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[653] Τληπόλεμος: killed by Sarpedon, E 659. The other Rhodians are not mentioned elsewhere in Homer. —<*> τε μέγας τε: as 3.167, 226; two es<*> of a hero; see on “μέγας” v. 816.

[655] διά: const. with “κοσμηθέντες”, divided in three parts. The Rhodians dwelt acc. to tribes (“καταφυλαδόν”, v. 668), in their three cities. cf. “διὰ γαῖαν τρίχα δασσάμενοι πατρωΐαν” Pind. Ol. vii. 75, of the founders of Rhodes. Pindar tells in greater detail the story of the settlement of the island, and calls it “τρίπολις νᾶσος”, Ol. vii. 18.

[656] Λίνδον: famed for its worship of Athena and Heracles; native city of Cleobulus, one of the ‘Seven Wise Men.’ From this name came that of Lincoln (Lindum colonia).

[658] This episode is intended for the glorification of the Rhodians.

Ἀστυόχεια: “Ἀστυδάμεια” is the name given her by Pindar.

βίῃ Ἡρακληείῃ: periphrasis for all cases of “Ἡρακλέης”, which was not suited to the verse; see § 18 m. For the periphrasis, cf. v. 851, 3.105; see § 2 s. — Horace (Carm. i. 3. 36) uses Herculeus labor in another sense.

[659] cf. 15.531.

Ἐφύρης: the seat of King Augeas (see on 624); not to be confounded with “Ἐφύρη” = Corinth, see on v. 570.

[660] πέρσας: sc. when he made his expedition against Augeas to avenge the wrong done him in withholding the reward for cleansing the stables.

[661] τράφε: intrans., grew up; const. with ἐπεί, when he had grown up.

ἐνὶ μεγάρῳ: i.e. in his father's house at Tiryns.

ἐνί: for the length of the final “ι” before the following “μ”, see §41 k, l “γ”.

[662] αὐτίκα: refers to the preceding “ἐπεὶ κτλ”.

φίλον: evidently only as a standing epith. here; see on 3.138, and § 1 p.

μήτρωα: brother of Alcmena, son of Alectryon.

κατέκτα: in a burst of anger, says Pindar; by accident, acc. to another tradition.

[663] ὄζον Ἄρηος: see on v. 540.

[664] γε: for its position in the second member of the sent., see on 3.409.

[665] βῆ φεύγων: set out in flight, cf. v. 71; see on 1.391. The partic. indicates the manner of his going; — as a fugitive, since he feared the vengeance of the relatives. ‘A life for a life,’ was the old Greek law; but sometimes a fine was paid, cf. I 632. Flight from the country was frequent, as in the case of Tydeus (see on v. 563), and of Patroclus (see on 1.307).

[667] ἐς Πόδον ἷξεν: this is an anachronism. Even the Dorian migration into Peloponnesus followed the fall of Troy by 80 years (Thue. i. 12).

ἀλώμενος: always in this place of the verse.

ἄλγεα πάσχων: with sorrow. Const. with “ἀλώμενος”.

[668] τριχθά: cf. “τρίχα” v. 655; see § 12 i.

καταφυλαδόν: equiv. to “κατὰ φῦλα” v. 362. See on v. 655. For advs. in -“δόν”, see § 38 c.

[669] ἐκ Διός: see on v. 33.

[670] “καί σφιν κτλ”.: an independent sent., illustrating “φίληθεν. — κατέχευε”: poured down upon them. This indicates the abundance of their wealth. cf. multaque merces, | unde potest, tibidefluat aequo | ab Jove Hor. Carm. i. 28. 27. This expression seems to have given rise to the later myth that Zeus literally rained gold upon the island, “ἔνθα ποτὲ βρέχε” (rained) “θεῶν βασιλεὺς μέγας χρυσέαις νιφάδεσσι” (snow-flakes) “πόλιν” Pind. Ol. vii. 34, 50.

671-675. The forces of Nireus. The smallest contingent of all.

[671] Νιρεύς: mentioned only here in Homer. He is celebrated as a pattern of beauty. Lucian invents a dialogue between him and Thersites. — For the repetition of his name (‘epanalepsis’), cf. vs. 838, 850, 871; see § 2 p. Such repetitions served to chain the attention of the hearer. — Σύμ<*>θεν: a small island, off the Carian coast, north of Rhodes; a Dorian colony like the islands of vs. 676 ff.

[672] The names of Nireus's parents are significant.

[673] κάλλιστος: pred.; see on v. 216.

674 = “Π 280, λ 470, 551, ω” 18.

ἄλλων: see on 1.505.

[675] ἀλαπαδνός: the opposite of “κρατερός”.

676-680. The Sporades.

[676] Κράπαθον: “Κάρπαθον”, cf. “καρδίη” and “κραδίη”. See § 13. Carpathus is an island between Rhodes and Crete which gave its name to the Ca <*>thian sea.

<*>where “Κόως” in Homer; an island off Cnidus and Halicarnassus. It was the birthplace of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and is celebrated by Theocritus in his viith and xviith idyls.

Εὐρυπύλοιο: king of Cos. He was slain by Heracles on the latter's return from Troy (14.250 ff.). His daughter Chalciope bore to Heracles a son Thessalus, v. 679.

Καλύδνας: small islands near Cos.

[678] Φείδιππος, Ἄντιφος: not mentioned elsewhere in the Iliad.

680 = v. 516.

681-759. III. Northern Greece. See on vs. 494 ff.

681-694. The forces of Achilles.

[681] νῦν αὖ: but now; a transition to the forces of Northern (Thessalian) Greece. This verse forms a general prelude and announcement for what follows.

τούς: “ἐρέω” hovers before the mind, cf. v. 493.

τό: dem., that.

Πελασγικὸν Ἄργος: i.e. Thessaly, in distinction from “Ἀχαυκὸν Ἄργος” (Peloponnesus). See on 1.30. Thessaly is represented as being more important than it was in historical times.

[682] Τρηχῖνα: near Thermopylae.

[683] Φθίην: home of Peleus and Achilles, cf. 1.169. In the valley of the Spercheüs.

Ἑλλάδα: the country under the rule of Peleus. Thence the name was extended not only to what is known as Greece, but to Greek colonies all over the Eastern world.

καλλιγύναικα: this epith. appears only in the acc. The inflection of the adj. seems to be attracted to that of the noun “γυνή”.

[684] Μυρμιδόνες: cf. “Α 180, 328. — Ἕλληνες κτλ”.: the later “Ἀχαιοὶ οἱ Φθιῆται” Hdt. vii. 132.

[685] τῶν: see on v. 576.

πεντήκοντα: Achilles arranged his men in five divisions with five commanders. Each of his ships was manned by 50 men, who (like all the rest) on their arrival at Troy served as soldiers. cf. “πεντήκοντ̓ ἦσαν νῆες θοαί, ᾖσιν Ἀχιλλεὺς ἐς Τροίην ἡγεῖτο διίφιλος: ἐν δὲ” “ἑκάστῃ πεντήκοντ̓ ἔσαν ἄνδρες ἐπὶ κληῖσιν ἑταῖροι: πέντε δ̓ ἄῤ ἡγεμόνας ποιήσατο, τοῖς ἐπεποίθειν, σημαίνειν, αὐτὸς δὲ μέγα κρατέων ἤνασσεν” II 168 ff.

[686] πολέμοιο δυσηχέος: cf. fremituque sequuntur | horrisono Verg. Aen. ix. 54 f.

[687] “οὐ γὰρ κτλ”.: for there was no one, etc.

ἐπὶ στίχας: into ranks, so as to form ranks. cf. “Γ 113. — ἡγήσαιτο”: opt. without “ἄν”, after “οὐ γὰρ κτλ”.; cf. “ὡς οὐκ ἔσθ̓, ὅς σῆς γε κύνας κεφαλῆς ἀπαλάλκοι Χ” 348 who should ward off the dogs from thy head.

[688] κεῖτο: sign of inactivity, in sharp contrast with “ποδάρκης”. cf. vs. 721, 724, 771; “ἀλλ̓ ἄνα, μηδ̓ ἔτι κεῖσο Σ” 178 addressed to Achilles by the goddess Iris.

ἐν νήεσσι: i.e. in the camp; see on 1.12.

[689] κούρης: causal gen., cf. v. 694; see on A 65.

Βρισηίδος: see on 1.184, 348.

[690] ἐξείλετο: i.e. received as his “γέρας ἐξαίρετον”, see on 1.124.

[691] Λυρνησσόν: in the Troad, not far from Thebes. Briseïs tells of its capture and destruction, 19.290 ff. See on A 125.

Θήβης: see on 1.366.

[692] κὰδ δ̓ ἔβαλεν: a change to the finite const., after the partic. “διαπορθήσας”, cf. 3.80; see § 1 e.

Μύνητα: king of Lyrnessus, and (acc. to the later story) husband of Briseïs.

ἐγχεσιμώρους: see on v. 604.

[694] τάχα: Achilles is reconciled with Agamemnon, goes forth to battle, and kills Hector, on the 27th day of the action of the Iliad, five days after the events narrated in this Second Book. In other passages his inactivity is called long, cf.Ἀχιλλεὺς ἐξεφάνη, δηρὸν δὲ μάχης ἐπέπαυτ̓ ἀλεγεινῆς Τ” 45 f., 18.125, 248.

695-710. The forces of Protesilaus.

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