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[818]

[819] Δαρδανίων: adj. as subst.; “inhabitants of the district Dardania,” cf. (“Δάρδανος, υἱὸς Διὸς”) “κτίσσε δὲ Δαρδανίην, ἐπεὶ οὔ πω Ἴλιος ἵρη ἐν πεδίῳ πεπόλιστο Υ” 216 f. Dardanus was grandfather of Tros, who gave his name to the district “Τροίη” (v. 162, 3.74); while Tros in turn was the father of Ilus, who gave his name to the city “Ἴλιος” and was father of Laomedon and grandfather of Priam. See 20.215 f. The Dardanians are second in rank to the Trojans; cf. “Τρῶες καὶ Δάρδανοι ἠδ̓ ἐπίκουροι Γ” 456. Elsewhere they are called “Δάρδανοι”, but only in the two oft-recurring verses, “Γ 456, Τρῶες καὶ Λύκιοι καὶ Δάρδανοι ἀγχιμαχηταί Θ” 173; they are also called “Δαρδανίωνες”, as 7.414; the women are called “Δαρδανίδες”, as 18.339. The name is preserved in the modern ‘Dardanelles.’

αὖτε: correl. with “μέν” v. 816, see on v. 768.

Ἀγχίσαο: Anchises is nowhere referred to by Homer as alive at the time of this war.

[820] Αἰνείας: the hero of the Aeneid. He is a third cousin of Hector. He was severely wounded by Diomed, E 305 ff., but was rescued by his mother Aphrodite, and healed by Apollo in his temple, 5.445 ff.; he led one of the battalions against the wall of the Achaeans, 12.98; he met Achilles, and would have been slain by him, but for the intervention of Poseidon, who saved him that the race of Dardanus might not be entirely destroyed, “νῦν δὲ δὴ Αἰνείαο βίη Τρώεσσιν ἀνάξει καὶ παίδων παῖδες Υ” 307 f.

Ἀφροδίτη: in this word “φρ” cannot be allowed to make the preceding vowel long by metrical position; for it would give ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯, which could not be introduced in dactylic verse. See §41 i a.

[821] Ἴδης: a lofty mountain-chain in the Troad, stretching from northwest to southeast, with many projecting shoulders.

ἐν κνημοῖσι: where Anchises had charge of the herds and herdsmen; cf. “ μιν” (Aeneas) “ὑπ̓ Ἀγχίσῃ τέκε βουκολέοντι Ε” 313. It was one of the patriarchal customs of those times that kings and kings' sons tended their flocks on the slopes of the mountains, cf. 6.25, 424.

θεὰ βροτῷ: for the antithesis, cf. “οἷον δή νυ θεοὺς βροτοὶ αἰτιόωνται α” 32.

[822] ἅμα τῷ γε: cf. v. 745, 12.99.

Ἀντήνορος: Antenor was the Trojan Nestor, and father of many doughty sons, of whom nine are mentioned in the Iliad, besides the two following. Seven of the eleven sons were slain in the battles of the Iliad. He advocated the restoration of Helen and her treasures, 7.350 ff.; he received Menelaus and Odysseus at his house when they came to Troy as embassadors, 3.205 ff.; he accompanied Priam to the field to strike a truce, 3.262. cf. 3.148.

823 = M 100.

Ἀρχέλοχος: slain by Ajax, 14.463 ff.

Ἀκάμας: slain by Meriones, 16.342 ff.

μάχης πάσης: every kind of battle, — on foot or in the chariot, with lance or sword. For the gen., see on v. 718.

[824] δέ: for the short vowel before following “ζ”, see on v. 465.

Ζέλειαν: also called “Ζέλη” (cf. “Ἀθηναίη” and “Ἀθήνη”), on the frontier of Mysia.

ὑπαί: see on “παραί” v. 711.

πόδα νείατον: i.e. the northern slope. For the acc., cf. v. 603.

[825] ἀφνειοί: because of the welltilled farms, acc. to Strabo. — “πίνοντες κτλ”.: this expression was often imitated; cf. “τᾶς” (“Θήβας”) “ἐρατεινὸν ὕδωρ πίομαι” Pind. Ol. vi. 85, extremum Tanain si biberes, Lyce Hor. Carm. iii. 10. 1, non qui profundum Danubium bibunt | edicta rumpent Iulia id. iv. 15. 21 f., exsul | aut Ararim Parthus bibet, aut Germania Tigrim Verg. Ecl. i. 62 f.

μέλαν: this epith. is applied to springs and rivers, as well as to the sea, when the surface is disturbed by breezes in such a way as to prevent a clear reflection of the sun's light.

[826] Τρῶες: in the broader sense, the inhabitants of the country.

[827] Πάνδαρος: he broke the truce of the Third Book, by shooting an arrow at Menelaus, 4.89 ff.; he was slain by Diomed, 5.290 ff.

καί: see on “Α 249. — τόξον κτλ”.: i.e. Apollo gave him skill with the bow; cf. “τόξον τοι” (Teucer) “πόρε Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων” O 441, laetus Apollo | augurium citharamque dabat, celeresque sagittas Verg. Aen. xii. 393 f. The ancients believed that the bow of an excellent archer must be the gift of the god of the bow. The making of the bow of Pandarus, from the horns of a wild goat shot by himself, is described 4.105-111.

[828] Ἀδρήστειαν: received its name from Adrestus, v. 830. Like the following cities, it lay in what was Mysia in later times.

δῆμον: the country, as v. 547.

Ἀπαισοῦ: seems to be the “Παισός” of 5.612.

[829] Πιτύειαν: received its name from the neighboring pine forests; as the neighboring Lampsacus was called “Πιτυοῦσα. — Τηρείης”: a mountainous region near Cyzicus.

[830] Ἀμφίος: the penult is long also 5.612. Amphius and Adrestus were slain by Diomed, 11.328 ff.

λινοθώρηξ: perhaps as an archer; see on v. 529.

831-834 = “Λ 329-332. — υἱὲ δύω”: see on 1.16.

Περκωσίου: he seems to have lived formerly in Percote (v. 835); or Adrastea may have been a colony from Percote.

περὶ πάντων: see on A 258.

[832] “ᾔδεε κτλ”.: Homer knows of no professional soothsayers: Calchas (A 69), Helenus (Z 76), Ennomus (v. 858), Melampus (Od. 15.225), Halitherses (Od. 2.157), — all are introduced as busy in different ways, in war and in peace.

οὐδέ: for the lengthened ultima before the possessive pron., see § 41 m.

οὐδὲ ἔασκεν: ‘resistance to pressure’ is implied in the impf.; he continually refused his consent.

[833] φθισήνορα: a standing epith. of the battle, as “Ι 604, Λ” 331; only in the acc. cf. “μάχη φθισίμβροτος Ν 339, Ἄρης βροτολοιγός Ε” 518.

[834] “κῆρες γὰρ κτλ”.: cf. “ἀλλά μοῖρα ἦγ̓ ἐπικουρήσοντα μετὰ Πρίαμόν τε καὶ υἷας Ε” 613 f., “τὸν δ̓ ἄγε μοῖρα κακὴ θανάτοιο τέλοσδε Ν 602, τὸν κῆρες ἔβαν θάνατοιο φέρουσαι εἰς Ἀίδαο δόμους ξ” 207 f.

μέλανος: cf. “θανάτου δὲ μέλαν νέφος ἀμφεκάλυψεν Π 350, τὸν δὲ σκότος ὄσσε κάλυψεν Δ 461, ἀμφὶ δὲ ὄσσε κελαινὴ νὺξ ἐκάλυψεν Ε 310, τὼ δέ οἱ ὄσσε νύξ ἐκάλυψε μέλαινα Ξ” 438 f., “ἐρεβεννὴ νὺξ ἐκάλυψεν Ν 580, στυγερὸς δ̓ ἄρα μιν σκότος εἷλεν Ν” 672.

[835] ἄρα: as v. 522.

Περκώτην: Percote, Abydus, and Arisbe, were cities on the south side of the Hellespont.

Πράκτιον: a stream which empties into the Hellespont between Lampsacus and Abydus.

[836] Σηστόν: on the Thracian Chersonese, opposite Abydus. Here Xerxes bridged the Hellespont, Hdt. vii. 33. Here, too, Leander of Abydus swam the Hellespont to visit his love, Hero, the priestess of Sestus.

[837] Ἄσιος: one of the leaders in the attack on the Achaean camp, 12.95 ff.; slain by Idomeneus, 13.384 ff. He is to be distinguished from his ‘homonym’ Asius, a Phrygian prince, brother of Priam's wife Hecuba.

[838] = 12.96 f.

Ἄσιος: for the repetition of the name, see on v. 671.

840-877. The Allies of the Trojans.

[840] Ἱππόθοος: slain by Ajax, 17.288 ff.

Πελασγῶν: a part settled in Greece proper, a part must have remained in Asia Minor. They gave to many of their towns the name Larisa (rock-citadel). The geographer Stephanus of Byzantium enumerates ten towns of this name, besides the citadel Larissa of Argos. Strabo (xiii. 620) enumerates three in Asia Minor: one in sight of Ilios, another near Ephesus, and a third near Cyme; he holds the last to be the one in the poet's mind here, because of 17.301 where Ilippothous falls “τῆλ̓ ὀπὸ Λαρίσης ἐριβώλακος”.

[842] Πυλαῖος: mentioned only here in Homer.

[844] The following enumeration of allies has a radial arrangement, preceding from Troy as the centre and starting-point. Each radius ends with a “τηλόθεν” (vs. 849, 857, 877) or “τῆλε” (v. 863) for the most distant point from Troy. I. European line, (vs. 844-850). II. Northeast of Troy, on the southern shore of the Euxine sea (vs. 851-857). III. Southeast of Troy (vs. 858-863). IV. South of Troy (vs. 864-877).

Θρήικας: European Thracians, dwelling between the Hebrus and the Hellespont.

ἦγε for the sing., see on v. 512.

Ἀκάμας: slain by Ajax, 6.8 ff.

Πείροος: slain by Thoas, 4.527 ff.

[845] Ἑλλήσποντος: the Hellespont in Homer includes also the neighboring waters.

ἀγάρροος: with strong stream. It is called a “ποταμός” in Hdt. vii. 35. No current of the Mediterranean compares with that of the Hellespont.

ἐντὸς ἐέργει: as v. 617.

[846] Εὔφημος: mentioned only here. Mentes is leader of the “Κίκονες, Π” 73.

Κικόνων: Odysseus destroyed their city, after leaving Troy, Od. 9.39 ff. They are mentioned among the Thracian nations through whose country Xerxes passed, Hdt. vii. 110.

[847] Κεάδαο: patronymic from “Κέας”.

[848] Πυραίχμης: (with lance of fire), slain by Patroclus, 16.287 ff. Elsewhere “Ἀστεροπαῖος” (the man of lightning) is named as leader of the Paeonians, as “Π 351. — Παίονας”: akin to the Trojans; cf. “εἴη δὲ Παιωνίη ἐπὶ τῷ Στρυμόνι ποταμῷ πεπολισμένη, ... εἴησαν δὲ Τευκρῶν τῶν ἐκ Τροίης ἄποικοι” Hdt. v. 13.

ἀγκυλοτόξους: as 10.428 (also of the Paeonians), cf. “Μήδειοι ἀγκυλότοξοι” Pind. Pyth. i. 78; “ἀγκύλα τόξα Ε” 209. Elsewhere the Paeonians are called “ἱπποκορυσταί” (21.205) or “δολιχεγχέες” (21.155).

[849] cf. 16.288.

850 = “Φ 158. — Ἀξίου”: for the repetition, see on v. 671. The Axius is one of the chief rivers of Macedonia, west of the Strymon. Homer applies to it the epiths. “εὺρυρέεθρος Φ” 141 and “βαθοδίνης Φ” 143.

κάλλιστον: pred. “Whose water is the most beautiful that” etc. A similar expression is used of the Enipeus, “ὃς πολὺ κάλλιστος” “ποταμῶν ἐπὶ γαῖαν ἵησιν λ” 239. The water of the Axius is now muddy.

[851] Here the poet returns to Asia. See on 816-877. — “Πυλαιμένεος κτλ”.: equiv. to “the shaggy-breasted Pylaemenes.” For the periphrasis, cf. v. 387, “Γ 105, ὦρσε Πατροκλῆος λάσιον κῆρ Π” 554. He was slain by Menelaus, 5.576 ff., but nevertheless follows the corpse of his son from the battle-field, “Ν 658! — λάσιον κῆρ”: see on 1.189. Here the epith. is transferred to the heart itself.

[852] ἐξ Ἐνετῶν: out of the midst of the Enetians, where he dwelt; equiv. to “Ἐνετήιος”. In later times these “Ἐνετοί” were called Veneti; they were said to have wandered to the coast of the Adriatic sea.

ἀγροτεράων: for the comparative ending, with no thought of greater or less degree, see § 22 c.

[853] Κύτωρον: in later times the mart of Sinope.

Σήσαμον: afterwards called Amastris, a small river on the coast of Paphlagonia.

[854] κλυτά: magnificent; a standing epith.

[855] Κρῶμναν: the later Amastris in Paphlagonia, on a river of the same name.

Ἐρυθίνους: the city received its name from its two red cliffs, see on v. 647. The red chalk of this region was much prized in ancient times.

[856] cf. v. 517.

Ἁλιξώνων: only here and E 39, where Odius is slain by Agamemnon. They were called “Χάλυβες” (cf. “Ἀλύβη”, see v. 857) in later times; to the east of Pontus.

Ἐπίστροφος: only here.

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