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[418]

[419] cf. 3.302.

ἐπεκραίαινε: cf. 1.455; coincident with “ἔφατο”.

[420] δέκτο: 2d aor., see § 35. The opposite is in “ δ̓ οὐκ ἐμπάζετο ἱρῶνOd. 9.553, cf. 8.550 f. Zeus gave no sign of displeasure, hence it was inferred that he accepted the sacrifice.

ὄφελλεν: i.e. he gave them greater labor of war instead of giving them peace, cf. vs. 39 f.

421-424 = 1.458-461.

[425] cf. 1.462.

[426] Ἡφαίστοιο: i.e. blazing fire, cf. “τανύοντο” (sc. the pigs) “διὰ φλογὸς Ἡφαίστοιο Ι” 468. The god is put for his element; cf. “Ἄρης” for “πόλεμος” v. 381; “Ἀμφιτρίτη” for “θάλασσα μ” 97; “Ἀφροδίτη” for “ἔρως χ” 444; “Ἀχελῷος” for “ὕδωρ” Eur. Bacch. 625; cf. Vulcanum spargere tectis Verg. Aen. vii. 77; Liber and Bacchus for vinum Hor. Carm. iii. 16. 34, Serm. i. 4. 89; Venus for amor id. Carm. i. 27. 14; Neptunus for mare id. Epod. 17. 55.

427-432 = 1.464-469.

[433] cf. Od. 3.474.

τοῖς: see on 1.68.

434 = “Ι 96, 163, 677, 697, Κ 103, Τ 146, 199, λ 397, ω” 121.

[435] cf. Od. 3.240.—“μηκέτι κτλ”.: no longer now let us talk here for a long time. Nestor wished to prevent the conversation that generally followed a feast. He agrees with Agamemnon, vs. 381 ff., in calling for action.

μηδέ τι: and by no means.

[436] ἀμβαλλώμεθα: cf. “ἀνάβλησις” v. 380.

δή: now.

θεός: Zeus.

ἐγγυαλίζει: gives into our hands, in so far as the Dream directed the immediate preparation for battle.

[437] ἄγε: here only in Homer with 3d pers. imv.

κήρυκες: i.e. Agamemnon's, as vs. 50, 442.

Ἀχαιῶν: const. with “λαόν”, as v. 163.

[439] ἡμεῖς: i.e. the princes who are named vs. 405 ff.

ἁθρόοι ὧδε: assembled as we are.

[440] θᾶσσον: the quicker.—“ἐγείρομεν κτλ”.: cf. v. 381; as “Δ 352, Θ 531, Σ 304, Τ” 237.

[441] Vs. 441-483. The army goes forth to fight.

441 = 23.895.

442-444. cf. vs. 50-52, Od. 2.6-8.

442 = 23.39, cf. 19.69.

αὐτίκα: asyndetic, see § 2 n.

[445] οἱ δ̓ ἀμφ̓ Ἀτρεΐωνα: the son of Atreus is included; cf. “Γ 146, Ζ” 436 f., “Ι 81, Μ 139, Ο 301, γ 163, θ 502, χ” 281.

[446] κρίνοντες: following Nestor's advice, v. 362.

μετὰ δέ: but among them, as v. 477. She is unseen, as Od. 19.33. So Apollo leads the Trojans forward, “εἱμένος ὤμοιιν νεφέλην Ο” 308 with a cloud wrapped about his shoulders. See on 1.198.

Ἀθήνη: sc. “θῦνε”, which is taken up by “διέσσυτο” v. 450.

[447] αἰγίδα: as goddess of war (on 1.206), Athena wears the Aegis of Zeus to inspire terror, as “Ε 738, Σ 204, Φ 400, χ” 297. The Aegis was a symbol of the thunder cloud, just as the Gorgon's head upon it represented the thunder storm. This is worn by Athena regularly in works of art.—“ἀγήραον κτλ”.: epexegetical of “ἐρίτιμον. ἀγήραος” is always associated by Homer with “ἀθάνατος”, and elsewhere in the poems is used only of persons, (excepting the gold and silver dogs that guard the palace of the king of the Phaeacians, Od. 7.94).

[448] τῆς: from which. Const. with “ἠερέθονται”.—The pres. is used of a divine and unchanging quality, cf. Od. 10.350.

[449] ἐυπλεκέες: evidently the art of drawing gold into thin threads was known in the Homeric period.

ἑκατόμβοιος: worth a hundred oxen; cf. v. 649 for the round number. Cattle formed the standard of value in those times, cf. “Ζ 236, Φ 79, Ψ 703, 705, 885, α” 431. Coined money was unknown.

[450] παιφάσσουσα: cf. “ἐκπαιφάσσειν Ε” 803.

[451] ἐν ὦρσεν: cf. “τῇσι δὲ γόον πάσῃσιν ἐνῶρσεν Ζ 499, ἀνάλκιδα φύζαν ἐνόρσας Ο” 62.

452 = “Λ 12, Ξ” 152.

καρδίη: in partitive appos. with “ἐκάστῳ”, cf. “Ἀχαιοῖσιν δὲ μέγα σθένος ἔμβαλ̓ ἑκάστῳ καρδίῃ κτλ. Λ” 11 f.; see § 1 v. “καρδίη” is found in Homer only in this verse, elsewhere “κραδίη”, as v. 171; see § 13.

[453] = 11.13 f.

455-483. Six splendid comparisons, each of which progressively gives prominence to a new point: (1) the gleam of their armor, vs. 455-458; (2) their noisy tumult, vs. 459-466; (3) their multitude, vs. 467 f.; (4) their eagerness for the fray, vs. 469-473; (5) their marshalling leaders, vs. 474-479; (6) Agamemnon as commander-in-chief, vs. 480-483. See § 2 g.

[455] ἠύτε: as v. 87.

ἀίδηλον: destructive; from root “ϝιδ”-, as “Ἀίδης”.

ἄσπετον: sc. in extent, essential for the comparison since the extent of the fire is a condition of its brightness as seen at a distance.

[456] ἕκαθεν: from afar, where the poet chooses his station with the men who are looking on; cf. “ἕκαθεν δέ τε γίγνετ̓ ἀκουή Π” 634 and the sound is heard from afar, “κλισίηθεν ἀκούσας Λ” 603 hearing from his tent, Od. 1.328.

[457] τῶν: of these, limits “χαλκοῦ”.

ἐρχομένων: as they were going forth.

θεσπεσίοιο: because of the throng.

[458] δἰ αἰθέρος: i.e. reaches through the aether to the home of the gods, cf. on “Α 195, ἠχὴ δ̓ ἀμφοτέρων ἵκετ̓ αἰθέρα καὶ Διὸς αὐγάς Ν” 837, (“ὀρυμαγδὸς”) “χάλκεον οὐρανὸν ἷκε δἰ αἰθέρος Ρ” 425.

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