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[779]

[780] Return to the narrative which was interrupted by the Catalogue (v. 484); but while, at v. 476, the leaders are busy in arranging their troop<*>, here they are represented as already moving forward for the attack.

οἱ δέ: the Achaeans. — “ὡς εἴ τε κτλ”.: as if the earth were devoured (lit. pastured off) by fire.νέμομαι” is used as pass. only here. The opt. is used to express a mere conception of the mind, cf. “βῆ δ̓ ἴμεν αἰτήσων ... πάντοσε χεῖῤ ὀρέγων, ὡς εἰ πτωχὸς” (beggar) “πάλαι εἴη ρ” 365 f., “ἂψ ἐπέθηχ̓, ὡς εἴ τε φαρέτρῃ” (quiver) “πῶμ̓” (cover) “ἐπιθείη ι” 314. — The comparison relates to the gleam of the armor and weapons, cf. vs. 455 ff.

[781] “The earth trembled as from an earthquake.”

Διὶ ὥς: sc. “στεναχίξει”, — groaned as it groans under Zeus, under the power of Zeus.ὑπὸ ποσσί” v. 784 corresponds to this.

Διί: for the length of the ultima, see on “ὄρνιθας” v. 764, and “Διί” v. 636.

[782] χωομένῳ: in his wrath. An instance of the exhibition of this anger follows.

ὅτε τε: with hypothetical subjv., cf. “ὅτε τε Ζεὺς ἐν φόβον ὄρσῃ Ξ 522. — ἀμφὶ Τυφωέι”: a mighty giant, symbol of volcanic power. He opposed Zeus, but was overcome by the thunderbolt, and was buried under a mountain. From this he belches forth fire. When he attempts to rise, he causes earthquakes; then Zeus smites with his lightning the earth about Typhoeus, i.e. the earth, that which covers him. Pindar, in his first Pythian ode, represents the monster as lying under Mt. Etna, and extending to Mt. Vesuvius. — cf. ‘In bulk as huge | As whom the fables name of monstrous size, | ... Briareos [ A 403] or Typhon, whom the den | By ancient Tarsus held.’ Milton Par. Lost i. 196 ff.

[783] εἰν Ἀρίμοις: in the land of the Arimi, in Cilicia. This belongs to the so-called ‘earthquake belt.’ cf. durumque cubile | Inarime Iovis imperiis imposta Typhoeo Verg. Aen. ix. 715 f.

εὐνάς: couch.

[784] cf. scuta sonant pulsuque pedum conterrita tellus Verg. Aen. vii. 722.

785 = 3.14. cf. “Ψ 364. — διέπρησσον”: intrans., advanced.

πεδίοιο: local gen., on the plain; cf. v. 801. The acc. is used with no essential difference of meaning, 1.483.

[786] Vs. 786-877. The forces of the Trojans.

ποδήνεμος: Iris is “ἀελλόπος Θ” 409 storm-footed; cf. 10.437 quoted on v. 764. — “ὠκέα [ὠκεῖα]”: for the inflection, see § 20 c.

Ἶρις: the gods' messenger in the Iliad for all that pertains to war, while Hermes bears the messages of peaceful life. See also 3.121.

[787] πὰρ Διός: const. with “ἦλθε”, cf. “ὠκέα Ἶρις ἄγγελος ἦλθε θέους᾿ ἀπ̓ Ὀλύμπου Σ” 166 f., (“Ἶρις”) “Διὸς ἄγγελος Ω 169, Διόθεν δέ μοι ἄγγελος ἦλθεν Ω” 561.

[788] ἀγορὰς ἀγόρευον: were holding an assembly, cf. “πόλεμον πολεμίξειν Γ 435, βουλὰς βουλεύειν Κ 147. — ἐπὶ Πριάμοιο θύρῃσιν”: at the gates of Priam; i.e. before the palace, where acc. to oriental custom the king sat in judgment. cf. (“ἀγορὴ γένετο”) “παρὰ Πριάμοιο θύρῃσιν Η” 346, ‘Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates’ Deut. xvi. 18.

[789] πάντες: i.e. all the nobles; it is limited by the circumstances of the case. — No special “βουλή” (cf. v. 53) of the Trojans is mentioned. The gathering of chiefs 10.300 was only a council of war.

[790] 790 = “Γ 129, Λ 199, Ω 87. — προσέφη”: sc. “μίν” (referring to Priam), as v. 172. cf. v. 795.

[791] φθογγήν: at first only the similarity of voice receives prominence, as “Ν 216, Υ” 81, in close connection of thought with “προσέφη”. But here, as in the other cases, a transformation of the whole person is to be assumed; hence “ἐεισαμένη” v. 795 without the addition of “φθογγήν”. The contents of the speech, however, cause Hector to recognize the goddess, v. 807.

[792] “ποδωκείῃσι κτλ”.: equiv. to “ποσὶ κραιπνοῖσι πεποιθώς Ζ” 505. For the plural, cf. “προθυμίῃσι” v. 588.

[793] “τύμβῳ κτλ”.: on the top of the mound. This mound of Aesyetes was at the extremity of the ridge south of Ilium Novum. His son Alcathoüs married the daughter of Anchises (N 427).

[794] δέγμενος ὁππότε: exspectans dum, generally followed by the aor. opt., as “δέγμενος ... ὁπότε λήξειεν ἀείδων Ι” 191, cf. “ποτιδέγμενοι ὁππότ̓ ἄῤ ἔλθοι Ἰδαῖος Η” 415 f.

ναῦφιν: ablatival gen. with “ἀφορμηθεῖεν”. For the form, see § 15, a, b.

[795] τῷ μιν ἐεισάμενη: cf. v. 22, “Π 720, Ρ 326, 585, Υ 82, ζ 24. — μίν”: i.e. Priam; const. with “προσέφη”. This verse repeats the sum of vs. 790 f., because of the interposed clauses.

[796] γέρον: as 24.411, 460, 683, in addressing Priam. Elsewhere this beginning of the verse is addressed to Nestor.

αἰεί τοι: cf. 1.107, 177, 541.

φίλοι: pred.

ἄκριτοι: cf. v. 246. Iris blames Priam's untimely unconcern.

[797] “πόλεμος δὲ κτλ”.: contrast (paratactic, § 3 q) with “ἐπ̓ εἰρήνηςin time of peace.

ἀλίαστος: cf. v. 420.

[798] δή: equiv. to “ἤδη. — πολλά”: cognate acc. with “εἰσήλυθον”. It does not differ greatly from “πολλάκις”. — For the form of the contrast, cf. 3.184 ff., “αἰεὶ μὲν Τρώεσς᾿ ἐπιμίσγομαι ... ἀλλ̓ οὔ πω τοίους ἵππους ἴδον Κ” 548 ff., Od. 4.267 ff., Od. 11.416 ff.

[799] cf. v. 120.

[800] ἐοικότες: sc. in number. cf. v. 468. — cf. ‘I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the seashore,’ Genesis xxii. 17. — “”: in a comparison where the poet leaves the choice open; cf. “Πηνελόπεια Ἀρτέμιδι ἰκέλη ἠὲ χρυσέῃ Ἀφροδίτῃ ρ” 36 f.

[801] προτὶ ἄστυ: const. with “ἔρχονται”.

[802] Ἕκτορ: Iris turns to address Hector as the commander-in-chief, on whom above all others depends the weal of the state; cf. “οἶος γὰρ ἐρύετο” (guarded) “Ἴλιον Ἔκτωρ Ζ 403, οἶος γάρ σφιν ἔρυσο πύλας καὶ τείχεα μακρά Χ 507, μοι” (sc. Hecuba) “νύκτας τε καὶ ἦμαρ εὐχωλὴ κατὰ ἄστυ πελέσκεο, πᾶσί τ̓ ὄνειαρ Τρωσί τε καὶ Τρωῇσι κατὰ πτόλιν, οἵ σε θεὸν ὣς δειδέχατο Χ” 432 ff. Hector was the mightiest of the fifty sons of Priam, 24.495 ff. In Z is the account of an affectionate meeting of Hector and his wife Andromache; in H, Hector fights in single combat with Telamonian Ajax; he breaks his way through the gates of the Greek camp, M 445 ff.; he is grievously wounded by Ajax, 14.402 ff., but Apollo restores his strength, and he returns to the conflict, 15.246 ff., and advances to the very ships of the Achaeans, 16.114 ff.; he slays Patroclus, the friend of Achilles, 16.818 ff.; he is himself slain by Achilles, 22.330. The Twentyfourth Book tells the story of Priam's visit to the Achaean camp to ransom Hector's body. The last verse of the Iliad is “ὣς οἵ γ̓ ἀμφίεπον τάφον Ἕκτορος ἱπποδάμοιο Ω 804. — δέ”: for the order of words, see on A 282.

ὧδέ γε: const. with “ῥέξαι”. It refers to what follows; cf. 3.442.

[803] “πολλοὶ κτλ”.: explanatory preparation for v. 805. For the thought, cf. vs. 130 f.

[804] cf. “οὐ γὰρ πάντων” (sc. “Τρώων ἠδ̓ ἐπικούρων”) “ἦεν ὁμὸς θρόος” (shout) “οὐδ̓ ἴα γῆρυς” (voice), | “ἀλλὰ γλῶσς᾿ ἐμέμικτο, πολύκλητοι δ̓ ἔσαν ἄνδρες Δ” 437 f., Od. 19.175 (quoted on v. 645).

πολυσπερέων: wide-spread, far-scattered, like “πολύκλητοι” of 4.438.

[805] τοῖσιν: to these; antec. of the following rel. No conj. is used to connect this with what has preceded, since this is in a kind of appos. with “ὧδέ γε ῥέξαι”. For the dat., cf. “Τρωσί” v. 816. Each is to give orders to his countrymen, as usual. This indicates the separation into tribes (accomplished v. 815) corresponding to that of the Greeks, vs. 362 f.

[806] τῶν δ̓ ἐξηγείσθω: and let him lead these forth, sc. from the city to the field of battle.

πολιήτας: his fellow-citizens; without any political meaning; equiv. to “οἷσί περ ἄρχει”. This measure is intended esp. for the great number of Trojan allies.

[807] “οὔ τι κτλ”.: by no means failed to recognize (i.e. he recognized clearly) the speech of the goddess, he recognized the goddess herself. For the litotes, see on 1.220, § 2 r.

[808] ἐπὶ τεύχεα: to fetch their arms; like Att. “μετὰ τεύχεα”, cf. “ἐπὶ βοῦν ἴτω γ” 421 fetch a heifer.

[809] 809 = 8.58.

πᾶσαι πύλαι: the whole gate, — the Scaean (3.145) or Dardanian (5.789) gates, leading from the city to the plain. Homer does not mention any other gates of the city. “πύλαι” is always plural in Homer, of one gate with two wings or doors (“σανίδες”).

810 = “Θ 59, ω” 70. The second hemistich also “Δ 449, Θ 63. — ἱππῆες”: cf. “ἱππότα” v. 336; not mounted like the Attic “ἱππῆς”.

[811] ἔστι δέ τις: a favorite Epic beginning of a description, cf. “ἔστι δέ” “τις Θρυόεσσα πόλις Λ 711, ἔστι δέ τις ποταμὸς κτλ. Λ 722, ἔστι δέ τι σπέος Ν” 32, cf. “ἔστι πόλις Ἐφύρη Ζ” 152, urbs antiqua fuit Verg. Aen. i. 12.

πόλιος: disyllabic by synizesis; see § 7. The ultima is long before the caesural pause; see § 41 p.

[812] ἀπάνευθε: aside, sc. from the principal road.

περίδρομος: i.e. freelying, lying in an open place. cf. “περίδρομοι ἀμφοτέρωθεν Ε 726. — ἔνθα κτλ”.: see on v. 397.

[813] Βατίειαν: rubeta, Thornhill.

[814] “ἀθάνατοι κτλ”.: for the language of the gods, see on “Α 403. — σῆμα”: such a tomb as that of v. 604.

πολυσκάρθμοιο: agile, sc. in battle; cf. “ἐύσκαρθμοι φέρον ἵπποι Ν” 31.

Μυρίνης: perhaps one of the Amazons mentioned 3.189.

[815] διέκριθεν: see on v. 805; cf. vs. 475 f.

816-877. The Trojans and their Allies. The force opposed to the Achaeans is composed of sixteen contingents: I. five contingents from Trojan peoples (vs. 816-839), and II. eleven contingents of allies (“ἐπίκουροι”, vs. 840-877). Of the allies, three divisions come from Europe, and eight from Asia. I. Trojans from (a) Ilios, (b) Dardania, (c) Zelea, (d) Adrastea, (e) Percote etc.; II. Allies (from Europe), (a) Thracians, (b) Ciconians, (c) Paeonians; (from Asia), (a) Pelasgians, (b) Paphlagonians, (c) Halizonians, (d) Mysians, (e) Phrygians, (f) Maeonians, (g) Carians, (h) Lydians.

The catalogue of the Trojans is far less exact and detailed than that of the Achaeans; it contains no definite statements of number. The total number of Trojans and allies was 50,000, acc. to 8.562 f.: ‘A thousand fires were kindled on the plain, and by each sat fifty men.’ Of these about 12,000 were Trojans, if vs. 123130 are to be interpreted literally. The Catalogue does not name the “Λέλεγες” and “Καύκωνες” (“Κ 429, Υ 329, Φ” 86). In “Κ 434, λ” 519-522, other troops are mentioned as reinforcements.

816-839. The Trojans.

[816] Τρωσί: in the narrower sense, the inhabitants of the city “Ἴλιος. — μέγας”: of stature. The Greeks were prone to believe that no man could be physically small, but mentally great. cf. v. 653.

κορυθαίολος: as epith. of Ares, 20.38; elsewhere only of Hector, as 3.324. Helmet-waving, a mark of martial activity, cf. et cristam adverso curru quatit aura volantem Verg. Aen. xii. 370. — The last half of this verse is found twelve times in the Iliad.

[817] “πλεῖστοι κτλ”.: as the flower of the whole army.

[818] μεμα_ότες: as “Ν 197, Π” 754, elsewhere “μεμα^ῶτες” as v. 543; see § 41 d. Only here with the simple dat., striving forward with the lance, i.e. eager for the fray.

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