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[544]

[546] Ἀθήνας: the city here represents Attica. The promontory of Sunium (Od. 3.278) and Marathon (Od. 7.80) are mentioned in the Odyssey. In the line of battle, the Athenians had the Pylians on their left and the Cephallenians on their right, cf. 4.293 ff., 327 ff. They were not prominent in the conflicts, but are mentioned “Ν 196, 689, Ο 337.—ἐυκτίμενον”: cf. ‘Where on the Aegean shore a city stands | Built nobly, pure the air, and light the soil; | Athens, the eye of Greece, mother of arts and eloquence.’ Milton Par. Regained iv. 238 ff.

[547] δῆμον: the country, cf. 3.50.

Ἐρεχθῆος: originally identical with Erichthonius. An old hero of Athens, under whose rule, acc. to Hdt. viii. 44, the people were first called Athenians. Athena herself is here made to be the founder of his cult.

[548] “τέκε δὲ κτλ”.: parenthetical clause. Erechtheus is called “γηγενής” by Herodotus (“Ἐρεχθέος τοῦ γηγενέος λεγομένου εἶναι νηός” viii. 55) and others. The Athenians boasted that they were children of the soil (“αὐτόχθονες”).

[549] “κάδ [κατά]”: const. with “εἷσεν”, cf. “ἀνὰ εἷσεν Α” 310 f.

πίονι: fat, i.e. rich; with reference to the votive offerings and other treasures stored there. A reference to the wealth of the temple of Apollo at Delphi is found in 9.404 f.

νηῷ: recent excavations indicate that before the Persian invasion, the temple of Athena on the Acropolis stood to the north of the Parthenon (dedicated at the great Panathenaic festival 438 B.C.), with foundations extending under the Hall of the Caryatides of the Erechtheum (completed about 407 B.C.). Columns and other architectural fragments of the pre-Persian Parthenon are found built into the wall of the Acropolis.

[550] μίν: i.e. Erechtheus who was worshipped with Athena since the two were considered the founders of the civilization of the country. cf. “ἀπάξουσι ἔτεος ἑκάστου τῇ Ἀθηναίῃ τε τῇ πολιάδι” (guardian of the city) “ἱρὰ καὶ τῷ Ἐρεχθέϊ” Hdt. v. 82.

ἱλάονται: cf. (“Πᾶνα”) “θυσίῃσι ἐπετέῃσι” (yearly) “καὶ λαμπάδι” (torch race) “ἱλάσκονται” Hdt. vi. 105.

[551] περιτελλομένων: see on v. 295.—This then was an annual festival.

[552] Πετεῶο: for “Πετεάοο”, see § 17 c. The family of Peteos claimed descent from Erechtheus.

[553] “τῷ δ̓ οὔ πω κτλ”.: acc. to Hdt. vii. 161, an ambassador of the Athenians in the time of the second Persian war referred to these verses with pride before Gelo, tyrant of Syracuse, “τῶν” (“Ἀθηναίων”) “καὶ Ὅμηρος ἐποποιὸς ἄνδρα ἄριστον ἐς Ἴλιον ἀπικέσθαι τάξαι τε καὶ διακοσμῆσαι στρατόν”. But the Iliad does not elsewhere mention or show this skill of Menestheus.

[554] κοσμῆσαι: equiv. to the Att. “τάξαι”, see § 2 v; cf. “κοσμήτορε λαῶν Α” 16, as an epith. of the generals. The inf. is used here as an acc. of specification.

ἵππους: i.e. men on chariots, horses and all that went with them.

[555] Νέστωρ: see on 1.247.

[557] Αἴας: son of Telamon; see on 1.138.

Σαλαμῖνος: Salamis forms a sort of stepping-stone in the enumeration, as the poet passes from Middle Greece to Peloponnesus. Telamon had removed to Salamis from Aegina (the home of his father Aeacus), because of the murder of his brother.

[558] ἄγων: for the use of the partic., cf. “ἀμφιέποντες” v. 525.—Ajax here is brought into such close connection with Athens that he appears as a national hero of Attica. This was in accord with the later Athenian tradition. One of the ten tribes (“φυλαί”) of Attica was named “Αἰαντίς”, after him.

559-644. Peloponnesus, Western Islands, Aetolia.

559-624. Peloponnesus.

559-568. Argos.

[559] Ἄργος: the city, not the country. See on 1.30.

τειχιόεσσαν: as of Gortyna v. 646; well walled, lit. rich in walls (cf. “τειχίον π” 165), since Tiryns was famous for its walls,— the best known and oldest example of the so-called Cyclopean architecture. These walls are thought to have been 50 or 60 feet in hight, and in places are 20 or 25 feet thick. In the time of Antoninus Pius, they were declared to be as great a wonder as the Aegyptian pyramids. Excavations were conducted there by Dr. Schliemann in 1884-85, laying bare the plan of an extensive and elaborate structure.

[560] κατὰ ἐχούσας: which occupy.

[561] Τροιζῆνα: famous for the worship of Poseidon, and as the early home of Theseus.

ἀμπελόεντα: for the form, see on “ποιήεντα” v. 503.

Ἐπίδαυρον: famed for its temple of Asclepius. The theatre (built under the direction of the famous sculptor Polycleitus, with seats and orchestra still well preserved), and other ruins there, were excavated during 1881 and the following years.

[562] Αἴγιναν: this island in very early times was conquered by Epidaurus. In the eighth century B.C., it was ruled by Pheidon of Argos.

κοῦροι Ἀχαιῶν: does not differ materially from “υἷες Ἀχαιῶν” v. 281.

[563] βοὴν ἀγαθός: see on v. 408.

Διομήδης: son of Tydeus. Tydeus was son of Oeneus of Calydon, and brother of Meleager (v. 642); having slain some relative, he fled to Argos where he married a daughter (14.121) of King Adrastus (see on v. 572). He fell in the first Argive expedition against Thebes. Diomed took part in the second expedition (that of the “Ἐπίγονοι”) against Thebes. He was one of the bravest and mightiest of the Achaeans before Troy. The Fifth Book is devoted to his exploits, in the course of which he wounds Aphrodite and (aided by Athena) even Ares. He has a famous meeting with Glaucus (6.119 ff.). He visits the Trojan camp in company with Odysseus, and slays the Thracian Rhesus (10.219 ff.). He reached Argos in safety at the close of the war (Od. 3.167, 130 ff.).

[564] *<*>σθένελος: often mentioned in Homer as “θεράπων” and charioteer of Diomed. The name is a short form of “Σθενέλαος”, and thus corresponds to “Δημοσθένης”.

Καπανῆος: the most insolent of the ‘Seven against Thebes,’ see 4.404 ff., where Sthenelus says “ἡμεῖς τοι πατέρων μέγ̓ ἀμείνονες εὐχόμεθ̓ εἶναι: ἡμεῖς καὶ Θήβης ἑδος εἵλομεν ἑπταπύλοιο, . . . κεῖνοι” (sc. Capaneus and the rest) “δὲ σφετέρῃσιν ἀτασθαλίῃσιν ὔλοντο”. He boasted that he would capture the city of Thebes, even though opposed by the thunderbolt of Zeus, cf. “θεοῦ τε γὰρ θέλοντος ἐκπέρσειν πόλιν καὶ μὴ θέλοντός φησιν, οὐδὲ τὴν Διὸς ἔριν πέδοι σκήψασαν ἐμποδὼν σχεθεῖν” Aesch. Theb. 414 ff.

[565] Εὐρύαλος: appears in the combat 6.20 ff. He boxes unsuccessfully with Epeüs (builder of the wooden horse), 23.677 ff.

566 = 23.678.

Μηκιστῆος: brother of Adrastus, and thus great-uncle of Diomed.

υἱός: the first syllable is here short, the “ι” being pronounced much like a y, rather than forming part of a diphthong; cf. 1.489 and note.

Ταλαϊονίδαο: this seems to be formed by a cumulation of suffixes from “Τάλαος”, cf. “Λαομεδοντιάδη Γ” 250 from “Λαομέδων, Ὑπεριονίδης μ” 176 (equiv. to “Ὑπερίων”); see § 21 j.

[568] ὀγδώκοντα: only here and v. 652; Ion. for “ὀγδοήκοντα”, see § 6 g.

569-580. The realm of Agamemnon.

[569] Μυκήνας: The residence <*>f Agamemnon whose realm lay in Nor<*> ern Peloponnesus (the latter Achaea), extending to Elis. Above the gate of the citadel remains the sculptured representation of two lions, prob. the earliest extant specimen of Greek sculpture on Greek soil. Near the citadel are great subterranean structures, of which the finest and largest is the so-called ‘treasure house of Atreus.’ Mycene (the sing. form also is used, see § 19 j) is called by Homer “εὐρυάγυια, Δ” 52, and “πολύχρυσος Η”, 180. The latter epith. was shown to be justified by the discoveries in the excavations by Dr. Schliemann in 1876-77.

[570] ἀφνειὸν Κόρινθον: Corinth was made wealthy in early times by its trade, lying as it did between two seas; cf. “οἰκοῦντες γὰρ τὴν πόλιν οἱ Κορίνθιοι ἐπὶ τοῦ ἰσθμοῦ ἀεὶ δή ποτε ἐμπόριον εἶχον, ... χρήμασί τε δυνατοὶ ἦσαν, ὡς καὶ τοῖς παλαιοῖς ποιηταῖς δεδήλωται” Thuc. i. 13. 15. The old name of Corinth was Ephyra, cf. “ἔστι πόλις Ἐφύρη μυχψ̂ Ἄργεος ἱπποβότοιο Ζ” 152, and the poet does not put the name Corinth into the mouth of his characters.

Κλεωνάς: southwest of Corinth, on the road to Argos.

[571] Ὀρνειάς: on the northern boundary of Argolis, toward Phlius.

Ἀραιθυρέην: thought to be the later Phlius.

[572] Ἄδρηστος: king of Argos, grandfather of Diomed (see on v. <*>63). He was driven out of Argos by <*>mphiaraus, and fled to Sicyon, to his mother's father whom he succeeded on the throne. He was the leader of the ‘Seven against Thebes’; and the only one of the seven who returned home alive.

πρῶτα: at first, with reference to his return to Argos.

[573] Ὑπερησίην: in Achaea, on the Corinthian gulf. For the long penult, see § 41 b.

Γονόεσσαν: from “γουνός”, the hilly city (cf. Genoa): it lay on a cape near Pellene.

[574] Πελλήνην: in Achaea, about six miles from the sea.

Αἴγιον: later the capital of the 12 Achaean cities. Near it was a sanctuary of Zeus “Ὁμαγύριος” where Agamemnon was said to have planned the expedition against Troy, with the most honored of the Greeks.

[575] Αἰγιαλόν: the district on the north coast of Peloponnesus, east of Elis.

ἀνά: cf. “ἀνὰ δῶμα Α 570, ἀνὰ στρατόν Α” 10.

Ἑλίκην: the principal town (before Aegium) of this district. Here Poseidon received especial honor; cf. 8.203, and ‘Heliconian’ Poseidon 20.404. This city was submerged by an earthquake, 373 B.C.

εὐρεῖαν: a freq. epith. of a country (as of Crete and the Troad); rarely applied to a city as here, cf. “ἐνὶ Κνώσψ εὐρείη Σ” 591.

[576] “τῶν [τούτων]”: i.e. the inhabitants of the cities mentioned just before. The gen. depends upon “νηῶν”, the ships of these, their ships; cf. vs. 509, 685, while in vs. 587, 610, 713, 719, “νεῶν” is in appos. with “τῶν”.

[577] πολὺ πλεῖστοι: since his kingdom was most extensive; thus he had the largest force of ships himself, and could besides these lend 60 ships to the Arcadians (vs. 610-614). The rule of Agamemnon ‘over many islands,’ implying naval power, is mentioned v. 108. — The verse ends like v. 817.

[578] ἐν δέ: but among them, cf. v. 588; see on *a 142.

χαλκόν: see on v. 417.

[580] οὕνεκα: because, referring to “κυδιόων. — ἄριστος”: sc. in kingly dignity and power, as is shown by the next verse. See 1.91 and note.

581-590. The realm of Menelaus.

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