κητώεσσαν: the sharply cut ravines of the mountains are one of the most striking characteristics of the Spartan landscape.
 Σπάρτην: the home of Menelaus.Μέσσην: this was thought by some of the ancients to be the later “Μεσσήνη” (not mentioned elsewhere in the Iliad), which belonged to Sparta in the heroic period.
 Ἀμύκλας: the seat of Tyndareüs and his s<*>ns. An old Achaean city in the va<*>ley of the Eurotas, about a league south of Sparta. It was one of the most important Laconian cities before the Dorian conquest, and long maintained its independence, by the side of Sparta.Ἕλος: a city on the coast from which the name helot was said to be derived, since its inhabitants were enslaved by the Spartans.
 Λάαν: for the name, cf. ‘Stone- ham,’ ‘Stonington.’
 οἷ: for him, his.ἀπάτερθε: sc. from the troops of Agamemnon. This marks the political independence of Men<*> laus. προθυμίησι πεποιθώς: cf. v. 792, (“Αἰνείας”) “λέων ὥς ἀλκὶ πεποιθώς Ε” 299. For the long penult of “προθυμίῃσι”, cf. v. 573; see § 41 b. The pl. is used because of the many occasions on which his zeal had prompted him to act.
 Πύλον: Messenian Pylus, on a harbor that is well protected by the island Sphacteria. During the Peloponnesian war (325 B.C.) the Athenians established themselves here and held the position for 15 years. In this harbor (then called Navarino), Oct. 20, 1827, the Turkish fleet was nearly annihilated, and the Greek war for independence virtually decided. — The realm of Nestor was founded by his father Neleus (son of Poseidon), who had been driven from Iolcos in Thessaly by his brother Pelias (cf. v. 715).πόρον: ford; in app<*> with “Θρύον”, cf. “ἄλσος” v. 506. cf. “Ἀλφειοῦ δὲ πόρον” (“δ ποιητὴς”) “φησίν, ὅτι πεζῇ περατὸς εἶναι δοκεῖ κατὰ τοῦτον τὸν τόπον” Strabo viii. 349.
 μοῦσαι: for the pl., see on v. 484.
 τὸν Θρήικα: that Thracian. For the use of the art., cf. 1.11. The Thracian bards, Orpheus, Musaeus, Eumolpus, etc., who were called the fathers of Greek poetry, did not live in historic Thrace but in Pieria, in southern Macedonia, on the east slope of Olympus. Thence the worship of the Muses was brought to Helicon and Parnassus. — Thamyris is here thought of as wandering after the manner of the later bards (“ἀοιδοί”) and visiting the courts of the princes.
 Οἰχαλίηθεν: from Oechalia in Thessaly, cf. v. 730.Εὐρύτου: a famous bowman, cf. “ἀνδράσι δὲ προτέροισιν ἐριζέμεν οὐκ ἐθελήσω” (sc. Odysseus), | “οὔθ̓ Ἡρακλῆι οὐτ̓ Εὐρύτῳ Οἰχαλιῆι, ι οἵ ῥα καὶ ἀθανάτοισιν ἐρίζεσκον περὶ τόξων θ” 223 ff. The famous bow of Odysseus was one which “τὸ πρὶν μέν ῤ̔ ἐφόρει μέγας Εὔρυτος φ” 32. εὐχόμενος: for the partic. of manner, see on “ι<*>ών Α” 138. εἴ περ ἄν: even granted that, supposing that. Here alone is “ἄν” found, instead of “κέν”, with “εἰ” and the opt., cf. 1.60; see § 3 c; elsewhere “εἰ ἄν” is found with the subjv., as 3.25. The form in dir. disc. would be “νικήσαιμι ἄν, εἴ περ ἂν αὐταὶ μοῦσαι ἀείδοιεν”.
 πηρόν: maimed, here prob. mute (cf. v. 595), though a later tradition represented him as blind. — “αὐτὰρ κτλ”.: this gives the result of their action, although elsewhere “αὐτάρ” is used to introduce something new.ὑπὸ ὄρος: up under the mountain, cf. v. 824, 3.371.
 Αἰπύτιον: of Aepytus. For the use of the adj., see on “Νηληίψ” v. 20. Aepytus, son of Elatus, was an old Arcadian hero whose descendants reigned long in Arcadia. His mound, which in the time of the early Roman emperors still rested on its circle of stones, reminds scholars of the German graves of the Huns.ἵνα: sc. “εἰσίν”. For the omission of the copula in a rel. clause<*> cf. “Α 547. — ἀγχιμαχηταί”: elsewhere only an epith. of the Dardanians in the formula “Τρῶες καὶ Λύκιοι καὶ Δάρδανοι ἀγχιμαχηταί Θ” 173. These are combatants with sword, spear, and battle-axe, in contrast with bowmen, slingers, or javelin-throwers. The Arcadians are called “ἐγχεσίμωροι Η” 134.
 Ὀρχομενόν: to be distinguished from Minyan Orchomenus v. 511.πολύμηλον: cf. “εὐμήλοιο Ἀρκαδίας” Pind. Ol. vi. 100.
 Τεγέην: one of the most im portant towns in Peloponnesus before the Dorian invasion.Μαντινέην: on the road from Arcadia to Argos. 500 hoplites from Mantinea and as many from Tegea were among the Greek forces at Thermopylae, to resist Xerxes.
 Στύμφηλον: famous for its lake (which has a subterranean channel that comes to the surface and empties into the sea near Argos), and for the labor of Heracles in killing the birds here.Παρρασίην: a district in southwestern Arcadia.
 Ἀγκαίοιο: Ancaeus took part in the Argonautic expedition, and afterwards lost his life in the Calydonian Boar-hunt.Ἀγαπήνωρ: not elsewhere mentioned in Homer.
 θαλάσσια ἔργα: cf. “πολεμήια ἔργα” v. 338, “πολέμοιο ἔργα Θ” 453, “ἔργα γάμοιο Ε” 429. Arcadia, alone of the countries of Peloponnesus, touched the sea at no point. cf. praetor Achaeorum [Philopoemen] ... rudis in re navali erat, Arcas, mediterraneus homo Livy xxxv. 26.615-624. The Eleans.