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[858] Μυσῶν: south of the Propontis, east of the Aesepus, towards Bithynia. They are mentioned as Trojan allies, “Κ 430, Ξ 512, Ω” 278. Thracian Mysians are mentioned “Ν 5. — Χρόμις”: called also “Χρόμιος, Π” 218 etc., just as Alcimedon is called also Alcimus, see § 21 e.

[859] οὐκ: placed emphatically before “οἰωνοῖσιν”, with reference to the preceding “οἰωνιστής”. cf. (“υἱέας ὀνειροπόλοιο γέροντος”) “τοῖς οὐκ ἐρχομένοις γέρων ἐκρίνατ̓ ὀνείρους Ε 150, Ἴδμονα, μαντοσύνῃσι κεκασμένονͅ ἀλλά μιν οὔ τι μαντοσύναι ἐσάωσαν ἐπεὶ χρεὼ ἦγε δαμῆναι” Ap. Rhod. ii. 818 f., gratissimus augur; | sed non augurio potuit depellere pestem Verg. Aen. ix. 327 f.

οἰωνοῖσιν: by omens, from the flight of birds. See on 1.69.

860 = v. 874.

ὑπὸ χερσί: “ὑπό” with the dat. is freq. used by Homer where the Attic used “ὑπό” with the gen., cf. 3.436. See § 3 h.

Αἰακίδαο: for the use of the patronymic, see on v. 621.

[861] ἐν ποταμῷ: as v. 875. The story of the general slaughter by Achilles in the bed of the Scamander is told 21.17 ff., but the names of the slain are not given there.

ὅθι περ: just where.

[862] Φόρκυς: appears again 17.218; he is slain by Ajax, P 312 ff.

Φρύγας: on the river Sangarius. They were famed for their chariots and their vineyards, 3.184 ff.; they had commercial relations with the Trojans, 18.291 f. Vergil calls the Trojans Phrygians, but this is not Homeric, cf. alma Venus Phrygii Simoentis ad undam Verg. Aen. i. 618.

Ἀσκάνιος: to be distinguished from the Ascanius of N 792, who arrived at the scene of the war a day or two later than the events recorded in this Second Book. Homer knows of no son of Aeneas. The boy Ascanius was invented later as a companion-piece to Hector's son Astyanax.

[863] Ἀσκανίης: in Bithynia, on a lake of the same name on which lay also the later Nicaea.

μέμασαν δέ: instead of a partic. or rel. clause, see § 3 q.

ὑσμῖνι: local dat. Synony-<*> mous with “μάχη, πόλεμος, δηιοτής”.

[864] Μήοσιν: later called Lydians. They inhabited an attractive land, 3.401; they were equipped with chariots, 10.431; they traded with the Trojans, 18.291 f.; their women were skilled in purple dyeing, 4.141 ff.

Μέσθλης: appears again 17.216.

Ἄντιφος: only here; another Antiphus, v. 678.

ἡγησάσθην: see on v. 620.

[865] Γυγαίη λίμνη: i.e. the nymph of that lake, cf. “νύμφη νηίς Ζ 21, Ξ 444, Υ” 384. All of these nymphs belong to Western Asia Minor, which was thought to be the favorite abode of the nymphs. — cf. “λίμνη δὲ ἔχεται τοῦ σήματος” (sc. of Alyattes) “μεγάλη, ... καλέεται δὲ αὕτη Γυγαίη” Hdt. i. 93.

[866] καί: also, marks the agreement with v. 864, see on v. 249.

[867] Νάστης: he and his brother and their father are mentioned only here.

Καρῶν: mentioned only incidentally, “Κ 428. — βαρβαροφώνων”: rough-voiced, refers to the harshness of their dialect, as “ἀγριοφώνους θ” 294. The word “βάρβαρος” for non-Greek, foreigner, is not found in Homer, just as the poet has no one word for ‘all Greece.’

[868] Μίλητον: this old Carian city became the largest Ionian city and the mother of 80 colonies, but lost much of its importance in the insurrection against the Persians, 494 B.C.

[869] Μυκάλης: at the foot of this mountain the Persians were defeated, 479 B.C.

[870] ἄρα: so, as I said, refers back to v. 867.

[871] “Νάστης κτλ”.: repeated from the preceding verse, in the reverse order; see on v. 671.

[872] ος: refers to the principal person, “Νάστης” v. 867.

καί: marks the agreement with “ἀγλαὰ τέκνα” v. 871, cf. v. 866.

χρυσὸν ἔχων: with gold ornaments, prob. the gold spirals used in fastening his long hair, cf. “πλοχμοί θ̓” (braids of hair) “οἳ χρυσῷ τε καὶ ἀργύρῳ ἐσφήκωντο” (were gathered up) 17.52. See on v. 11. cf. “χρυσέη” as an epith. of Aphrodite, “Γ 64. χρυσόν” here cannot refer to gold armor such as that of Glaucus (6.236), Nestor (8.193), or Achilles (18.475), since that was an honor and no reproach. Nastes was the Trojan Nireus (vs. 671 ff.).

ἠύτε κούρη: like a vain girl.

[873] νήπιος: see on v. 38. — “οὐδὲ κτλ”.: cf. “νήπιος, οὐδέ τί οἱ χραισμήσει λυγρὸν ὄλεθρον Υ” 296.

874 = v. 860.

[875] ἐκόμισσε: carried off as booty, cf. 3.378.

[876] Σαρπηδών: second only to Hector; the bravest leader of the allies, regarded by the Trojans as “ἑρμα πόληος Π” 549 prop of the city. He was son of Zeus and Laodamia, Bellerophon's daughter, 6.198 f. He led in the attack on the Achaean camp, M 101, 292 ff., 397 ff. He was slain by Patroclus, 16.480 ff. At the command of Zeus, Apollo bathed his corpse, anointed it with ambrosia and gave it to the twin brothers, Sleep and Death, to convey to Lycia, 16.667 ff.

Γλαῦκος: Glaucus tells of his race, Z 145 ff. He was first cousin of Sarpedon and grandson of Bellerophon, descended from Sisyphus of Corinth. He is associated with Sarpedon in the battles. He has a famous meeting with Diomed, 6.119 ff. He was wounded by Teucer, 12.387 ff. The honors received by the two Lycian heroes at home, are enumerated by Sarpedon, 12.310. — The name ‘Lycia’ is given by the poet also to the district from which Pandarus (v. 827) comes, cf. 5.105. From those Trojan Lycians, the Southern Lycians of Sarpedon are to be distinguished.

[877] Ξάνθου: mentioned also “Ε 479, Μ” 313; to be distinguished from the Trojan river “ὃν Ξάνθον καλέουσι θεοί, ἄνδρες δὲ Σκάμανδρον Υ” 74

Instead of the general battle which was to be expeeted from the preparations of the Second Book, a duel is fought between Menelaus and Paris. This duel is intended by the combatants to put an end to the entire war.

In the Third Book, the poet gives to his hearers a view of the state of affairs in Troy, as the preceding Books had taught of the relations existing between the Achaeans, both leaders and men.

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