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[511] Ὀρχομενόν: the rich capital of the famous empire of the Minyae; called “Μινύειον” in distinction from the Arcadian city (v. 605). Its wealth is mentioned in the same connection as that of Aegyptian Thebes (9.381). Agamemnon in Hades (Od. 11.457 ff.) asks Odysseus whether he had heard of his son Orestes at Orchomenus or Pylus. The so-called ‘Treasury of Minyas’ at Orchomenus resembles the subterranean structures of Mycenae (see on v. 569). Orchomenus was famous for its worship of the Graces, who were said to have been first worshipped there. Both Orchomenus and Aspledon (a small town) lay near Lake Copaïs, on the left bank of the Boeotian Cephisus (see on v. 522), on the fertile plain of Boeotia. The realm of the Minyae did not become Boeotian until later.

[512] ἦρχε: sing., although two personal subjs. follow. cf. vs. 563, 650, 830, 842, 844, 858, 862, 876. See H. 607. The second subj., in many cases, seems to be added as an after thought.

Ἀσκάλαφος, Ἰάλμενος: mentioned among the guards of the Achaean camp, 9.82. Ascalaphus was slain by Deïphobus, 13.518 ff., 15.111 f.

[513] δόμῳ: local, in the house.

Ἄκτορος: Astyoche's father.

[514] ὑπερώιον: this served as the sleeping-chamber for the women, cf. “α 328, β” 358.

[515] Ἄρηι: she bore to Ares. For the dat., cf. v. 658. Ares was the national god of the warlike Minyae. For the long first syllable of “*<*>´αρηι” cf. v. 767, “Ἀπόλλωνος Α” 14.

516 = vs. 680, 733; cf. 602.

τοῖς: const. with the verb; “τῶν” might have been used with “νέες”, see § 3 g.

517-526. The Phocians. These also may be supposed to have fitted out their fleet on the Euripus.

[517] Σχεδίος: dwelt at Panopeus; he was slain by Hector, 17.306 ff.

Ἐπίστροφος: mentioned only here.

[518] Ἰφίτου: for this traditional form, the metre indicates the truer form to be “Ἰφίτοο”, with the last syllable lengthened before the “μ” (§ 41 l). cf. “ὅου” (“ὁο”) v. 325, “Ἀσκληπιοῦ” (“Ἀσκληπιόο”) v. 731. See § 17 c. Iphitus son of Naubolus was on the Argonautic expedition, Apollon. Rhod. i. 207.

[519] Πυθῶνα: metaplastic acc. of “Πυθώ”, cf. “Πυθοῖ Ι 405, Πυθῶδε λ” 581. This was the later Delphi (“Δελφοί”), seat of the Pythian oracle. The epith. “πετρήεσσαν” is well deserved.

[520] Κρῖσαν: on the plain, near the gulf of the same name. It seems in early times to have controlled the Pythian sanctuary.

Δαυλίδα: east of Delphi, on a hill; cf. Daulis quia in tumulo excelso sita est, nec scalis nec operibus capi poterat (sc. by the Romans) Livy xxxii. 18.

Πανοπῆα: burnt by the Persians under Xerxes (Hdt. viii. 35), as was also Daulis; and again destroyed by Archelaus, the general of Mithridates.

[522] ἄρα: further; uniting the following to form a series with the preceding. cf. vs. 584, 615, 716.

Κηφισόν: the Cephisus takes its rise near Lilaea, on the north slope of Mt. Parnassus; it flows with many windings through Phocis into Boeotia, and empties into Lake Copaïs.

524 = v. 747. cf. v. 534 and note.

ἅμα ἕποντο: accompanied.

[525] οἱ μέν: the two leaders mentioned v. 517.

ἀμφιέποντες: busily. For the use of the partic., see on “ἰών Α” 138.

[526] Βοιωτῶν δ̓ ἔμπλην: next the Boeotians.ἔμπλην” is found only here in Homer; only twice elsewhere in this sense.

ἐπ̓ ἀριστερά: to the left of the Boeotians, in the line of the ships and in the line of battle. cf. “ἐπιδέξια” v. 353.

527-535. The Locrians.

[527] Λοκρῶν: both the Epicnemidian (north of Daphnus on the Euboean Sea) and the Opuntian (so named from Opus the capital, south of Daphnus) Locrians, which are not yet distinguished by Homer. The poet does not mention the Ozolian Locrians (on the Corinthian Gulf).

Ὀιλῆος: gen of connection, with “Αἴας”. See G. 167, 1; <*>. 729 a, 730 a. Cf.Τελαμώνιος Αἴας”, where the adj. is equiv. to a gen.

ταχύς: cf. celerem sequi Aiacem Hor. Carm. i. 15. 18. In the funeral games in honor of Patroclus, this Ajax runs a race with Odysseus and would have won the prize, but Athena caused him to slip (23.754 ff.).—He was shipwrecked and drowned on the voyage home from Troy (Od. 4.499 ff.).

[528] Τελαμώνιος Αἴας: cf. 1.138, vs. 557, 768. Throughout the battles of the Iliad the two “Αἴαντε” stand near each other and are often mentioned together; cf. v. 406, “Αἴαντ̓, Ἀργείων ἡγήτορε χαλκοχιτώνων Δ 285, Αἴαντε δύω, θεράποντες Ἄρηος Κ 228, Αἴαντες θοῦριν ἐπιειμένοι ἀλκήν Η” 164.

[529] ὀλίγος: small, like Att. “μικρός” which is rare in Homer.

λινοθώρηξ: as v. 830, with linen doublet, i.e. in a closely woven, thick linen jacket which came down only to the hips; while the “χιτών” in the common epith. “χαλκοχίτωνες” was cuirass and apron in one piece. The linen armor became more common in later times (see Xen. An. iv. 7. 15 of the Chalybes, “τὸν λινοῦν θώρακα ὃς ἐπιχώριος ἦν αὐτοῖς” Xen. Cyr. vi. 4. 2 of the Susians). This is suited to the leader of the Locrians who are described (13.713 ff.) as having no helmets, shields, or spears, but bows and arrows; but here Ajax is represented as excelling with the spear, and he has “ἔντεα δαιδάλεα Ν” 719.

[530] ἐκέκαστο: excelled; from “καίνυμαι” (with stem “καδ”-).

Πανέλληνας: the Pan-Hellenes (cf. “Παναχαιῶν” v. 404), only here. This unites under one name the peoples of Northern Greece, as “Ἀχαιούς” is used of the peoples of Peloponnesus and the adjacent islands. cf. “καθ̓ Ἑλλάδα καὶ μέσον Ἄργος α” 344 through Hellas and the midst of Argos, as including all Greece; ‘from Dan to Beersheba’ Judges xx. 1, ‘from John O'Groat's to Land's End.’

[531] οἵ: refers to “Λοκρῶν” v. 527.

Κῦνον: the harbor of Opus, made famous by Deucalion and Pyrrha.

Ὀπόεντα: the capital of the country, the native town of Achilles's friend Patroclus (“Σ 326, Ψ” 85).

[532] Σκάρφην: near Thermopylae.

[533] Βοαγρίου: this empties into the sea exactly opposite the northwest corner of Euboea.

534 = vs. 545, 630, 644, 710, 737, 759; cf. vs. 524, 556, 747.

[535] Λοκρῶν: for its position at the beginning of the verse, see on “οὐλομένην Α 2.—πέρην”: opposite, not as v. 626.

ἱερῆς: as 1.366. The cult of Apollo and Artemis was esp. prominent there.

536-545. The Euboeans.

[536] μένεα πνείοντες: as 3.8, cf. “μένος πνείοντες χ 203, πῦρ δ̓ ὀφθαλμοῖσι δεδορκώς τ” 446, quae spirabat amores Hor. Carm. iv. 13. 19. Breathing courage, i.e. inspired with courage and fury.

μένεα: pl. because of the number of men; cf. Shakspere's ‘Wherein hath Caesar thus deserved your loves’ Caesar iii. 2. 241.

πνείοντες: Att. “πνέοντες”, cf. “ἐτελείετο Α 5, νεικείῃσι Α 579.—Ἄβαντες”: preHellenic Thracians who from the Phocian town Abae migrated to Euboea, and gave to the island its earlier name. cf. “τὴν πρὶν Ἀβαντίδα κίκλησκον θεοὶ αἰὲν ἐόντες”, | “τὴν τότ̓ ἐπώνυμον Εὔβοιαν βοὸς ὠνόμασεν Ζεύς” Hes. Frag. 3.

[537] Χαλκίδα: the chief town of Euboea, on the strait of Euripus at its very narrowest part; separated from Boeotia by a channel so narrow that plans are making to blast away the rocks, in order to open the way for steamers of ordinary size. In the early times of Greek history, Chalcis exhausted its own strength by sending out colonies,—founding the first Greek settlement in the West (Cumae in Campania), and the first in Sicily (Naxos, about 735 B.C.), and sending so many colonies to the southern shore of Thrace as to give its name to the great promontory of Chalcidice.

Εἰρετρίαν: the later Eretria. The short quantity of “ε” before “τρ” is unusual in Homer, see § 41 i.

πολυστάφυλον: cf. “Εὐβοίης ἀμπελόεν πεδίον” Theognis 784, “πολὺν πιὼν Εὐβοϊκὸν οἶνον” Alexis Frag. 299.

Ἱστίαιαν: trisyllabic by synizesis; cf. “πόλιος” v. 811, “σχετλίη Γ” 414, see § 7 a. The city was founded by the Hestiaeans (“ἱστίη” Ion. for Att. “ἑστία”) who were crowded out of Thessaly by the Perrhaebians.

[538] Δίου: on the Euboean Sea, south of Oreos.

[539] Κάρυστον: famed for its marble and asbestos. The Persian fleet touched there on its way to Marathon, Hdt. vi. 99.

[540] αὖτε: cf. “αὖ” vs. 618, 678.

ὄζος Ἄρηος: only metaphorical in Homer, scion of Ares, to denote bravery; cf. “θεράποντες Ἄρηος” v. 110. Elephenor was slain by Agenor, 4.463 ff.

[542] ὄπιθεν κομόωντες: see on v. 11; cf. (“Θησεὺς”) “ἐκείρατο δὲ” (in order to sacrifice his hair to Apollo) “τῆς κεφαλῆς τὰ πρόσθεν μόνον, ὥσπερ Ὅμηρος ἔφη τοὺς Ἄβαντας: καὶ τοῦτο τῆς κουρᾶς τὸ γένος Θησηῒς ὠνομάσθη δἰ ἐκεῖνον” Plut. Thes. 5.—Mark the new thoughts added in this sent. by the adjs. without conjs.

[543] μελίῃσιν: i.e. “ἐγχείῃσι”, since the shaft of the lance was of ash wood; cf. Cygnumque petit, nec fraxinus errat Ovid Met. xii. 122.

[544] This verse is composed appar ently of six spondees; see § 39 c.

δηίων: const. with “στήθεσσιν”.

546-558. The Athenians and Salaminians.

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