[207] δίεπε: strode through, cf. 24.247.

[208] cf. vs. 86, 91.

[209] ἠχῇ ὡς: for the hiatus justified by the caesura, cf. v. 211; see § 9 b; for hiatus allowed after the first foot, see on 1.333. cf. “θάλασσα ἠχήεσσα Α” 157.—The second hemistich as 1.34.

[210] αἰγιαλῷ βρέμεται: roars on the shore.—“σμαραγεῖ κτλ”.: chiastic with the previous clause (§ 2 o); paratactically (§ 3 n) expressing result; “so that the high sea resounds from the noise of the breakers.”

[211] Vs. 211-277. The insolent Thersites and his chastisement.

ἕζοντο ἐρήτυθεν: for the hiatus, cf. vs. 216, 315; see § 9 b.

καθ̓ ἕδρας: as v. 99.

[212] Θερσίτης: from “θέρσος”, the Aeol. form of “θάρσοςdaring, rashness, see § 4 f. The name (“Θερσίτας”) appears in a Thessalian inscription of 214 B.C. It is noteworthy that the poet does not say from what country of Greece Thersites came, and thus offends no one by the episode.— Thersites makes his cause odious by his advocacy of it. The vulgar demagogue was intended by the poet to awaken antipathy, and thus is represented to be just as disagreeable and deformed in body as in character. The Greeks always associated a beautiful soul with a beautiful person.

μοῦνος: made emphatic by its position before the caesura. For the form, see § 5 e.

ἀμετροεπής: pred.

ἐκολῴα: equiv. to “κολῳὸν ἤλαυνε”, cf. 1.575.

[213] “ὅς ῥα κτλ”.: a more explicit statement of “ἀμετροεπής. —ἄκοσμα ᾔδη”: lit. knew disorderly things, had a disorderly mind; cf.ἀθεμίστια ᾔδη ι” 189 had a lawless heart, “κεδνὰ ἰδυῖα α” 428 trusty-hearted, “ἄγρια οἶδεν Ω” 41 has a savage heart.

[214] μάψ . . . κόσμον: as “Ε 759, γ” 138.

ἐριζέμεναι: the result of “ἄκοσμα κτλ”., cf. “μάχεσθαι Α” 8.

[215] “ἀλλ̓ ὅτι κτλ”.: contrasted with “κατὰ κόσμον”, while “ἐριζέμεναι” supplies the idea of saying. He was an insolent clown, a “γελωτοποιός”.

εἴσαιτο: from the theme of “οἶδα”. For the opt. in a cond. rel. sent., cf. vs. 188, 198, “ὃν δὲ λάβοιμι ῥίπτασκον Ο” 22 f., cf. 1.554. G. 233, H. 914 B. “εἴσαιτο” is equiv. to “δόξειε”.

[216] αἴσχιστος: pred., i.e. “he was the ugliest man who came” etc., cf. v. 673, 1.266.

ὑπὸ Ἴλιον: up under Ilios, i.e. under the walls of Ilios; cf. vs. 249, 492, 673, “Ψ 297, Δ 407, Λ” 181.

[217] φολκός: bandy-legged, cf. falx, falcones.

τὼ δέ οἱ ὤμω: cf. “τὼ δέ οἱ ὔσσε Ο” 607.

[218] κυρτώ, συνοχωκότε: in contrast with a broad-shouldered, heroic form. “συνόχωκα” is formed from “συνέχω” as “οἴχωκα Κ” 252 from “οἴχομαι”.

συνοχωκότε: αὐτάρ: the hiatus is justified by the bucolic diaeresis, §§ 9 b, 40 h.

ὕπερθεν: as contrasted with “φολκὸς κτλ”.

[219] “ψεδνὴ κτλ”.: his misshapen, sugarloaf head was not concealed by the thick locks of the “κάρη κομόωντες Ἀχαιοί”, but was covered only by sparse hair.

[220] ἔχθιστος: cf. 1.176.

Ἀχιλῆι, Ὀδυσῆι: Achilles and Odysseus represented the two cardinal virtues of the heroes, bravery and prudence, in which qualities Thersites was lacking.

μάλιστα: potissimum. Const. with “ἔχθιστος”, cf. v. 57.

[221] νεικείεσκε: was wont to upbraid, contrasted with “τότ̓ αὖτε”. For the form (from “νεικείω” the old form of “νεικέω”), cf. “ἐτελείετο Α” 5, “νεικείῃσι Α 579, νεικείωι” v. 243, “πνείοντες” v. 536; see § 29 i.

Ἀγαμέμνονι: against Agamemnon; dat. of interest.

[222] ὀξέα κεκληγώς: with discordant cry.

λέγ̓ ὀνείδεα: rehearsed, enumerated, reproaches;λέγειν” in Homer is never strictly equiv. to “εἰπεῖν”. Thersites accused the king of covetousness, sensuality, cowardice, injustice.

τῷ: Agamemnon, at whom the Achaeans were then angry, so that Thersites could be sure of the applause of his audience.

[223] κοτέοντο: impf. to express a continued state of feeling, while “νεμέσσηθεν” refers to the occasion which caused their anger, cf. 1.331.

225-242. Speech of Thersites. This assumes a knowledge of Agamemnon's real intention to continue the war. This knowledge might have been gained from the words of Odysseus.

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