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[734] Ὑπέρειαν: this spring seems to be in the mind of Hector when he speaks of the possibility that after the capture of Troy, his wife Andromache will be made, as a slave, to draw water, “καί κεν ὕδωρ φορέ<*>ς Μεσσηίδος Ὑπερείης Ζ” 457.

[735] λευκὰ κάρηνα: gleaming heights, lit. white heads; cf. v. 739. See on v. 117.

[736] Εὐρὐπυλος: a prominent hero. He was among the first to desire to try the single combat with Hector (H 167), and to rally after the rout (8.265). He is to be distinguished from two others of the same name, v. 677 and Od. 11.520.

738-747. The forces of Polypoetes.

[738] “Ἄργισσαν κτλ”.: cities of the Lapithae (see on 1.263), in the western part of what was Perrhaebia in later times.

[739] Ὀλοοσσόνα: the most important city in Perrhaebia.

πόλιν λευκήν: because of its chalk cliffs.

[740] Πολυποίτης: appears 6.29, with Leonteus M 129 ff. (where they are called Lapithae), 182 ff., 23.836 ff.

[741] Πειριθόοιο: see on 1.263.

τέκετο Ζεύς: cf. 14.317 f.

[742] κλυτός: as fem., cf. “κλυτὸς Ἀμφιτρίτη ε” 422. Homer does not use the form “κλυτή”. See on v. 77.

[743] ἤματι τῷ ὅτε: see on 351.

φῆρας: see on A 268.

λαχνήεντας: cf. “ἢν μὲν ἴδωσι κομήτην” (long-haired man) | “ἄγριόν τινα τῶν λασίων” (shaggy) τούτων ... Κενταύροις ᾔκασαν αὑτάς (took the form of centaurs) Arist. Clouds 348 ff.

[744] Πηλίου: Mt. Pelion, south of Mt. Ossa, was celebrated in mythology as the home of the centaurs, esp. of Cheiron (“δικαιότατος Κενταύρων”) who trained the youthful Achilles, “Λ 832.

Αἰθίκεσσι: these dwelt on the slopes of Mt. Pindus, near the sources of the Peneüs.

[745] οὐκ οἶος: const. with “ἡγεμόνευε”, v. 740. — “ἅμα τῷ γε κτλ”.: no conj. connects this with “οὐκ οἶος”, since it is in a kind of appos. with it (see § 2 m), expressing more fully the thought of the first words of the verse (see on A 2).

[746] ὑπερθύμοιο: in a laudatory sense. cf. “υἷας ὑπερθύμους Λαπιθάων αἰχμητάων” (i.e. Polypoetes and Leonteus) M 128.

Καινείδαο: cf. A 264.

748-755. Aenianians and Perrhaebians.

[748] Γουνεύς: only here in Homer.

Κύφου: a city in Northern Thessaly, near a mountain and river of the same name.

[749] “Ἐνιῆνες [Αἰνιᾶνες]”, Περαιβοί: Pelasgian tribes, mentioned only here in Homer. The Aenianians had different abodes at different times.

[750] Δωδώνην: in Epirus at the foot of Mt. Tomaros, although the connection here seems to place it in Thessaly. There was the oldest oracle of the Greeks, where ascetic priests interpreted the rustling of the sacred oak; cf. the prayer of Achilles: “Ζεῦ ἄνα Δωδωναῖε Πελασγικέ, τηλόθι ναίων, Δωδώνης μεδέων δυσχειμέρου, ἀμφὶ δὲ Σελλοὶ σοὶ ναίους᾿ ὑποφῆται” (prophets) “ἀνιπτόποδες” (with unwashen feet) “χαμαιεῦναι” (whose beds are the ground) II 233 ff. No oracles are mentioned in the Iliad; in the Odyssey reference is made to the oracle at Dodonn, Od. 14.327 ff., and to Agamemnon's consultation of Apollo at Pytho (Delphi) Od. 8.79 ff.

οἰκἰ ἔθεντο: built their homes.

[751] ἀμφι: on the banks of.

Τιταρήσιον: later called Europus. It rose on Mt. Titarion, near Mt. Olympus. Perrhaebians dwelt there.

ἔργα: tilled fields; cf. hominumque labores Ovid Met. ii. 404.

[753] ἀργυροδίνῃ: silver-eddying; because of the white waves and eddies of the turbid Peneüs, where the clear Titaresius empties its stream into it. The swift current makes it possible to distinguish for a time the waters of the two streams.

[754] ἀλλά τε: see on 1.82.

ἠύτ̓ ἔλαιον: refers to the water of the one stream flowing above the other.

[755] ὅρκου δεινοῦ: explained by its appos. “Στυγός”. cf. “Στυγὸς ὕδωρ, ὅς τε μέγιστος ὅρκος δεινότατός τε πέλει μακάρεσσι θεοῖσιν ε” 185 f. — This introduces a mythical explanation that gives a miraculous quality to the water.

Στυγός: limits “ὕδατος” as in Od. 5.185, just quoted.

ἀπορρώξ: branch of the water of the Styx, as the Cocytus also is said to be (Od. 10.514). This mysterious connection with the Styx (a stream with a high fall, in Arcadia) was imagined prob. because of its violent current.

756-759. The Magnesians.

[756] Μαγνήτων: a tribe in Northeastern Thessaly. They and Pro<*>hoüs do not appear again in the Iliad.

[757] Πηνειόν: the most important river of Thessaly. It flows into the sea through the beautiful vale of Tempe, between Mts. Olympus and Ossa.

[758] Πρόθοος θοός: the poet puns upon the name, see § 2 c.

760-785. Conclusion of the Catalogue of the Achaean forces.

[760] cf. v. 487.

[761] τίς τ̓ ἄρα: cf. 1.8.

ὄχ̓ ἄριστος: see on “Α 69. — ἔννεπε”: see on v. 484.

[762] “αὐτῶν κτλ”.: cf. v. 466.

ἅμα ἕποντο: cf. 1.158.

[763] μέγα: adv., see on “Α 78. — Φηρητιάδαο”: Admetus; cf. vs. 713 ff. Or this name may be given to Pheres's grandson Eumelus, see on v. 621. In the funeral games in honor of Patroclus, these mares of Eumelus would have won the race but for an accident, 23.376 ff., 532 ff. — This statement is subject to qualification below, “ὄφῤ Ἀχιλεὺς μήνιεν” v. 769, vs. 764-767 being parenthetical.

[764] Ἐύμηλος: see v. 714.

ποδώκεας: this and the following epiths. are attracted to the construction of the rel. clause; cf. “Λαοδίκην Γ 124, Αἰθίοπας τοὶ διχθὰ δεδαίαται, ἔσχατοι ἀνδρῶν α 23, Κύκλωπος κεχόλωται, ὃν ὀφθαλμοῦ ἀλάωσεν, ἀντίθεον Πολύφημον α” 69 f.

ὄρνιθας: for the length of the last syllable, see on v. 190. For the comparison, cf. “θείειν δ̓ ἀνέμοισιν ὁμοῖοι Κ” 437, of the horses of the Thracian Rhesus.

[765] σταφύλῃ ἐίσας: like to a plumb line, “straight as an arrow.” cf. “ἐπὶ σταθμὴν ἴθυνεν ε” 245.

ἐπὶ νῶτον: along, over the back, cf. v. 308.

[766] ἐν Πηρείῃ: prob. the region of Pherae where Apollo served Admetus as herdsman. Angry at the death of Asclepius, Apollo had killed the Cyclopes of Zeus, and as a punishment was sent to serve a mortal; see Euripides's Alcestis ad init. Apollo retained his interest in these mares and sought to secure for them the victory in the chariot race, 23.383 ff.

[767] “φόβον κτλ”.: the flight of Ares attends them. For the ablatival gen., see on v. 396. “φόβος” does not mean mere fright in Homer, see § 2 v.

[768] αὖ: marking the contrast with “ἵπποι μέν” v. 763; cf. “αὖτε” v. 819, “Α 237, Γ 241, αὐτάρ Α 51, 127, 333, Γ 69. — Αἴας”: cf. “Αἴας, ὃς περὶ μὲν εἶδος, περὶ δ̓ ἔργα τέτυκτο τῶν ἄλλων Δαναῶν μετ̓ ἀμύμονα Πηλεΐωνα Π” 279 f.

[770] ἵπποι: these were immortal steeds, sired by Zephyrus, given by Poseidon to Peleus; cf. 16.148 ff., P 443 f.; 23.276 ff.

φορέεσκον: drew; the Homeric heroes did not ride on horseback. Thus “ἵπποι” often stands for horses and chariots; cf. v. 554, 3.265.

[771] = 7.229 f.

ἐν νήεσσι: cf. vs. 688 f. This noun receives the epiths. of ships, although it means camp here.

[772] ἀπομηνίσας: giving vent to his wrath away (“ἀπό”) from the battle-field, equiv. to “ἀπεὼν καὶ μηνίσας”.

[773] λαοί: in contrast with “δ μέν” v. 771, their leader.

774 = “δ 626, ρ 168. — δίσκοισιν”: this contest was not unlike the modern ‘putting the shot.’ The prize was given to him who hurled the discus furthest, Od. 8.186 ff.

αἰγανέῃσιν: dat. of means with “ἱέντες”. The companions of Odysseus have their hunting spears with them, Od. 9.156.

[775] παῤ ἅρμασιν: where they had been tied when released from the yoke, cf. “ἵππους μὲν ἔλυσαν ὑπὸ ξυγοῦ ἱδρώοντας, δῆσαν δ̓ ἱμάντεσσι παῤ ἅρμασιν οἶσιν ἕκαστος Θ” 543 f.; in contrast with “ὑφ̓ ἅρμασι”, where the horses are under the yoke before the chariot, as “Θ 402. — ἕκαστος”: appos., as 1.606.

[776] ἐλεόθρεπτον: grown on moist meadows. — The Homeric horses were fed on “λωτόν” (clover), “σέλινον” (a kind of parsley), “κύπειρον” (a fragrant marsh plant) Od. 4.603, and on “κρῖ λευκόν” (white barley) “Ε 196, πυρός” (wheat) 8.188, and “ὔλυραι Ε” 196 or “ζειαί” (spelt) Od. 4.604.

[777] εὖ πεπυκασμένα: well covered (sc. “πέπλοις”, cf. “δίφροι ... ἀμφὶ δὲ πέπλοι πέπτανται Ε” 193 ff., 8.441), away from the dust.

κεῖτο: lay. When chariots were out of use, their wheels were sometimes removed, cf. 5.722. But “κεῖμαι” is often perf. pass. of “τίθημι. — ἀνάκτων”: of the masters (const. with “ἅρματα”); Achilles and his lieutenants (see on v. 685). The “λαοί” did not fight “ἀφ̓ ἵππων”.

[778] οἱ δέ: the “λαοί” and “ἄνακτες. — ἀρηίφιλον”: only here as epith. of Achilles.

ποθέοντες: cf. v. 703.

[779] “φοίτων [ἐφοίταον] κτλ”.: wandered to and fro, cf. 3.449.

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