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Book 3 (Γ

Vs. 1-75. The advance of both armies. Paris and Menelaus meet. Hector's rebuke and the answer of Paris.

1-14. A transition to the scene of the approaching conflict.

This verse refers to 2.476, 815.

ἕκαστοι: i.e. the separate divisions of each army. The sing. would have been used of individuals; see on A 606.

[2] Τρῶες: i.e. Trojans and their allies; as 2.826, not as “Β 816. — κλαγγῇ κτλ”.: with clamor and outcry; one idea, expressed for emphasis by two synonymous nouns; cf. “Α 492, Β” 339, v. 242, “κακότητι καὶ ἄλγεσι υ 203, ἔρις καὶ νεῖκος ὄρηται υ 267, σθένεός τε καὶ ἀλκῆς πειρήτιζεν χ” 237; see § 1 s.

ὄρνιθες ὥς: cf. 2.764, see on 2.190. This comparison is made definite by a special illustration.—The Achaeans silent in the consciousness of their power are contrasted with the noisy Trojans. Elsewhere also the Trojans are represented as exercising less selfrestraint, as less disciplined than the Greeks. When the strife is renewed, 4.429 ff., the Achaeans advance in solemn silence, while the Trojans come to meet them with the noise of a flock of sheep. The Achaeans shout once, in panic flight, 17.759.

[3] ἠύτε: see on 2.87.

οὐρανόθι πρό: the adv. “πρό” makes “οὐρανόθι” more definite. To the observer, the sky seems to be behind the cranes in their lofty flight, see on 2.456. — cf. quales sub nubibus atris | Strymoniae dantsigna grues, atque aethera tranant | cum sonitu, fugiuntque notos clamore secundo Verg. Aen. x. 264 ff., ‘As multitudinous on the ocean line | As cranes upon the cloudless Thracian wind,’ Shelley, Hellas.

[4] ἐπεὶ οὖν: as “Α 57. — χειμῶνα”: cf. “γέρανοι δὲ φεύγουσαι χειμῶνα τὸν ἐν τῇ Σκυθικῇ χώρῃ γινόμενον, φοιτέουσι ἐς χειμασίην” (winter quarters) “ἐς τοὺς τόπους τούσδε” (of the Nile) Hdt. ii. 22, quam multae glomerantur aves, ubi frigidus annus | trans portum fugat, et terris immittit apricis Verg. Aen. vi. 311 f.

φύγον: for the gnomic aor. in comparisons, cf. vs. 10, 23, 33; see § 2 k.

[5] κλαγγῇ: contains the real point of the comparison; vs. 6 f. are added simply to complete the picture, see § 2 e.

ταί γε: repeats the subj., “αἵ τε” v. 4. See on “Α 97. — ἐπὶ κτλ”.: toward the currents etc., i.e. toward the South; see on 1.423.

[6] ἀνδράσι: made prominent in contrast with the cranes. “ἀνήρ” often stands in attributive connection with nouns, cf. “ἄνδρες στρατιῶται, ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, κτλ”. See § 1 u.

Πυγμαίοισι: these Liliputians (lit. Fistlings) on the southern shore of the Mediterranean, were attacked yearly by the cranes, acc. to the common story. For the mythical trait in a comparison, cf. B 782. — cf. ‘that small infantry | Warr'd on by cranes’ Milton Par. Lost i. 575. — “φόνον κτλ”.: cf. “Β 352, ἵκηται δηιοτῆτα φέρων ζ 203, Π” 757.

[7] ἠέριαι: see on 1.497; i.e. on the day after their arrival in the land.

κακήν: destructive, as 1.10; sc. to the Pygmies. — “ἔριδα κτλ”.: offer (lit. bring forward) strife; cf.ἔριδα προφέρουσαι ξ” 92 “in rivalry,” “ἔριδυ προβαλόντες Λ” 529.

[8] οἱ δ̓ ἄρα: correlative with “Τρῶες μέν” v. 2.

ἴσαν σιγῇ: cf. “οὐ γὰρ κραυγῇ ἀλλὰ σιγῇ ... καὶ ἡσυχῇ ... προσῇσαν” Xen. An. i. 8. 11.

μένεα πνείοντες: see on 2.536. — cf. ‘Thus they | Breathing united force with fixed thought | Moved on in silence,’ Milton Par. Lost i. 559 ff.

[9] ἐν θυμῷ: emphatic; in heart, though they did not shout. cf. 2.223.

[10] εὖτε: generally a temporal particle; here and 19.386, a comparative conj., as, like “ἠύτε” v. 3. “As the South wind veils the mountain tops with mist.”

[11] “οὔ τι φίλην κτλ”.: since the shepherd on the mountains in a thick mist cannot easily watch and guard his flock.

νυκτὸς ἀμείνω: perhaps because the sheep were usually shut up in their fold at night.

[12] τόσσον, ὅσον: acc. of extent, with “ἐπί”, cf. “Β 616. — τέ, τέ”: these mark the correlation of the clauses; see on 1.82. — Distances are thus measured in Homer: as the cast of a spear (“δουρηνεκές Κ 357, δουρὸς ἐρωή Ο” 358), or of a discus (“δίσκου οὖρα Ψ” 431), or of a shepherd's crook (23.845), or a bow-shot (Od. 12.83 f.), or a furrow's length (10.351), or the reach of the voice (Od. 9.473).

[13] “ὣς ἄρα κτλ”.: as B 784.

14 = 2.785.

15 = “Ε 14, 630, 850, Ζ 121, Λ 232, Ν 604, Π 462, Υ 176, Φ 148, Χ 248, Υ” 816. A formula which, in close connection with what has preceded, introduces the single combat of two warriors.

σχεδὸν ἦσαν: were near each other. For the use of the adv., see on 1.416.

ἐπ̓ ἀλλήλοισιν: const. with “ἰόντες”. For “ἐπί” in hostile sense, cf. v. 132; see on 1.382.

[16] Τρωσίν: for the Trojans, cf. “τοῖσι δ̓ Ἐρευσαλίων πρόμος ἵστατο” (equiv. to “προμάχιζεν”) “Η 136. — Ἀλέξανδρος”: the Greek name of Paris, and used four times as freq. as the other. The dat, of “Πάρις” is not used, “Πάριος” only v. 325, “Πάριν” but thrice.

θεοειδής: this epith. is given him because of his personal beauty; cf. vs<*> 39, 44 ff., 55, 64.

[17] παρδαλέην: adj. as subst.; see on A 54. As a light-armed warrior (he was eminently a bowman, 11.369 ff), he wore no armor, and thus has a panther's skin on his shoulders. See on B 43.

[18] αὐτάρ: on the other hand; this gives prominence to “δοῦρε”, since the spears do not belong properly to the archer's equipment, which has just been described.

δοῦρεδύω: as “Μ 298, Φ 145, α” 256; i.e. one in either hand. cf. v. 338. For “δύω” with the dual, see on “Α 16. — κεκορυθμένα κτλ”.: helmeted with bronze, i.e. bronze pointed. For the pl. in agreement with the dual, cf. “Α 200, ὄσσε φαεινά Ν” 435. — cf. bina manu lato crispans hastilia ferro Verg. Aen. i. 313, laeva duo forte gerebat | praefixa hastilia ferro ib. xii. 488 f.

[19] πάλλων: parallel with “ἔχων” v. 17.

προκαλίζετο: challenged; by his mien rather than by words, cf. v. 21. “προκαλιζόμενος” would give a smoother const. here, but the finite verb is used in order to give it more prominence; cf. “ἔβαλλον” v. 80. Thus “ἔχων” and “πάλλων” seem to be related to both imperfects.

πάντας ἀρίστους: in marked contrast with his yielding before Menelaus, who was not distinguished in battle (“μαλθακὸς αἰχμητής Ρ” 588). — Here the period returns to v. 16, since this verse explains “προμάχιζεν”. — Paris and Menelaus are introduced first in the action, since the two are the prime cause of the war. Their feud is private as well as public. The description of the two foes is made specially effective by the contrast of their characters.

20 = 7.40, 51.

ἀντίβιον: cf. “ἀντιβίην Α” 278; used only of the hand to hand conflict.

μαχέσασθαι: inceptive aor.

[21] δέ: correl. with “μέν” v. 16.

ὡς: for its position, see on 1.32.

ἀρηίφιλος: this epith. is generally (21 times) applied as here to Menelaus. The epith. and the name form a convenient close to the verse, see on 1.7, § 40 d.

[22] προπάροιθεν ὁμίλου: sc. as “πρόμαχος. — μακρὰ βιβάντα”: with long strides. This gives the manner of “ἐρχόμενον”. It is here a sign of courage, for Paris was no coward; cf. “Η 213, Ν 809, Ο” 307, 676, 686, longe gradientem Verg. Aen. x. 572, ‘Satan with vast and haughty strides advanced’ Milton Par. Lost, vi. 109, and (as a sign of pride) Od. 11.539.

[23] “ὥς τε λέων κτλ”.: a comparison instead of the apod., which (with “ὀφθαλμοῖσιν ἰδών” as a repetition of “ὡς ἐνόησεν”) follows at v. 27. The gnomic aor. “ἐχάρη” contains the point of comparison; but “πεινάων” also receives emphasis from its position and corresponds to “φάτο γὰρ τίσασθαι” v. 28, i.e. joy at the promised satisfaction of a passionate desire.

ἐπὶ σώματι κύρσας: as he happened upon the carcass of a beast just slain in the chase (cf. v. 26). “σῶμα” is used in Homer only of a dead body, see § 2 v.—Cf. impastus stabula alta leo ceu saepe peragrans, | suadet enim vesana fames; si forte fugacem | conspexit capream aut surgentem in cornua cervum | gaudet Verg. Aen. x. 723 ff. Similar comparison is found 11.474 ff. The aor. is gnomic, like “εὑρών” below.

[24] εὑρών: as he found; explaining “κύρσας”, and in appos. with it.

ἄγριον αἶγα: cf. “αἶγας ὀρεσκῴους” (“of the mountain”) Od. 9.155.

[25] μάλα κατεσθίει: eagerly devours, as “Φ 24. — γάρ τε κτλ”.: explains “πεινάων. — εἴ περ ἄν”: see on “Β 597. — αὐτόν”: himself, in contrast with the goat or deer.

[26] “κύνες κτλ”.: “hounds and hunters,” as “Λ 414, Ρ” 282.

[27] θεοειδέα: with synizesis of the last two vowels of the verse, as vs. 237, 450; see § 7 c.

[28] τίσασθαι: for the aor. inf. after a verb of expecting, cf. vs. 112, 366; see G. 203 N. 2.

29 = “Ε 494, Ζ 103, Μ 81, Ν” 749; cf. “Δ 419, Λ” 211. The close of the verse also “Ε 111, Π 733, 755, Ω” 469. — Paris was on foot, see v. 22.

ἐξ ὀχέων: equiv. to “ἐξ ἵππων” v. 265.

30 = 11.581.

[31] κατεπλήγη: “was filled with dismay”; not from natural cowardice (cf. Hector's words to Paris, “ἐπεὶ ἄλκιμός ἐσσι Ζ” 522), but his guilty conscience robbed him of courage, at sight of Menelaus. ‘Conscience does make cowards of us all.’

φίλον: see on v. 138, 1.491.

ἦτορ: see on 1.44.

32 = “Λ 585, Ν 566, 596, 648, Ξ 408, Π” 817; cf. 13.165, 533.

[33] ὡς δ̓ ὅτε: introduces a comparison, with the gnomic aor., as “Δ 275, Ε 902, Λ 558, Π 823. — τέ, τέ”: as v. 12. For the “ε” remaining short before “δρ”, see § 41 i “β”.

παλίνορσος ἀπέστη: stepped back again, sc. in terror; in this lies the point of the comparison. For the pred. adj. used as an adv., cf. “ἠέριαι” v. 7, “ἀντίοι Α” 535. —cf. improvisum aspris veluti qui sentibus anguem | pressit humi nitens, trepidusque repente refugit | ... haud secus Androgeus visu tremefactus abibat Verg. Aen. ii. 379 ff., ‘False Sextus saw and trembled, | and turned and fled away; | As turns, as flies the woodman | In the Calabrian brake | When thro' the reeds gleams the round eye | Of that fell speckled snake, | So turned, so fled false Sextus | And hid him in the rear,’ Macaulay Lays, Battle of Regillus xv.

[34] ὑπό: below, referring to the weakness of his knees; cf. “Δ 421, Ξ 506, Υ” 44. Const. with “ἔλλαβε”.

[35] παρειάς: in appos. with “μίν”, as a ‘part’ with the ‘whole’; cf. vs. 438, 442.

ὦχρος: cf. “τοὺς δὲ χλωρὸν δέος ᾕρειν Η” 479.

[36] καθ̓ ὅμιλον: into the throng.

ἀγερώχων: prob. courageous, impetuous; also B 654.

[37] Ἀλέξανδρος: in appos. with the subj. of “ἔδυ”, expressed here for the sake of the contrast with “Ἀτρέος υἱόν”.

38 = “Ζ 325. — αἰσχροῖς”: i.e. reproachful, cf.ὸνειδείοις Β” 277.

39 = 13.769.

Δύσπαρι: a determinative compound (G. 132. 2; H. 590), stronger than “Unhappy Paris”; cf. “μῆτερ δύσμητερ ψ 97, Κακοΐλιον οὐκ” “ὀνομαστήν Ψ 19, Δύσπαρις, αἰνόπαρις, κακὸν Ἑλλάδι βωτιανείρῃ” Alcman 40.

εἶδος ἄριστε: as v 124; in contrast with “Δύσπαρι”, cf. v. 45, “κάκ̓ ἐλέγχεα, εἶδος ἀγητοί Ε 787, Π” 142. Thus the excellence that is granted is made a reproach.

ἠπεροπευτά: cf. v. 399.

[40] “αἴθ̓ ὄφελες κτλ”.: closely connected with the reproaches of the preceding verse.

ἄγονος, ἄγαμος: childless, unmarried; two ideas that are proverbially connected in this passionate wish, although Paris is not known to have had children. Elsewhere, also, Hector uses strong language to Paris and about him, cf. 6.281 ff., 325 ff.; see on v. 454.

41 = “λ 358, υ 316. — καὶ τό”: even this, referring to the preceding verse.

κε βουλοίμην: potential; I should prefer, cf. 1.112.

κεν ἦεν: as contrary to fact in present time.

πολύ: cf. 1.91, 112, and notes.

[42] : follows the comparative idea in “βουλοίμην”, as “Α 117, καί κεν πολὺ κτλ”. being parenthetical.

λώβην: concrete, a shame, opprobrium; cf. “Β 235. — ὑπόψιον κτλ”.: an object of contempt to others.

[43] κάρη κομόωντες: see on 2.11.

[44] φάντες: imperf. partic., they who believed; of an incorrect view, as B 37 and freq.

καλόν: seldom is an adj. at the close of one verse in close connection with a noun at the beginning of the next, § 1 g. Many apparent exceptions to this rule can be explained, as 1.78, 156, 283. This arrangement of words may have been chosen here in order to give increased prominence to “εἶδος”.

[45] ἔπι: for “ἔπεστι”, as 1.515; attends thee. — “ἀλλ̓ οὐκ κτλ”.: the contrast with “φάντες” calls strictly for a partic. denoting the Achaeans' recognition of the truth; instead of this, Hector states the fact from his own standpoint.

βίη: might, for attack.

φρεσίν: local, see on 1.24.

ἀλκή: strength, for defence.

[46] “Can such a coward have dared to meet the dangers involved in the rape of Helen?”

τοιόσδε: with deictic -“δε”, cf. v. 157, 2.120.

[47] ἐρίηρας: for the (metaplastic) form, see § 19 b.

ἀγείρας: subord. to “ἐπιπλώσας” [Att. “ἐπιπλεύσας”].

[48] ἀλλοδαποῖσι: masc. adj. as subst., cf. “Δαρδανίων Β” 819. See on A 54, 539.

ἀνῆγες: didst lead (bring) home to Troy, cf. “Ἑλένην περ ἀνήγαγεν” (sc. Paris) “Ζ 292, οἵ μευ” (sc. Menelaus) “κουριδίην ἄλοχον καὶ κτήματα ... οἴχεσθ̓ ἀνάγοντες Ν” 626 f.

[49] ἀπίης: cf. 1.270.

νυόν: sisterin-law of Agamemnon, who is implied in the more general “ἀνδρῶν κτλ. — αἰχμητάων”: cf. 1.290; important for the thought here. For the pl., cf. 2.250, v. 106.

[50] πῆμα: as a bane. This acc. and the two following are in appos. with the whole of the preceding sent., marking the result of the action; cf. B 160; see G. 137, N. 3; H. 626.

δήμῳ: country, as B 547. — For the (prob. accidental) alliteration of “π”, see § 2 a.

[51] “δυσμενέσιν κτλ”.: for the chiastic order of words, cf. A 443, 558 f., vs. 103 f., 179; see § 2 o.

κατηφείην: humiliation, shame. cf. “ Κικέρων ἔφη ... γέλωτα μὲν τοῖς ἐχθροῖς, αἶσχος δὲ τοῖς οἰκείοις παρέχοντα” Dio Cass. xxxviii. 23. 1.

[52] “οὐκ ἂν δὴ κτλ”.: a question in the sense of an energetic but sarcastic exhortation: couldst thou not then withstand, etc.? stand to meet, etc. Cf.οὐκ ἂν δὴ Τρῶας μὲν ἐάσαιμεν καὶ Ἀχαιοὺς μάρνασθαι”; 5.32 f., Od. 6.57. The way for this question has been prepared by vs. 50 f.: “If thou hadst the courage to bring Helen to Troy, if thou didst bring war upon thy native land, then have the courage” etc.

[53] γνοίης κε: then wouldst thou be made aware. The cond. “εἰ μείνειας”, is easily supplied, cf. “Α 232, Β” 242.

ἔχεις: hast to wife, as v. 123, 6.398.

[54] οὐκ ἄν τοι χραίσμη: “will not help thee (A 28);” more definite than the opt. with “ἄν”, to be expected after “γνοίης κε”. See § 3 b. “ὅτε μιγείης” is stated as a mere conception of the mind.

κίθαρις: without the art., although the other nouns here have it. Achilles, also, had a cithara; he sang, however, not love-songs but “κλέα ἀνδρῶν, Ι” 189.

τά: these, thy; deictic like the following “” and “τό”. cf. the words of Nereus to Paris: nequiquam Veneris praesidio ferox | pectes caesariem grataque feminis | inbelli cithara carmina divides | ... heu serus adulteros | crines pulvere collines Hor. Carm. i. 15. 13 ff.

[55] “ τε κτλ”.: among the gifts of the goddess of love, two are made prominent. Obs. the explanatory appos.

μιγείης ἐν: cf. v. 209; generally the simple dat. is used with “μίγνυμι”.

[56] μάλα: altogether, cf. 2.241.

δειδήμονες: i.e. since Paris belonged to the royal family.

τέ κεν ἕσσο: the cond. idea (Eng. else) is implied as in v. 53.

[57] “λάινον κτλ”.: put on a stone tunic; a grim expression of popular speech for death by stoning, the customary method of capital punishment in heroic times (as in the laws of Moses).

ἕσσο: from “ἕννυμι” (“ἑσνυμι”). cf. “κῦμ̓ ἀλίαστον ἐφέσσατο νειόθι” (deep) “δύψας” (diving) Ap. Rhod. i. 1326, “γᾶν ἐπιεσσόμενος” Pind. Nem. xi. 16.

[58] = 6.332 f.

[59] Ἕκτορ: const. with v. 64, where the principal thought begins.

ἐπεί: follows the voc. as A 352. This clause has no grammatical conclusion; the virtual conclusion is vs. 67 f.

[60] αἰεί τοι: this thought is resumed in v. 63 with an accented “σοί”, because of the contrast.

ἀτειρής: unwearied; pred. of “κραδίη”, cf. “κῆρ ἀτέραμνον” (unyielding) “ἔθηκαν ψ” 167.

[61] εἶσιν: goes; always used as pres. in Homeric comparisons, cf. B 87.

διὰ δουρός: through the trunk of a tree.

ὑπ̓ ἀνέρος: driven by a man; for the passive sense in “εἶσιν”, see H. 820. — “ὅς ῥά τε κτλ”.: hypothetical, “when he hews out” of the felled tree etc.

τέχνῃ: with skill. For the dat., cf. “κλαγγῇ” v. 2, “σιγῇ” v. 8.

[62] “ὀφέλλει κτλ”.: the axe by its weight increases the force of the man's blow.ὀφέλλει” has the same subj. as “εἶσιν”, which shows the intervening clause to be parenthetical.

[63] ἀτάρβητος: attrib. with “νόος”.

[64] μή μοι: adversative asyndeton, see § 2 m. “I acknowledge my lack of thine unyielding courage, but do not cast in my teeth the gifts of Aphrodite.”

πρόφερε: cf. 2.251.

χρυσέης: equiv. to “χρυσοφόρου”, adorned with gold; see on 2.872, cf. Venus aurea Verg. Aen. x. 16. Similarly, Ares is “χάλκεος Ε” 704, 859, because of his bronze armor.

[65] Causal asyndeton.

ἀπόβλητα: abiecta, to be cast off, as 2.361; cf. “πᾶν κτίσμα” (creature) “θεοῦ καλόν, καὶ οὐδὲν ἀπόβλητον” 1 Tim. iv. 4.

[66] ὅσσα ... δῶσιν: for the cond. rel. sent., see on A 554. Explanatory of “δῶρα”, adding the essential mark of the gods' gifts, i.e. that they are of free choice.

αὐτοί: i.e. without act and thus without responsibility of the receiver.

ἑκὼν ἕλοιτο: this forms an independent contrast to the preceding rel. clause. For the thought, cf. “ἀλλ̓ οὔ πως ἅμα πάντα δυνήσεαι αὐτὸς ἑλέσθαι Ν” 729.

ἑκών: at pleasure, by his own powers.

[67] νῦν αὖτε: transition from the preceding general considerations to the work before them.

68 = H 49.

ἄλλους: the others.

κάθισον: bid to sit down.

[69] αὐτάρ: see on 2.768.

ἐν μέσσῳ: between the two armies, cf. v. 77, “ἐς μέσον ἀμφοτέρων συνίτην Ζ” 120, in medium inter duas acies procedunt Livy i. 25. 1. “ἔγειρε καὶ στῆθι εἰς τὸ μέσον” St. Luke vi. 8. For the neuter adj. as a subst. (not very freq. in Homer), see on 1.539.

[70] συμβάλετε: bring together, cf. “ξυνέηκε Α 8, ὣς τοὺς ἀμφοτέρους μάκαρες θεοὶ ... σύμβαλον Υ” 54 f. The pl. is used, since the consent of the Achaeans also was necessary for the single combat.

κτήμασι πᾶσι: i.e. those which Paris carried away with Helen from the house of Menelaus; cf. v. 282, 7.350, (363, 389), “Ν 626, Χ” 114 ff., in all of which cases ‘Helen and her treasures’ are united in thought.

μάχεσθαι: as A 8.

71 = v. 92, Od. 18.46.

νικήσῃ: shall gain the victory; as fut. perf.

[72] ἐύ: seems to strengthen “πάντα”, as Od. 18.260; cf. “μάλα πάντα β 306. — ἀγέσθω”: mid., take as his own.

73 = v. 256; cf. v. 94.

οἱ δ̓ ἄλλοι: but you, the rest. Elsewhere, when at the beginning of the verse, but they, the others; as vs. 94, 256. “οἱ δ̓ ἄλλοι” includes both Trojans and Achaeans, and a division into “οἱ μέν, οἱ δέ” might be expected; but instead of this the 2d pers. (“ϝαίοιτε”) appears in the first member, and “τοὶ δὲ νεέσθων” in the second. cf. vs. 256 ff., Od. 24.483 ff.

φιλότητα: zeugmatically connected with “ταμόντες” which is construed strictly only with “ὅρκια. — ταμόντες”: see on B 124.

[74] ναίοιτε: may ye continue to dwell. Note the opt. between two imvs. This is a mere incident to the proposition.

ἐριβώλακα: epith. of Phthia, 1.155, and Larisa, 2.841.

τοὶ δέ: but those, the Achaeans.

[75] Ἄργος, Ἀχαιίδα: i.e. Peloponnesus (as A 30) and Northern Greece, i.e. all Hellas. See on 2.530.

καλλιγύναικα: see on 2.683.

[76] Vs. 76-120. Hector and Menelaus. Preparations for the truce and single combat.

76-78 = 7.54-56.

ἀκούσας: gives the cause of “ἐχάρη”.

[77] ἐς μέσσον: see on v. 69.

[78] μέσσου δουρός: part. gen. i.e. holding the spear horizontally with both hands, crowding the Trojans back.

ἱδρύνθησαν: were brought to a halt; this gives the result of “ἀνέεργε”, see on B 94.

[79] ἐπετοξάζοντο: conative impf., they were bending their bows at him.

[80] ἔβαλλον: transition from the participial to the finite const., in order not to subordinate this idea to “ἐπετοξάζοντο”, although the “τὲ ... τέ” would make “βάλλοντες” natural here. See §§ 1 e, 3 t.

[81] μακρόν: aloud, lit. afar, over a great space.

[82] cf. “ω 54. — ἴσχεσθε, μὴ βάλλετε”: note the asyndeton (§ 2 l) where the second imv. explains the first; and the double address, “Ἀργεῖοι, κοῦροι Ἀχαιῶν”.

[83] στεῦται: cf. 2.597.

ἔπος: for the length of the ultima, see §§ 14 a, 41 m.

κορυθαίολος: see on B 816.

[84] μάχης: for the gen., cf. v. 112, “ἀυτῆς Β 97. — ἄνεῴ τε κτλ”.: cf. 2.323; sc. in order to hear Hector's speech.

[85] ἐσσυμένως: made emphatic by its position; adv. formed from the adjectival “ἐσσύμενος” (11.554); this and “ἐπισταμένως” (H 317) are the only advs. from partics. in Homer. See § 38 h.

μετ̓ ἀμφοτέροισιν: between both armies.

86 = v. 304, 7.67.

κέκλυτε μεῦ: hear from me. The gen. is ablatival.

87 = H 374, 388.

μῦθον: proposition, plan; as “οἶσθα καὶ ἄλλον μῦθον ἀμείνονα τοῦδε νοῆσαι Η 358, υ” 326.

[89] κάλ̓: for the accent of the ultima (“καλά”) thrown back upon the preceding syllable, cf. v. 192, 1.105; see § 10 d.

ἀποθέσθαι: i.e. they were to be mere spectators.

ἐπὶ χθονί: for the dat. of rest, cf. 1.593.

90-94 = vs. 69-73, with necessary changes.

αὐτόν: intensive, himself.αὐτὸς βούλεται” would be natural here, but the acc. is used, correlative with “ἄλλους μέν” above.

92 = v. 71. — Transition to direct disc., see § 1 c.

95 = “Η 92, 398, Θ 28, Ι 29, 430, 693, Κ 218, 313, Ψ 676, θ 234, λ 333, ν 1, π 393, υ 320. — ἀκήν”: equiv. to “ἀκέων Α” 34; originally a cognate acc. with “ἐγένοντο”, cf. § 38 c.

σιωπῇ: dat. of manner, equiv. to “σιωπῶντες”. — cf. dixerat Aeneas, illi obstupuere silentes Verg. Aen. xi. 120, tenuere silentia cuncti Ovid Met. i. 206.

[96] cf. K 219.

[98] θυμόν: acc. of limit of motion.

ἐμόν: made emphatic by its position before the caesural pause. — “φρονέω κτλ”.: “My mind is that we now (“ἤδη”) are to separate in peace.” “φρονέω” is nearly equiv. to “δοκεῖ μοι”. For the aor. inf., cf. v. 28.

[99] Ἀργείους καὶ Τρῶας: has more feeling than “ὑμᾶς καὶ ἡμᾶς”, see on 1.240.

πέποσθε: Att. “πεπόνθατε”. The speaker returns to the address begun with “κέκλυτε”.

[100] ἐμῆς ἔριδος: my strife with Paris.

ἀρχῆς: the beginning, cf. v. 87, 2.377 f.; a mild expression for the guilt of the first breach of the peace.

[101] ὁπποτέρῳ: the anteced. is the subj. of “τεθναίη.—θάνατος καὶ μοῖρα”: cf. “θάνατον καὶ πότμον Β 359, μοῖρα θανάτοιο β 100, φόνον καὶ κῆρα” v. 6.

τέτυκται: is prepared, appointed.

[102] τεθναίη: let him be dead, let him lie among the dead, cf. “Ζ 164, αὐτίκα τεθναίην Σ 98, τεθνάμεν π” 107 to be dead, “παραδοθεὶς τοῖς ἕνδεκα τεθνάτω αὐθημερόν” (on the same day) Aeschines i. 16.

διακρινθεῖτε: repeats “διακρινθήμεναι” v. 98.

[103] οἴσετε: aor. imv., as “ἄξετε” v. 105, “ὔρσεο” v. 250; but “οἴσομεν” v. 104 is fut.

ἄρνε: cf. “ἄρνας” v. 117.

λευκόν, μέλαιναν: the white male lamb was to be sacrificed to the gleaming Helios, while the dark ewe lamb was for “Γαῖα μέλαινα” (2.699). Odysseus sacrifices a black ewe to Persephone, “κ 572, λ” 45 ff. The sex of the victim was generally that of the divinity; thus a cow is sacrificed to Athena, but a bull to Poseidon, 11.728 f. — The order of words is chiastic with the following verse. — For the divinities to whom this sacrifice is to be offered, see on v. 276.

[105] Πριάμοιο βίην: for the periphrasis, cf. 2.387, 658, 851; see § 2 s.

ὅρκια τάμνῃ: may conclude the treaty, as vs. 73, 94. The victims are slain by Agamemnon, not by Priam.

[106] αὐτός: in person; the old king being contrasted with his sons. The poet forgets the periphrasis and proceeds as if he had said “Πρίαμον”, cf. “ἐλθὼν ἐκάκωσε βίη Ἡρακληείη Λ 690. — ἐπεί”: this introduces the first reason; the second follows with “αἰεὶ δέ” v. 108.

οἶ: for him, his; see § 3 g.

παῖδες: this refers primarily to Paris; for the pl. cf. v. 49.

[107] “μή τις κτλ”.: let no one etc.; expression of anxiety connected immediately with his opinion of the sons of Priam.

Διὸς ὅρκια: Zeus watches over solemn treaties and punishes whoever breaks them; cf. vs. 280, 288, “Δ 160, 166, οἱ θεῶν ὅρκοι” Xen. An. ii. 5. 7.

[108] ἠερέθονται: are flighty, unsteady, untrustworthy. For the unfigurative use of this verb, see 2.448.

[109] οί̂ς: personal. It has no corresponding “τοῖς” in the apod.

γέρων: the old man (generic art.), in contrast with “ὁπλοτέρων” v. 108.

μετέῃσι: Att. “μέτῃ”, from “μέτειμι”. For the subjv., cf. “Α 554. —πρόσσω κτλ”.: cf. 1.343.

[110] ὅπως: how; indirect question, cf. “αὐτοὶ δὲ φραζώμεθ̓ ὅπως ὄχ̓ ἄριστα γένηται ν 365. — ὄχ̓ ἄριστα”: cf. 1.69.

μετ̓ ἀμφοτέροισι: “for both sides.”

[111] cf. “Τ 74. — Ἀχαιοὶ κτλ”.: in appos. with “οἱ”.

[112] παύσασθαι: for the aor. inf. after “ἐλπόμενοι”, see on v. 28; to free themselves from, be freed from, with ablatival gen. “αἴ κ̓ ἐθέλωσιν παύσασθαι πολέμοιο δυσηχέος, εἰς κε ϝεκροὺς κήομεν Η” 375 ff. is different.

[113] καί ῥα: and so.

ἐπὶ στίχας: cf. “Β 687. — ἐκ δ̓ ἔβαν [ἔβησαν]”: sc. from their war chariots.

[114] κατέθεντο: sc. “Ἀχαιοί τε Τρῶές τε.” cf. “ἀποθέσθαι” v. 89.

[115] πλησίον ἀλλήλων: refers to “τὰ μέν”. This thought is stated in different form by the rest of the verse: little ground was round about each suit of armor.

[116] δύω: this numeral is const. with the pl. where the two persons are not necessarily and closely connected, as “Ε 10, δὔ Αἴαντες Θ 79, Μ 127. — κήρυκας”: the heralds were the only official members of the king's household; cf. 1.320 ff., 2.183 f. Thus the service of the heralds, v. 268 ff., is because of their relations to the king's person.

[118] Ταλθύβιον: see on 1.320.

[120] οἰσέμεναι aor. inf., cf. v. 103.

ἄρα: then, so; the immediate result of the commission.

οὐκ ἀπίθησε: followed by a dat. of the person.

[121] Vs. 121-244. The view from the walls. Helen, questioned by Priam, tells him about some of the Achaean heroes.

Ἶρις: Iris, elsewhere the messenger of the gods (see on 2.786), here of her own accord (cf. “Ε 353, Ψ” 198 ff.) brings into the action Helen, the cause of the war and the prize of the expected single combat. The following scene (“Τειχοσκοπία”) which occupies the time necessary for the preparations for the principal action (see on 1.318), introduces the hearer to the Trojans and their relations to each other.

λευκωλένῳ: see on 1.55.

[122] γαλόῳ: husband's sister. The Greeks were not restricted to such a clumsy and indefinite expression as sister-in-law; cf.γαλόῳ καὶ εὶνατέρες” (husband's brothers' wives) “Χ 473, δαήρ” v. 180, “ἕκυρε” v. 172.

[123] εἶχε: cf. v. 53.

Ἑλικάων: he does not appear elsewhere in Homer.

[124] cf. 6.252.

Λαοδίκην: attracted to the case of the rel. “τήν”, see on “Β 764. — εἶδος ἀρίστην”: lit. most excellent in appearance, most beautiful. The same expression is used of Laodice again Z 252, of Cassandra N 365. cf. v. 39, B 715, N 378.

[125] ἐν μεγάρῳ: in her chamber, cf. v. 142, “ἀλλ̓ γ̓” (sc. Andromache) “ἱστὸν ὕφαινε μυχῷ δόμου ὑψηλοῖο δίπλακα πορφυρέην, ἐν δὲ θρόνα” (flowers) “ποικίλ̓ ἔπασσεν Χ” 440 f.

ἱστόν: web. Weaving was the most honorable employment of Homeric women; it occupied queens and goddesses. So Hector, on parting from Andromache, says “ἀλλ̓ εἰς οἶκον ἰοῦσα τὰ ς᾿ αὐτῆς ἔργα κόμιζε” (care for), | “ἱστόν τ̓” (loom) “ἠλακάτην τε” (spindle) 6.490 f. cf. the web of Penelope Od. 2.94 ff., of Circe Od. 10.221 ff., the looms of the Ithacan nymphs Od. 13.107 f., the robes made by Athena 8.385 f., 14.178 f., the robe woven by Helen and given to Telemachus Od. 15.123 ff.

[126] δίπλακα: fem. adj. as subst., see on 1.54; sc. “χλαῖναν”, cf. “χλαῖναν διπλῆν τ 225, δίπτυχον λώπην ν” 224. A double cloak (cf. doublet); so large that it could be thrown twice (or double) about the body. It is contrasted with “ἁπλοΐδας χλαίνας Ω 230. — πορφυρέην”: of purple, while the interwoven scenes (“ποικίλματα, ο” 107) were of some other color. For this artistic working in colors, cf. “Ξ 179, Χ” 441 (quoted on v. 125). This art was prob. still dependent on oriental patterns, but evidently had advanced to the representation of persons.

πολέας: as 1.559.

ἐνέπασσεν: wove in.

ἀέθλους: battles, fought on the plain of Troy, before the action of the Iliad. Other allusions to these conflicts are found v. 132 f., 1.520 f., 2.29 f., “Ε 788, Η” 113 f., I 352 ff., 13.101 ff. But most of the earlier fighting seems to have been done at a distance, as Achilles pursued Aeneas not on the Trojan plain, but on Mt. Ida, 20.188 ff.

127 = vs. 131, 251, 8.71.

[128] ἕθεν: not enclitic, since it is reflexive, referring to the subj. of the principal sent. — “ὑπ̓ Ἄρηος κτλ”.: by the hands of Ares.ὑπὸ χερσὶν κτλ”. is more freq. in similar expressions.

[129] See on 2.790.

[130] δεῦῤ ἴθι: cf. “βάσκ̓ ἴθι Β 8, δεῦτ̓ ἄγε θ” 11.

νύμφα φίλη: dear lady, as “δ 743. — θέσκελα ἔργα”: an indefinite expression, to excite Helen's curiosity.

[131] See on v. 127.

[132] οἳ πρίν: who before, i.e. until now. The antec. of the rel. follows, “οἱ δὴ νῦν” v. 134. — “ἐπὶ κτλ”.: see on v. 15.

πολύδακρυν: i.e. causing many tears, cf. v. 165, “πόλεμον δακρυόεντα Ε 737, μάχης δακρυοέσσης Ν” 765, lacrimabile bellum Verg. Aen. vii. 604.

[133] For the rhyme between the two halves of the verse, cf. 2.484.

[134] δὴ νῦν: already now. — “ἕαται [ἧνται]σιγῇ: with the collateral notion of inactivity. See on B 255. — “πόλεμος κτλ”.: parenthetical; see on 2.333.

[135] ἀσπίσι κεκλιμένοι: leaning on their shields, as they stood; cf. vs. 231, 326, “κεκλιμένοι καλῇσιν ἐπάλξεσιν” (battlements) 22.3.

παρά: adv., by their side.

πέπηγεν: i.e. with the “σαυρωτήρ” (bronze point of the butt, 10.153) fixed in the ground. cf. defigunt telluri hastas et scuta reclinant Verg. Aen. xii. 130, stant terra defixae hastae ib. vi. 652.

[136] = vs. 253 f., mutatis mutandis.

[138] τῷ κε ϝικήσαντι: him who gains the victory. For the dem. art. with the partic., cf. “τῷ μὲν νικήσαντι ... ἀνδρὶ δὲ νικηθέντι Ψ” 702 ff., “τὸν ἄγοντα Φ 262, νικηθείς Ψ 663. — κέ”: const. with “νικήσαντι”, as is shown by its position and by “ὁππότερος δέ κε νικήσῃ” v. 71. So v. 255. No other example of this const. is found in Homer.

φίλη: standing epith., esp. with words which denote relationship (as “τοκῆες, πατήρ, πάις, τέκνον, ξεῖνος, ἑταῖρος”) or a part of the human body (as “κεφαλή, χεῖρ, γυῖα”), or mind (“κῆρ, ἦτορ”). See on A 491, § 1 p.

κεκλήση: thou shalt be called. See on “Α 293, Β” 260.

[139] εἰποῦσα: coincides in time with “ἔμβαλε”.

γλυκὺν ἵμερον: cf. v. 446.

[140] προτέροιο: Helen was no longer wife of Menelaus; so she says of Agamemnon, “δαὴρ” (husband's brother) “αὖτ̓ ἐμὸς ἔσκε” v. 180, while her “δαέρες, Ω” 769, are Priam's sons.

ἄστεος: used of the native city, as “πόλις”, v. 50.

τοκήων: Tyndareüs and Leda were thought of as alive. Tyndareüs is called Helen's father, just as Heracles is called son of Amphitryo, 5.392; this is not inconsistent with vs. 199, 418.

[141] “ἀργεννῇσι κτλ”.: cf. v. 419, “ἀπὸ δὲ λιπαρὴν ἔρριψε καλύπτρην Χ 406, ά̀ντα παρειάων” (cheeks) “σχομένη λιπαρὰ κρήδεμνα” (veil) Od. 1.334. In accordance with oriental custom, women and maidens were veiled when they went on the streets or came into the presence of men who were not immediate relations.

[142] θαλάμοιο: the apartments of the women in the rear part of the house. There Helen sits and spins with her maids, Z 321 ff.

143 = “α 331, ς” 207; cf. “ζ 84, τ 601. — ἅμα τῇ γε κτλ”.: in appos. with “οὐκ οἴη”, cf. 2.822. — Princely ladies generally are attended by two maids, cf. “Χ 450, 461, ς” 182 ff. But Andromache goes to the Tower (6.389) attended only by one maid, who carries the infant Astyanax.

[144] Αἴθρα: Pittheus, king of Troezene, was son of Pelops. His daughter Aethra bore Theseus to Aegeus, king of Athens. She, living in Athens, had under her care Helen whom Theseus had carried off from Sparta, until Castor and Polydeuces freed their sister Helen and captured Aethra at or near Athens. So Aethra was made Helen's slave, first in Sparta and afterwards in Ilios. But this seems to be a post-Homeric story.

Κλυμένη: likewise a slave brought with Helen from Sparta, cf. vs. 386 ff.

βοῶπις: see on A 551.

[145] ὅθι: thither where.

Σκαιαὶ πύλαι: see on 2.809.

[146] “οἱ δ̓ ἀμφὶ κτλ”.: see on v. 148, 2.445.

Πάνθοον: an aged Trojan, husband of Phrontis (17.40), father of the seer Polydamas (18.249 ff.), Euphorbus (16.808, in whose body the soul of Pythagoras claimed to have lived), and Hyperenor (“Ξ 516, Π” 23 ff.). From 15.521 f., Panthoüs is inferred to be a priest of Apollo, cf. Panthus Othryades, arcis Phoebique sacerdos Verg. Aen. ii. 319.

Θυμοίτην: only here in Homer. Vergil uses the name: primusque Thymoetes | duci (sc. wooden horse) intra muros hortatur Aen. ii. 32 f.

147 = 20.238, where it is said that these three heroes were sons of Laomedon, and brothers of Priam. All these had sons in the Trojan army, 15.526, 419, 546.

ὄζον Ἄρηος: see on 2.540.

[148] “Οὐκαλέγων κτλ”.: these two receive prominence from the use of the nom. The change from the const. of vs. 146 f. is not bold since “οἱ ἀμφὶ Πρίαμον” is essentially equiv. to “Πρίαμος καὶ οἱ ἀμφί μιν”. — Ucalegon (“οὐκ ἀλέγων”) is mentioned only here in Homer. cf. jam proximus (sc. to Deïphobus) ardet | Ucalegon Verg. Aen. ii. 311 f.

Ἀντήνωρ: see on 2.822. He is esp. prominent in the following scene, vs. 203-224, 262.

[149] εἵατο: “ἧντο”, see § 34 j.

δημογέροντες: in appos., as elders of the people; title of the nobles as leaders and counsellors, see on 2.21. This epith. is applied to Ilus, son of Dardanus, “Λ 372. — ἐπὶ Σκαιῇσι πύλῃσιν”: i.e. on the tower above the Scaean Gate, from which the Trojan elders and women were wont to watch the battles on the plain; cf. vs. 153, 384, “Ζ 373, 386, 431, Π 700, Φ 526, Χ” 447, 462 f., 24.735; cf. also illum ex moenibus hosticis | matrona bellantis tyranni | prospiciens et adulta virgo Hor. Carm. iii. 2. 6 ff., spectaverant enim e moenibus Pergami non viri modo sed feminae etiam Livy xxxvii. 20.

[150] γήραϊ: equiv. to “διὰ τὸ γῆρας. — δή”: already.

πεπαυμένοι: the perf. indicates the continuance of the state brought about by the action of the verb.

ἀγορηταί: cf. 1.248.

[151] τεττίγεσσιν: cicadae. The males sit on sunny bushes and during the longest days make, by rubbing their wings, a clear chirping noise which the Greeks of all times admired greatly. They are not mentioned elsewhere in Homer. — The comparison refers only to the tone of voice; cf. “ἠχέτα” (loud-singing) “τέττιξ δενδρέῳ ἐφεζόμενος λιγυρὴν καταχεύετ̓ ἀοιδὴν πυκνὸν ὑπὸ πτερύγων, θέρεος” (summer) “καματώδεος ὥρῃ” Hesiod Works 582 ff., “μακαρίζομέν δε, τέττιξ, ὅτε δενδρέων ἐπ̓ ἄκρων ὀλίγην δρόσον” (dew) “πεπωκώς βασιλεὺς ὅπως ἀείδεις: . . φιλέουσι μέν σε Μοῦσαι, φιλέει δὲ Φοῖβος αὐτός, λιγυρὴν δ̓ ἔδωκεν οἴμηνAnacreontea 32.

[152] δενδρέῳ: a trochee. For the synizesis, cf. “Α 15, Β” 651; see § 7 d.

λειριόεσσαν: from “λείριον”, lily-like, i.e. tender and delicate like the color of the lily; “ἀπὸ τῶν ὁρωμένων ἐπὶ τὰ ἀκουόμενα” Schol. B. cf. “ἵεσαν” (sc. “Σειρῆνες”) “ἐκ στομάτων ὄπα λείριον” Apoll. Rhod. iv. 901.

ἱεῖσιν: from “ἵημι”, see § 34 e.

[153] τοῖοι: such, pred. with “ἧντο”. “Such were they who sat” etc.; see on 1.266.

ἄρα: recapitulates the comparison, cf. v. 161.

[155] cf. “Ω 142, ν 165. — ἦκα”: for the short ultima, not lengthened before “πρ”, see § 41 “ι β”.

[156] “οὐ νέμεσις κτλ”.: “we cannot blame” etc. — The beauty of Helen could not be praised more delicately or effectively than by this exclamation that she drew from the aged counsellors of Troy. cf. non putant indignum Troiani principes, Graios Troianosque propter Helenae speciem tot mala tanto temporis spatio sustinere: quaenam igitur illa forma credenda est? non enim hoc dicit Paris, qui rapuit, non aliquis iuvenis aut unus e vulgo, sed senes et prudentissimi et Priamo adsidentes. Quintilian viii. 4. 21.

[157] τοιῇδε: such a one as that, as she stood before their eyes, with deictic -“δε”, cf. v. 46. This is explained by the following verse.

ἀμφί: for the sake of, as vs. 70, 91.

[158] αἰνῶς: marvellously, mightily.

εἰς ὤπα: lit. into the face, when one looks in the face, in countenance; cf. Od. 1.411.

[159] This is a general remark and assumes no knowledge of the proposition of Paris.

[160] ὀπίσσω: for the future.

πῆμα: see on v. 50.

[161] ἐκαλέσσατο: called to him.

φωνῇ: is used much like “φωνήσας”. It is contrasted with “ἦκα” v. 155. — The three following speeches are of nine verses each, cf. the symmetry in the prayers (on v. 301).

[162] δεῦρο: cf. v. 130, “ἀλλ̓ ἄγε τεύχεα δεῦρο λαβὼν ἴθι Ν” 235.

ἐμεῖο: const. with “πάροιθε”, cf. A 360.

[163] ἴδῃ: Homer prefers the mid. forms of “εἶδον”, except in the partic. See on A 56.

[164] “οὔ τί μοι κτλ”.: Priam, as well as the poet, recognized the war as appointed and caused by the gods. He desired to remove the feeling of dread with which Helen, conscious of guilt, approached him. She appreciated his kindness, saying that Priam ‘was always kind as a father,’ “Ω 770. — μοί”: in my eyes. This is expressed in both clauses.

θεοί νύ μοι: for the asyndeton, cf. A 107.

νύ: I think. — cf. the words of Venus: non tibi Tyndaridis facies invisa Lacaenae | culpatusve Paris; divum inclementia, divum | has evertitopes, sternitque a culmine Troiam Verg. Aen. ii. 601 ff.

[165] οἱ: dem.

πολύδακρυν: cf. v. 132.

[166] “ὡς κτλ”.: a second final clause depending on v. 162.

καί: belongs to the whole clause, and indicates that another final sent. preceded.

ἐξονομήνῃς: mayst name.

[167] ὅς τις: pred.

ὅδε: obs. the regular interchange of the prons. “ὅδε” and “οὗτος” in question and answer, here and v. 178, vs. 192 and 200, 226 and 229; both prons. are deictic, but “ὁδε” indicates simply what is before the eyes, while “οὗτος” has reference to the question.

ἠύς τε: cf. 2.653.

[168] τοι μέν: correl. with “δέ” v. 169. It is true indeed; cf. τοι μὲν οἰκέοιτο πόλις Πριάμοιο ἄνακτος, αὖτις δ̓ Ἀργείην Ἑλένην Μενέλαος α<*>´γοιτο Δ” 18 f., 537.

κεφαλῇ: in stature; cf. v. 193.

καί: still.

[169] ἴδον ὀφθαλμοῖσιν: cf. “οὔασι πάντες ἄκουον Μ” 442, Launcelot's ‘running with thy heels’ Shakspere Merchant of Venice ii. 2. 10; see on A 587.

[170] γεραρόν: stately, cf. v. 211. See B 478, and note.

βασιλῆι ἀνδρί: as Od. 24.253; cf. “βουληφόρον ἄνδρα Β” 24, and see on v. 6.

[171] γυναικῶν: the gen. is partitive with the superlative idea in “δῖα”, cf. “Καλυψὼ δῖα θεάων α” 14.

172-176. Reply to vs. 162-165.

αἰδοῖός τε δεινός τε: revered and dreaded.

φίλε, ἑκυρέ: for the two ultimas lengthened by position, see §§ 14 c, 41 lβ”.

[173] ὡς: introduces a wish; cf. “αἴθ̓ ὄφελες κτλ. Α 415. — ὄφελεν”: see on 1.353.

κακός: the standing epith. of death; it is contrasted with “ἁδεῖν”. “Would that I had chosen death rather” etc. Helen rarely misses an opportunity to express penitent consciousness of her guilt, cf. vs. 404, 412, 6.344 ff., “ὅς μ̓ ἄγαγε Τροίηνδ̓: ὡς πρὶν ὤφελλον ὀλέσθαι Ω” 764. See on 2.356. Her penitence always wins indulgence and sympathy.

[174] θάλαμον: marriage-chamber; hence no special mention of her husband is needed.

γνωτούς: brothers; see vs. 236 ff.

[175] παῖδα: Hermione, who afterwards married Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, Od. 4.5 ff.

ὁμηλικίην: abstract expression for “ὁμήλικας”, companions.

[176] τό: therefore; adv. acc. with “τέτηκα”.

καί: also, marks “κλαίουσα τέτηκα” (melt away in tears) as the expected effect.

177 = “η 243, ο” 402; cf. “τ 171. — ἀνείρεαι”: followed by two accs. cf. 1.550.

[178] Ἀτρεΐδης: see on A 7.

[179] The favorite verse of Alexander the Great, acc. to Plutarch, de fortuna Alex. 331 c. — For the thought, see 1.258 and note.

ἀμφότερον: both; with the two parts added in appos. — Obs. the chiasmus.

[180] αὖτε: on the other hand.

κυνώπιδος: see on 1.159, cf. v. 404. The gen. is in appos. with “ἐμοῦ” implied in “ἐμός”, see on 2.20.

εἴ ποτ̓ ἔην γε: if ever he was, “if it was not all a dream.” Helen speaks with mournful recollection of the happier past.

[182] μάκαρ: blessed.

μοιρηγενές: child of fortune, blest byΜοῖρα” at his birth; the opposite is found in 1.418.

ὀλβιόδαιμον: god-favored; contrast “δαίμονος αἶσα κακή λ 61, ε” 396.

[183] “ ῥά νυ κτλ”.: in truth then were subject to thee. The plpf. (= impf.) is used with reference to the previous perception of the numerous throng.

δεδμήατο: from “δαμάω”.

[184] καί: also, i.e. as well as to other countries; cf. v. 205.

Φρυγίην: see on B 862.

[185] ἔνθα: there.

Φρύγας ἀνέρας: closely connected, cf. “βασιλῆι ἀνδρί” v. 170. Whenever “ἄνδρες” is added to an ethnic name, the words are not separated. For the diaeresis after the third foot, see § 40 l.

αἰολοπώλους: with swift steeds.

[186] Otreus and Mygdon were Phrygian kings. Acc. to the later story, Otreus was brother of Hecuba. Aphrodite in visiting Anchises introduces herself as the daughter of Otreus, Hom. Hy. iv. 111. Mygdon was father of Coroebus (Cassandra's bridegroom), acc. to Verg. Aen. ii. 341 ff.

[187] ἐστρατόωντο: were encamped, were on an expedition. cf. “οἵ ῥα τότ̓ ἐστρατόωνθ̓ ἱερὰ πρὸς τείχεα Θήβης Δ” 378.

Σαγγαρίοιο: the largest river in Asia Minor, except the Halys. It rises in Galatia and empties into the Black Sea in Bithynia; cf. Sangarius ex Adoreo monte per Phrygiam fluens miscetur ad Bithyniam Tymbri fluvio; inde maior iam geminatis aquis per Bithyniam fertur et in Propontidem sese effundit, non tamen tam magnitudine memorabilis, quam quod piscium accolis ingentem vim praebet. Livy xxxviii. 18. cf. (“Ἄσιος”) “αὐτοκασίγνητος” (own brother) “Ἑκάβης, υἱὸς δὲ Δύμαντος, ὃς Φρυγίῃ ναίεσκε ῥοῇς ἐπὶ Σαγγαρίοιο Π” 718 f.

[188] καί: const. with “ἐγών”.

ἐλέχθην: I was numbered; cf. “μετὰ τοῖσιν ἐλέγμην ι” 335.

[189] Ἀμαζόνες: these were thought to live on the east of Phrygia. They carried on a war for booty against the Phrygians to whose assistance Priam went. cf. 2.814. Bellerophon was sent to overcome the Amazons, as his third task, Z 186.

ἀντιάνειραι: cf. bellatrix! audetque viris concurrere virgo Verg. Aen. i.493.

[190] ἀλλ̓ οὐδ̓ οἱ: but not even these; i.e. the Phrygians of v. 185.

ἑλίκωπες: cf. A 98.

[191] δεύτερον: neut. acc. as adv. with “ἐρέεινε”, cf. v. 225.

[192] εἴπ̓: for “εἰπέ”, with the accent thrown back after elision, cf. v. 89.

τόνδε: anticipated from the rel. clause, see on 2.409.

[193] “μείων μὲν κτλ”.: more exactly describing “ὅδε. — κεφαλῇ”: as v. 168.

[194] ἰδέσθαι: to look upon.

[195] cf. 21.426.

[196] κτίλος ὥς: cf. B 480, “λαοὶ ἕπονθ̓ ὡς εἴ τε μετὰ κτίλον ἕσπετο μῆλα Ν” 492. The syllable preceding “ὥς” is not lengthened as is usual, see on B 190.

ἐπιπωλεῖται στίχας: comes up to the ranks; in order to review them, as 4.231, 250; with hostile intent, 11.540. Acc. to another figure, he was “ποιμὴν λαῶν”.

[197] “ἀρνειῷ κτλ”.: a detailed explanation of “κτίλος ὥς”.

[198] πῶυ: flock; always of sheep.

[199] ἐκγεγαυῖα: for “ἐκγεγονυῖα”, the short form of the stem appearing in the fem. perf. partic.; see § 31 g.

[200] οὗτος δ̓ αὖ: contrasted with “οὖτός γε” v. 178; cf. v. 229.

Ὀδυσσεύς: see on 1.138.

[201] ἐν δήμῳ: cf. 2.547.

κραναῆς: cf. (“Ἰθάκη”) “τρηχεἶ ἀλλ̓ ἀγαθὴ κουροτρόφος” (nurse of men) Od. 9.27, scopulos Ithacae, Laërtia regna Verg. Aen. iii. 272, Ithacam illam in asperrimis saxulis tanquam nidulum affixam Cic. de Orat. i. 44.

πέρ: as A 352.

[202] cf. “εἴμ̓ Ὀδυσεὺς Λαερτιάδης, ὃς πᾶσι δόλοισιν ἀνθρώποισι μέλω, καί μευ κλέος οὐρανὸν ἵκει ι” 19 f. For the epiths. of Odysseus, see § 1 q.

[204] μάλα: yes, in truth.

[205] καί: as v. 184.

δεῦρό ποτ̓ ἤλυθε: sc. before the beginning of open hostilities, in order to demand the restitution of Helen and the treasure. Odysseus as the most ready in speech and counsel was sent (cf. A 311 and I, where he is sent to persuade Achilles to return to the conflict) with Menelaus who had the greatest interest in the decision. Antimachus urged the killing of the embassadors and prevented the success of their embassy. cf. (“Ἀντίμαχος”) “ὅς ποτ̓ ἐνὶ Τρώων ἀγορῇ Μενέλαον ἄνωγεν ἀγγελίην ἐλθόντα σὺν ἀντιθέῳ Ὀδυσῆι αὖθι κατακτεῖναι μηδ̓ ἐξέμεν ἂψ ἐς Ἀχαιούς Λ” 139 ff.

[206] ἀγγελίης: equiv. to “ἄγγελος”, as embassador; cf.Δ 384, Λ” 140 (quoted above), N 252, O 640.

[207] ἐξείνισσα: received hospitably.

φίλησα: entertained. This shows the beginning of a law of nations by which embassies enjoy the rights of guests. For the attitude of Antenor toward the errand of this embassy, see on 2.822.

[208] φυήν: as 1.115, cf. vs. 210 f.

ἐδάην: I learned to know.

μήδεα: cf. vs. 212 ff.

[209] ἀλλ̓ ὅτε δή: the same beginning of the verse as vs. 212, 216, 221.

ἐν ἀγρομένοισιν: among the assembled, cf. v. 55. This was on the occasion when the Trojans discussed the demand made by the embassy. The poet does not raise the question why Priam did not then make the acquaintance of Odysseus.

[210] στάντων: sc. to address the people, cf. 1.58, 68, etc. The gen. is part., of Menelaus and Odysseus, but is not unlike a gen. abs., see §3 e, f. — “ὑπείρεχεν [ὑπερ-]”: “towered above” Odysseus, cf. v. 168. cf. umeris extantem Verg. Aen. vi. 668.

ὤμους: acc. of specification, cf. v. 227.

[211] ἄμφω δ̓ ἑζομένω: i.e. as listeners; nom. of the whole, almost a nom. abs., since only one of the two persons comprised is mentioned in what follows. The sent. begins as if “Ὀδυσσεὺς μέν, Μενέλαος δέ” were to follow. cf. “Κ 224, Μ” 400; and for other examples of change of const., see E 27, H 8, 306.

γεραρώτερος: cf. v. 170. Menelaus had a short trunk but long legs, and appeared shorter only when they were seated.

[212] πᾶσιν ὕφαινον: wove for all, set forth before all; cf. “τοῖς γέρων ... ὑφαίνειν ἤρχετο μῆτιν Η” 324.

[213] ἐπιτροχάδην: from “τρέχω”, see § 38 c, trippingly, fluently; in contrast with the cautious, slow beginning of Odysseus.

[214] παῦρα μέν: correlative with “οὐδ̓ ἀφαμαρτοεπής. ἀλλὰ μάλα λιγέως” is shown to be parenthetical by “ἐπεὶ οὐ πολύμυθος” which explains “παῦρα.” “Few words but to the point.” “Saying little indeed (although very clear, 2.246), for he was not a man of many words; but saying nothing which failed to hit the mark.” A Spartan king ought to be laconic! — cf. et Homerus brevem quidem cum iucunditate et propriam (id enim est non deerrare verbis) et carentem supervacuis eloquentiam Menelao dedit, quae sunt virtutes generis illius primi, et ex ore Nestoris dixit dulciorem melle profluere sermonem [A 249], qua certe delectatione nihil fingi maius potest: sed summam expressurus in Ulixe facundiam, et magnitudinem illi vocis et vim orationis nivibus hibernis copia verborum atque impetu parem tribuit. cum hocigitur nemo mortalium contendet, hunc ut deum homines intuebuntur. Quintilian xii. 10. 64 f.

[215] ἀφαμαρτοεπής: cf. “καὶ οὐχ ἡμάρτανε μύθων λ 511, Αἶαν ἁμαρτοεπές Ν” 824.

εἰ καί: even if, although he was younger than Odysseus. Reference is made to the age of Odysseus in 23.790, where he is said by Nestor's son to be “προτέρης γενεῆς προτέρων τ̓ ἀνθρώπων.—γένει”: only here for “γενεῇ”, in birth, in age.

[216] ἀναΐξειεν: for the opt. expressing indefinite frequency of past action, cf. v. 233. G. 233; H. 914 B.

[217] ὑπαὶ: [as 2.824] ἴδεσκε: he always looked down; with the more definite statement “κατὰ χθονὸς κτλ”., — a sign of meditation; cf. “ἐπὶ χθονὸς ὄμματα πᾶξαι” Theoc. ii. 112, as a sign of embarrassment. cf. non protinus est erumpendum, sed danda brevis cogitationi mora: mire enim auditurum dicturi cura delectat et iudex se ipse componit. hoc praecipit Homerus Ulixis exemplo, quem stetisse oculis in terram defixis immotoque sceptro, priusquam illam eloquentiae procellam effunderet, dicit. Quintilian xi. 3. 157 f.

[218] σκῆπτρον: see on 1.58, 234.

[219] ἀστεμφές: cf. 2.344. Odysseus made no gesture.

[220] φαίης κε: potential of the past, crederes, as v. 223; Att.ἔφης ἄν”. cf. v. 392. — Obs. the asyndeton. — “ζάκοτον κτλ”.: a sullen, ill-natured kind of a fellow.ζα”- is a strengthening prefix, as in “ζα-θέην Α” 38; see on “Β 308. — ἄφρονα κτλ”.: a mere simpleton. For “αὔτως”, see on 1.133; cf. “πάις δ̓ ἔτι νήπιος αὔτως” (a mere infant) 22.484.

[221] δὴ ὄπα: the hiatus is merely apparent, since “ὔψ” is from the same root as the Lat. vox; cf. “ἔπος”, and see § 14 a.

[222] See Quintilian quoted on v. 214.

ἔπεα: for the length of the ultima, see § 41 j. — “νιφάδεσσιν κτλ”.: in contrast with v. 214.

[223] “οὐκ ἂν κτλ”.: “no other mortal could have vied.”

ἔπειτα: lit. after that.

Ὀδυσῆι: for the use of the name instead of a pron., see on A 240. Obs. the repetition of the name in the same position in the following verse, cf. vs. 430, 432, 434.

[224] τότε: refers to “ὅτε” v. 221, made more definite by “εἶδος ἰδόντες. — ὧδε”: so much as before. They were so moved by his eloquence that they forgot his unusual manner.

Ὀδυσῆος: const. with “εἶδος”.

[225] Αἴαντα: Telamonian Ajax, see on 1.138.

[226] τίς τ̓ ἄρα: as “Α 8, Β” 761.

[227] ἔξοχος: cf. 2.480.

Ἀργείων: differing mainly in metrical form from “Ἀχαιός” above: see on 1.79.

[229] οὗτος: see on v. 167.

πελώριος: an epith. of Ajax also H 211, P 174, 360.

ἕρκος Ἀχαιῶν: see on 1.284; as “Ζ 5, Η” 211. cf. “οὖρος Ἀχαιῶν Θ” 80, of Nestor; “ἕρμα πόληος Π” 549 prop of the city, of Sarpedon; “ἔρεισμ̓ Ἀκράγαντος” Pindar Ol. ii. 6, of Thero; “Τροίας κίονα” ib. 81 pillar of Troy, of Hecotr; ‘pillar of state’ Milton Par. Lost ii. 302.

[230] Ἰδομενεύς: see on “Α 145, Β” 645. Idomeneus is named by Helen without any question of Priam; at sight of him she cannot suppress the memory of a happy past, and hence the longing for her brothers. A more mechanical reason for the change in the form of question and answer, is that the repetition of Priam's inquiry would become monotonous.

θεὸς ὥς: equiv. to “θεοειδής” v. 16, “θεοείκελε Α 131, θεῷ ἐναλίγκιος β” 5.

[231] ἠγερέθονται: cf. B 304. The pres. serves to paint a picture.

[232] πολλάκι: generally appears in Homer without the final “ς”, see § 12 “ο”.

[233] ἵκοιτο: for the opt., cf. v. 216 where the iterative aor. “στάσκεν” in the principal clause corresponds to the aor. with “πολλάκι” in v. 232.

[235] κεν γνοίην: potential opt., sc. if you should ask me.

ἐύ: well, clearly.

καί τε: cf. 1.521.

οὔνομα: sc. the gen. of the pron. from “οὕς”.

[236] δοιώ: for this form of the numeral, see § 23 b.

κοσμήτορε: cf. v. 1, 1.16.

237 = Od. 11.300. — Castor and Poly deuces are mentioned only in this verse in Homer.

πύξ: with the fist, i.e. in boxing. See on 2.418.

[238] αὐτοκασιγνήτω: see on “Β 706. — τώ μοι κτλ”.: develops the thought of the first word of the verse, cf. 1.2.

μοί: dat. of likeness with “μία”, “the same who bore me.”

γείνατο: for the omission of the augment, see § 25 e.

μήτηρ: Leda. Acc. to the later story, Clytaemnestra also was Leda's daughter; see on 1.113.

[239] ἑσπέσθην: cf. “Α 158, Β” 524.

[240] δεύρω: only here for “δεῦρο”, of which this seems to be the original form, cf. “δύω” and “δύο, Διώνυσος” and “Διόνυσος”.

[241] αὖτε: correl. with “μέν”, see on B 768, § 3 r.

[242] αἴσχεα: insults.

δειδιότες: sc. that they must hear them. cf. Hector's words to Paris, “τὸ δ̓ ἐμὸν κῆρ ἄχνυται ἐν θυμῷ, ὅθ̓ ὑπὲρ σέθεν αἴσχἐ ἀκούω πρὸς Τρώων Ζ” 523 ff.

ὀνείδεα: reproaches. For the use of two nearly synonymous words, see on v. 2.

μοι ἔστιν: which are mine, heaped upon me.

[243] κάτεχεν: see on 2.699. A euphemism for death. “They were dead and buried.”

φυσίζοος: lifegiving. The epith. seems out of place here, but is used only in this connection. — Acc. to this story, both Dioscuri (“Διὸς κοῦροι”) were dead. The later form of the story made Castor mortal, but Polydeuces immortal; but after the death of Castor, Zeus granted the prayer of Polydeuces that both brothers should be together alternately in heaven and in Hades. cf. Od. 11.299 ff. In post-Homeric times, they became the patron saints of sailors.

[244] Λακεδαίμονι: for the following hiatus, see §§ 9, 18 a.

αὖθι: here follows the word that explains it. — The grave of the Dioscuri was shown at Therapnae, near Sparta.

ἐν πατρίδι: obs. the repetition of the prep. in this appos. clause. cf. 2.722.

[245] Vs. 245-313. Priam drives to the field, concludes the treaty with Agamemnon, and returns to the city. — This continues the story that was interrupted at v. 121.

κήρυκες: see vs. 116 f.

ἀνὰ ἄστυ: up through Ilios, cf. 1.10.

θεῶν: those named vs. 103 f.

φέρον: in order to take them to the plain.

ὅρκια πιστά: cf. v. 269, 2.124; faithful, trustworthy pledges of the oath.

[246] “ἄρνε κτλ”.: in appos. with “ὅρκια. — οἶνον κτλ”.: equiv. to “εὐφραίνοντα” “κτλ”. cf. ‘wine that maketh glad the heart of man’ Psalms civ. 15.

[247] “ἀσκῷ κτλ”.: the usual means of carrying wine on journeys, cf. “ε 265, ζ 78, ι” 196. Wine was stored at home in great jars (“πίθοι β” 340).

καρπὸν ἀρούρης: elsewhere only of grain.

[248] Ἰδαῖος: the most honored of Priam's heralds and his personal attendant; cf. 7.276, 372, 381 ff., 24.282, 325. For the quantity of the ultimate, see § 41 p.

[249] γέροντα: Priam, whom they were sent to summon.

παριστάμενος: sc. after ascending the tower by the Seaean gate (v. 149).

[250] ὄρσεο: see on v. 103; arise. Obs. the following asyndeton.

Λαομεδοντιάδη: for the formation of the patronymic, see § 21 j.

ἄριστοι: the princes, as v. 274.

[252] τάμητε: sc. thou and the Achaean princes. — See on v. 105.

253-255 = vs. 136-138, mutatis mutandis.

[254] μαχήσονται: will fight; this marks simply the future fact.

[255] ἕποιτο: the opt. here, as v. 74, expresses a wish. The imv. is used in the corresponding passages, vs. 72, 93, 282, because this thought is presented there as a demand or condition.

256-258 = vs. 73-75, with slight changes.

[257] νέονται: fut., cf. v. 138. The fut. is better suited than the imv. to the lips of the herald.

[259] ῥίγησεν: he feared for his son's life, cf. vs. 306 ff.

ἑταίροις: his attendants; the king was never unattended.

[260] ἐπίθοντο: i.e. they hastened to the palace, harnessed the horses, and brought them to the Gate. Priam descended from the tower to mount the chariot. We miss here the usual epic fulness of detail.

[261] “ἄν [ἀνά]”: const. with “ἔβη. — κατὰ κτλ”.: as v. 311, 19.394. The reins were tied to the front rim of the chariot, cf. 5.262, 322; the king now untied these and drew them back toward himself.

262 = v. 312.

πὰρ δέ οἱ: lit. at his side for him, “πάρ” being adv.; i.e. so as to stand beside him.

δίφρον: acc. of limit of motion, cf. v. 407, see on 1.322.

[263] Σκαιῶν: only here as subst., without “πύλαι”, see on 1.54.

ἔχον: held, guided.

[264] μετά: see on 1.222.

[265] ἐξ ἵππων: from their chariots; equiv. to “ἐξ οχέων” v. 29. cf. “ὦσε δ̓ ἀφ̓ ἵππων Ε 19, εἰς ἵππους ἅλεται” (leaps into the chariot) “Λ 192, ἵππων ὠκυπόδων ἐπέβησε Θ” 128 f.

266 = v. 341.

ἐς μέσσον: see on v. 69.

ἐστιχόωντο: went, as B 92.

[267] ὤρνυτο: arose, hastened to greet the Trojan princes, cf. “ὄρσεο” v. 250.

αὐτίκ̓ ἔπειτα: follows the verb, as Od. 17.120.

[268] “ἄν [ἀνά]”: sc. “ὤρνυτο”, cf. “ἔλιπον ... κὰδ δὲ” (sc. “ἔλιπον”) “κτλ. Ε” 481.

κήρυκες: sc. of both armies, cf. v. 274.

[269] ὅρκια: see on v. 245.

[270] μίσγον: not like “κερόωντο” (“θ 470, ο 500, υ” 253), but mingled the wine of both parties to the libation. In solemn sacrifices, the wine was not mixed with water, hence “σπονδαὶ ἄκρητοι Β” 341. When “μίσγω οἶνον” is used like temperare vinum, “ὕδωρ” is added, cf. “οἱ μὲν οἶνον ἔμισγον ἐνὶ κρητῆρσι καὶ ὕδωρ α 110. — βασιλεῦσιν”: for the princes of Trojans and Achaeans. Obs. that no priests are mentioned in this connection.

ἐπὶ χεῖρας: see on A 449.

[271] = 19.252 f.

χείρεσσι: “χειρί” would be more exact.

[272] πὰρ κουλεόν: along by the sheath.

αἰέν: as commander and high-priest of the army, Agamemnon used this knife often at sacrifices.

ἄωρτο: from “ἀείρω”, cf. “ἄορsword, “ἀορτήρsword-strap.

[273] ἀρνῶν: as the principal idea, it is placed before “κεφαλέων” which it limits. See vs. 103 f.

[274] νεῖμαν: sc. “τρίχας”. They distributed the wool cut from the victims' heads as a symbol that all the chiefs present took part in the treaty, swearing by the victim. This sacrifice was without fire, as was most freq. in the case of treaties and reconciliations. “γ 446, ξ” 422, are different.

[275] cf. 1.450.

276 = v. 320, “Η 202, Ω” 308. — Agamemnon invokes the divinities of the heavens, the earth, and the regions beneath the earth. cf. “ἴστω Ζεὺς νῦν πρῶτα, θεῶν ὕπατος” (most exalted) “καὶ ἄριστος, γῆ τε καὶ ἠέλιος καὶ ἐρινύες” (furies), “αἵ θ̓ ὑπὸ γαῖαν ἀνθρώπους τίνυνται κτλ”. T 258 ff., esto nunc Sol testis, et haec mihi Terra vocanti, | ... et pater omnipotens, et tu Saturnia coniux, ... tuque inclute Mavors, | ... fontesque fluviosque, voco, quaeque aetheris alti | religio, et quae caerulio sunt numina ponto. Verg. Aen. xii. 176 ff.

Ἴδηθεν: Zeus had a sacred grove and an altar on Mt. Ida (8.48), and ruled thence as god of the country. The pious soul sought and found the divinity near at hand, esp. on mountain summits. — “κύδιστε κτλ”.: cf. Iupiter optimus maximus. See on B 412.

277 = “λ 109, μ” 323.

ἠέλιος: nom. as voc. This const. is rare. — “πάντ̓ ἐφορᾷς κτλ”.: Helios, accomplishing daily his course in the heavens, is fitted to be a witness to solemn compacts. cf. “ὄμνυμί σοι θεοὺς, οἵ καὶ σ῾ρῶσι πάντα καὶ ἀκούουσι πάντα” Xen. Cyr. v. 4. 31, qui pervidet omnia, Solem Ovid Met. xiv. 375.

[278] ποταμοί: the Trojan rivergods (Scamander and Simoïs), as near at hand, are invoked as witnesses; cf. Soph. Aj. 862. A priest (“ἀρητήρ”) of the Scamander is mentioned E 77 f.

καὶ οἵ: const. with “τίνυσθον”. The dual is used with reference to Hades and Persephone, cf. “Ζεύς τε καταχθόνιος καὶ ἐπαινὴ” (dread) “Περσεφόνεια Ι 457. — καμόντας”: who have become weary; euphemism for “θανόντας”.

[279] cf. 19.260.

τις: obs. the distributive sing., after the pl. For the form, see § 24 s.

ὀμόσση: for the aor. subjv., cf. 1.554.

[280] μάρτυροι: as “Α 338, Β” 302.

[282] αὐτὸς ἐχέτω: let him keep; cf. “ἵππους δ̓ αὐτὸς ἔχε φ 30, Ε 271. — κτήυατα”: see on v. 70.

[283] νεώμεθα: the subjv. expresses the speaker's resolve, not unlike the ordinary hortatory subjv.

[284] ξανθός: from the color of his hair; cf. “κάρη ξανθὸς Μενέλαος ο” 133. See on 1.197.

[285] “Τρῶας κτλ”.: then shall the Trojans restore etc.ἀποδοῦναι” is parallel with “ἐχέτω”, cf. 2.413.

[286] τιμην. equiv. to “ποινήνrecompense; cf. 1.159.

ἥν τινα: sc. “ἀποτινέμεν”.

287 = v. 460.

καί: also; const. with “ἐσσομένοισιν. — πέληται”: shall be. This is strictly a final clause. — This exemplary penalty was to serve as a precedent in later times and warn men against committing such deeds.

[288] “Πρίαμος κτλ”.: as 1.255.

[289] οὐκ ἐθέλωσιν: “οὐκ” is used, not “μή”, though in a cond. clause, since the neg. and verb form but one idea, are unwilling, refuse; cf.οὐ χραίσμῃ Α” 28.

Ἀλεξάνδροιο: prob. gen. abs.; although it could be construed with “τιμήν”, see § 3 f “β”.

[290] αὐτάρ: on the other hand, introduces the adversative apod., cf. 1.133, si tua re subita consilia torpent, at tu mea sequere Livy i. 41; see § 3 n.

[291] τέλος πολέμοιο: i.e. the victory, see on 2.122; cf. “ἐν γὰρ χερσὶ τέλος πολέμου Π 630. — κιχείω”: see on A 26.

[292] cf. 19.266.

: see on 1.219.

στομάχους: obj. of “ἀπὸ τάμε”, cf. “ἀπέκοψε τένοντας” (sinews) “γ 449. — χαλκῷ”: equiv. to “μάχαιραν” v. 271.

[294] θυμοῦ: life, as “Α 593. — δευομένους”: gives the reason for “ἀσπαίροντας. — μένος”: force, cf. “μένεα” v. 8.

[295] ἀφυσσόμενοι: drawing (dipping) for themselves. The act of dipping and pouring continued until each had poured his libation. Elsewhere drawing wine was part of the herald's office. See on 1.471.

[296] ἔκχεον: sc. out of their cups, upon the ground, cf. “οἶνον δ̓ ἐκ δεπάων χαμάδις χέον Η 480. — αἰειγενέτῃσιν”: cf. “θεοὶ αἰὲν ἐόντες Α” 290.

297 = v. 319. cf. 2.271.

[299] πρότεροι: comp., for only two parties are in question, cf. v. 351.

ὑπὲρ ὅρκια: “contrary to the compacts.” cf. “Δ 67, 236, 271. — πημήνειαν”: intrans.; “commit an act of hostility.” The opt. is used in the subord. clause, with the opt. of wishing in the principal clause, to express a mere conception of the mind.

[300] “ὧδέ σφι κτλ”.: thus may for them, etc. The pers. pron. is used instead of the dem., since the protasis has hypothetical force; see on “Β 392. — ὡς ὅδε οἶνος”: symbolical actions were customary in curses and conjurations; cf. (fetialis) ‘si prior defexit publico consilio dolo malo, tum illo die, Iuppiter, populum Romanum sic ferito ut ego hunc porcum hic hodie feriam.’ ... id ubi dixit, porcum saxo silice percussit Livy i. 24, (Hannibal) eaque utrata scirent fore agnum laeva manu dextera silicem retinens, si falleret, Iovem ceterosque precatus deos, ita se mactarent, quem ad modum ipse agnum mactasset, secundum precationem caput pecudis saxo elisit ib. xxi. 45, ‘As sinks that blood stream in the earth, | So may his heart's blood drench his hearth’ Scott Lady of the Lake iii. 1.

[301] αὐτῶν καὶ τεκέων: the gen. depends on “ἐγκέφαλος”, although “σφί” (not “σφέων”) has preceded; see § 3 g “γ”. This clause forms an extension of the original thought; cf. “δίδωθι δέ μοικλέος ἐσθλόν, αὐτῷ καὶ παίδεσσι καὶ αἰδοίῃ παρακοίτι” (spouse) Od. 3.380 f.

ἄλλοισι δαμεῖεν: “may they be made the slaves of others,” cf. 6.454 ff., 9.594; unlike 2.355. — This prayer contains four verses, like the prayers of vs. 320 ff., 351 ff., 365 ff. See on v. 161.

[302] cf. 2.419.

[303] τοῖσι: const. with “μετὰ ἔειπεν”, cf. v. 96.

Δαρδανίδης: Priam was in the fifth generation from Dardanus, 20.215 ff. The line of descent was: Zeus, Dardanus, Erichthonius, Tros, Ilus, Laomedon, Priam. For the use of the patronymic, see § 21 m.

304 = v. 86.

[305] ἠνεμόεσσαν: the epith. is well deserved acc. to Dr. Schliemann, who in his excavations at Hissarlik was much disturbed by the constant winds which drove the dust into the eyes of the workmen. He thinks that such continual wind-storms are known nowhere else on earth. ‘The winds blew about us with such force that we often felt as if our whole settlement might be hurled down the precipice.’

[306] ἄψ: const. with “εἶμι. — οὔ πω”: in no way. For “πώ” as “πώς”, see § 12 o.

τλήσομαι: cf. “τέτληκας Α 228. — ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖσιν”: see on A 587. — Priam fears the death of his son, as v. 259. — Vergil imitates: non pug<*>am aspicere han<*> oculis, non foedera, possum Aen. xii. 151.

308 = “ξ 119. — Ζεὺς κτλ”.: “Zeus doubtless knows, but I do not.”

[309] θανάτοιο τέλος: a periphrasis for “θάνατος”, cf. “τὼ δ̓ αὖθι τέλος θανάτοιο κάλυψεν Ε” 553, and distinguish “φάνη βιότοιο τελευτή Η” 104.

πεπρωμένον ἐστίν: equiv. to “πέπρωται Σ” 329, cf. “τετελεσμένος ἐστίν Α” 388.

[310] ἄρνας θέτο: sc. in order to take back with him the two slaughtered lambs which he brought. The flesh of the victim sacrificed to confirm an oath was not eaten, since a c<*>rested upon it, but was buried. P<*> the Achaeans cast their victim i<*> the sea, being unable to bury it in their own land, cf. 19.267 f.

[311] f. = vs. 261 f.

ἔβαινε: for the impf., see on “ἀφίει Α” 25.

[313] cf. “Ω” 330.

ἄψορροι: as 21.456, cf. “παλίνορσος” v. 33; elsewhere “ἄψορρον” is used adv., with sing. or pl.

ἀπονέοντο: see on 2.113.

[314] Vs. 314-382. The duel. Paris is rescued from death by Aphrodite, and carried to his home.

[315] διεμέτρεον: they measured off the ground for the combat, and the distance at which they were to have their spears, cf. v. 344. cf. campum ad certamen magnae sub moenibus urbis | dimensi Rutulique viri Teucrique parabant Verg. Aen. xii. 116 f.

316 = 23.861, cf. “κ 206. — κλήρους πάλλον”: “they arranged the casting of lots.” This is expressed more definitely in v. 324. The “κλῆροι” were bits of wood or stone, marked with some sign so as to be recognized, 7.175 ff. The prayer was offered while the lots were shaken.

[317] πρόσθεν: before, first; cf. v. 346, B 359, “πρότερος” v. 351.

ἀφείη: opt. in indir. disc., representing the subjv. of deliberation in direct disc., cf. 1.191.

318 = 7.177.

χεῖρας ἀνέσχον: equiv. to “χεῖρας ἀνασχόντες”, see § 3 t. For the attitude, cf. 1.450.

319 = v. 297.

320 = v. 276.

[321] τάδε ἔργα: these troubles here, i.e. this war.

ἔθηκεν: caused, as 1.2. — This close of the verse is found also “γ 136, ω” 546. — Both armies seem to unite in wishing the death of Paris.

[322] δός: for “δός” with the inf. in prayers, cf. v. 351, “δὸς δέ τέ μ̓ ἄνδρα ἑλεῖν Ε 118, Ζ 307. — ἀποφθίμενον δῦναι”: equiv. to “ἀποφθίσθαι καὶ δῦναι”. For the epic fulness of expression, see on 1.88.

Ἄϊδος: see on 1.3.

[324] κορυθαίολος: see on B 816.

[325] ἄψ ὁρόων: with averted face, in order to escape the suspicion of favoring his brother.

Πάριος: see on v. 16.

ἐκ ὄρουσεν: the lot was not drawn, but cast, thrown out. Cf.ἐκ δ̓ ἔθορε” (leaped) “κλῆρος κυνέης Η 182, Ψ” 353.

[326] οἱ μέν: Trojans and Achaeans, who had stood during the sacrifice. Perhaps they had not been seated before (see on v. 78, cf. vs. 84, 113 f., 231, 250, 267), although they long ago had dismounted from their chariots and laid their armor upon the ground.

κατὰ στίχας: according to ranks, in ranks.

ἧχι: as 1.607.

[327] ἔκειτο: grammatically and in sense, const. only with “τεύχεα”, although “κεῖμαι” often is the pass. of “τίθημι”. For the zeugma, see on “πρὸς δῶμα Α” 533, cf. “ὅθι τοῦ γε δόμοι καὶ κτήματ̓ ἔκειτο ξ” 291.

[328] ἀμφ̓ ὤμοισιν: standing expression in the case of the principal parts of the warrior's equipment: breastplate, sword (as v. 334), and shield.

ἐδύσετο: Paris had entered the conflict as a light-armed warrior, see on v. 17.

329 = “Η 355, Θ 82, Λ” 369, cf. 11.505.

330-338. cf. 11.17 ff., “Π 131-139, Τ” 369 ff. — The poet presents a picture of the preparations for battle. The complete armament of the Homeric warrior consisted in the six pieces here enumerated, which are always mentioned in the same order before an important conflict.

κνημῖδας: see on 1.17.

[331] καλάς: for the order of words, see § 1 n. — “ἐπισφυρίοις κτλ”.: furnished with buckles, by which they were fastened at the ankle.

[333] οἷο κασιγνήτοιο: since he himself had appeared without a cuirass.

Λυκάονος: Lyeaon had been captured by Achilles and sold as a slave to the king of Lemnos; being ransomed thence, he returned to Troy a week before the events narrated in this book; but twelve days after his return, he met Achilles again and was slain by him, 21.34 ff.

ἥρμοσε δ̓ αὐτῷ: but he fitted it to himself; he changed the length of the straps, buckling it to suit his own form.

334 = 2.45.

335 = “Π 136. — χάλκεον”: prominence is given to an epith. of the whole sword, after the decoration of the hilt has been mentioned in “ἀργυρόηλον <*> Τ 373. — σάκος”: the strap which ded the arm in supporting the hea<*>y shield was thrown over the shoulder, see on 2.388. Thus the shield was taken up before the plumed helmet was donned.

336-338 = 15.480-482; cf. “χ 123125. — κυνέην”: originally a head-covering of dogskin, then helmet; cf.κτιδέην” (weasel-skin) “κυνέην Κ 335, κυνέην ταυρείην Κ” 257 f.; old Laërtes wore “αἰγείην” (goat-skin) “κυνέην ω” 231.

337 = “Λ 42. — ἵππουριν”: cf. “ἱπποδασείης” v. 369, “ἱππόκομοι κόρυθες Ν 132, λόφον ἱππιοχαίτην Ζ 469, ἵππειον λόφον Ο” 537, aere <*>aput fulgens, cristaque hirsutus equina Verg. Aen. x. 869.

δεινόν: cognate acc., adv. with “ἔνευεν”, cf. v. 342.

338 = Od. 17.4; cf. “Π 139. — παλάμηφιν”: here dat.; it is in the gen. v. 368; see § 15 a.

ἀρήρειν: for the “ν”-movable, cf. “ἤσκειν” v. 388; see § 12 n.

[339] ὣς δ̓ αὔτως: and thus in like manner; see § 24 j.

Μενέλαος: Menelaus came forth to battle equipped with armor (v. 29), but put it off as the rest did, v. 114.

ἀρήιος: a short form of “ἀρηίφιλος”, see on v. 21.

ἔντεα: equiv. to “τεύχεα”, chiefly of defensive armor.

340 = “Ψ 813. — ἑκάτερθεν ὁμίλου”: on either side of the throng.

341 = v. 266.

[342] cf. “Ψ 815. — δεινόν”: cf. v. 337.

[344] διαμετρητῷ: see on v. 315.

[345] κοτέοντε: subord. to “σείοντε”.

[346] πρόσθε: as v. 317.

[347] cf. v. 356, “Η 250, Ρ 517, Υ 274. — πάντος᾿ ἐίσην”: a standing formula, at the close of the verse; alike on every side. Strictly used of the smaller circular shields (“ἀσπίδας εὐκύκλους Ε” 453), in distinction from the large oval “σάκος”. But the shield of Paris is called “σάκος” v. 335, and “ἀσπίς”, v. 356; and thus also the shield of Achilles is “ἀσπίς, Σ” 458, and “σάκος Σ” 478.

348-350 = 17.44-46.

348 = 7.259.

οὐδέ: but not.

ἔρρηξεν: broke through the shield.

χαλκός: the bronze point of the lance, cf. “χαλκῷ” below.

οἷ: refers to “χαλκός”.

[349] ὤρνυτο χαλκῷ: arose with his lance, “raised himself to hurl his lance”; cf. “ἀνασχόμενος” v. 362, altior exurgens Verg. Aen. xi. 697, corpore toto | alte sublatum consurgit Turnus in ensem. ... at perfidus ensis | frangitur ib. xii. 728 ff.

[350] ἐπευξάμενος: “uttering a prayer as he did so.”

[351] Ζεῦ ἄνα: as “Π 233, ρ” 354. The vocative form “ἄνα” is found in Homer only in this phrase; elsewhere, “ἄναξ”, as B 284, 434. — “δὸς τίσασθαι κτλ”.: equiv. to “δός μοι τίσαοθαι τοῦτον ὃς κτλ”. The rel. clause “ με κτλ”. represents a noun as the obj. of “τίσασθαι. — πρότερος”: cf. v. 299.

[352] σῖον: a standing epith., denoting nobility of descent and beauty; it is here used without any special reference to the circumstances of the case, see on 1.7. These ‘ornamental epithets’ are sometimes put into the mouth of a foe, as X 393.

Ἀλέξανδρον: is the obj. of “τίσασθαι”. This makes the preceding rel. clause more parenthetical than if this proper name had been attracted to the const. of the rel. clause, as “Λαοδίκην” v. 124.

καὶ ... δαμῆναι: a more definite expression of the thought of “τίσασθαι”.

[353] τὶς: many a one, cf. 2.271.

καί: as v. 287.

[354] “ κεν κτλ”.: explanatory of “ξεινοδόκον.—φιλότητα”: hospitality, cf. v. 207.

355 = “Ε 280, Η 244, Λ 349, Π 516, Χ” 273, 289, cf. “ω 519, 522. — ἀμπεπαλών”: reduplicated aor. (§ 25 j) from “ἀναπάλλω”. After he had swung back, i.e. had drawn back for the throw; cf. adducto contortum hastile lacerto | immittit Verg. Aen. xi. 561 f.

356-360 = 7.250 ff.; cf. v. 347.

[357] = 11.435 f.; cf. 4.135 f.

διά: with long “ι” at the beginning of the verse; see § 41 q.

φαεινῆς: the outer layer of the shield was a plate of brass, cf. 7.223.

ὄβριμον: weighty, mighty.

[358] ἠρήρειστο: was thrust, by the force of the throw; plpf. from “ἐρείδω”, used almost like an aor.

[359] ἀντικρύς: const. closely with what follows, cf. “ἀντικρὺς δὲ δἰ ὤμου χάλκεον ἔγχος ἧλθεν Δ” 481 f., 5.67, 74, 189.

διάμησε: mowed its way through, cut through.

[360] ἐκλίνθη: he bent aside.

ἠλεύατο: for the 1st aor. without tensesign, see § 30 i.

361 = 13.610.

[362] ἀνασχόμενος: drawing up his arm, in order to give a heavier blow; cf. v. 349, “ξ 425, ς 95. — φάλον”: the metal ridge in which the horsehair was arranged like a mane. cf. “κυνέην ... ἄφαλόν τε καὶ ἄλλοφον Κ” 257 f., “κόρυθος φάλον ἤλασεν ... ἄκρον ὑπὸ λόφον Ν” 614 f.

ἀμφὶ αὐτῷ: const. with “διατρυφέν”, about itself, i.e. about the “φάλος”.

[363] “τριχθά τε καὶ κτλ”.: a descriptive expression, see § 2 b.

τε καί: cf. “Α 128, Β” 346 and notes.

διατρυφέν: from “διαθρύπτω”. cf. Verg. Aen. xii. 730, quoted on v. 349.

[364] cf. 21.272.

365 = Od. 20.201, cf. “Ψ 439. — σεῖο ὀλοώτερος”: Zeus “ξείνιος”, the guardian of hospitality (cf. Od. 9.270 f.), had not avenged the privileges that Paris had abused. — Such reproaches of the divinity are uttered only in outbreaks of momentary vexation, as M 164, N 631 f. cf. B 111.

[366] “ἐφάμην κτλ”.: see on 2.37.

κακότητος: causal gen.; for the wrong which he did me.

[367] νῦν δέ: see on 1.354.

ἄγη: from “ἄγνυμι. — ἐκ”: const. with “ἠίχθη”.

[368] ἑτώσιον: pred. nom., cf. “χ 256. — οὐδὲ δάμασσα”: marks the result of both preceding clauses.

[369] κόρυθος: for the gen., cf. “ἑανοῦ” v. 385, “γούνων Α” 500.

[370] “ἕλκε κτλ”.: “he seized Paris by the helmet, turned him about, and strove to draw him into the midst of the Achaeans.” Of course the helmetstrap (“ἱμάς”) under the chin of Paris, choked him.

[371] πολύκεστος: richly embroidered, cf. “κεστὸν ἱμάντα Ξ” 214.

[372] This verse explains “ὑπὸ δειρήν. — ὑπ̓ ἀνθερέωνος”: as 1.501.

ὀχεύς: as holder; pred. with “ὅς”.

373 = 18.165.

374 = “Ε 312. — εἰ μὴ κτλ”.: the first hemistich, as “Ε 680, Θ 91, 132, Υ” 291.

[375] : in the rapid narration, the rel. const. is used here, where a new sent. would be expected. Or this “” may be called dem., with no conj. to connect with the preceding verse.

ἶφι κταμένοιο: such leather would be stronger than that from a diseased animal. For the aor. mid. used as pass., see § 32 d.

[376] τρυφάλεια: the following hiatus is justified, as falling at the fem. caesura of the third foot, see § 9 b. — “ἅμ̓ ἕσπετο κτλ”.: i.e. it remained in his hand.

παχείῃ: thick.

[378] ῥῖψ̓ ἐπιδινήσας: as 19.268, cf. “ἧκ̓ ἐπιδινήσας Η 269, περιστρέψας ἧκε θ” 189. He swung the helmet before he threw it.

κόμισαν: cf. 2.875.

[379] ἄψ: for the hiatus, see on 1.333.

[380] “ἔγχει κτλ”.: emphatic at the beginning of the verse, and the close of the sent., cf. “βάλλε Α” 52. Const. with “ἐπόρουσε. — ἐξήρπαξε”: the poet recognizes no chance rescue; see on 1.8; cf. 5.314 where Aeneas is saved by Aphrodite, and 20.325 where the same hero is rescued by Poseidon.

381 = 20.444, cf. “Λ 752, Φ 549, 597. — ῥεῖα κτλ”.: “easily, as only a god can.”

ἐκάλυψε δέ: “and made him invisible.” cf. “σάωσε δὲ νυκτὶ καλύψας Ε 23, πολλὴν ἠέρα χεῦε η” 15.

[382] κὰδ εί̂σε: cf. “κάθισον” v. 68.

ἐν θαλάμῳ: in his chamber, cf. v. 391.

[383] Vs. 383-420. Aphrodite conducts Helen from the Scaean Gate to her home and Paris.

καλέουσα: fut. partic., expressing purpose.

[384] Τρωαί: women who had come to view the combat, as v. 420; see on 149.

[385] νεκταρέου: used like “ἀμβρόσιος” as divine, heavenly, of charming grace and beauty. cf. Achilles's “νεκτάρεος χιτών, Σ” 25, Artemis's “ἀμβρόσιος ἑανός Φ 507. — ἑανοῦ”: always of a woman's garment. Distinguish from this the adj. “ἑα_νός. — ἐτίναξε”: plucked.

[386] μίν: const. with “προσέειπεν”, cf. v. 389. For the quantity, before a lost consonant, see § 41 m.

παλαιγενέϊ: the adj. strengthens the noun; cf. “γρηῦς παλαιή τ 346, γρῆυ παλαιγενές χ 395. — προσέειπεν”: always used of words that follow immediately, or separated only by a parenthetical clause.

[387] εἰροκόμῳ: explained by the following clause.

[388] ἤσκειν: contracted from “ἤσκεεν”. cf. “εἴριά τε ξαίνειν” (card) “χ 423. — μάλιστα κτλ”.: the rel. const. is abandoned, cf. A 79, 162. — This shows why Aphrodite took the form of this old woman.

φιλέεσκεν: sc. “Ἑλένη”. For the change of subj., cf. “ὅς οἱ πληοίον ἷζε, μάλ<*>τα δέ μιν φιλέ<*>σκεν η” 171.

[389] “τῇ μιν κτλ”.: cf. B 22, 795.

[390] δεῦῤ ἴθι: see on v. 130.

[391] κεῖνος: there, as “Ε 604, Τ” 344.

γε: is he.

[392] cf. “κάλλει καὶ χάρισι στίλβων” “ζ 237. — οὐδέ κε φαίης”: potential, nor would you think; not as v. 220.

[393] ἀνδρὶ μαχησάμενον: equiv. to “ἐκ μάχης. — χορόνδε”: at the close of the verse in contrast with “μαχησάμενον”.

[394] ἔρχεσθαι: “ready to go to the dance,” so beautiful and vigorous is he. — “νέον κτλ”.: i.e. he is in as merry a humor as if he had just enjoyed a dance. The partic. has the principal thought.

[395] cf. 2.142.

θυμὸν ὄρινεν: aroused her anger, by the unworthy suggestion.

[396] καί ῥα: and so. This “ῥά” is resumed by the “ἄρα” of the apod., v. 398; cf. the repetition of “δή ω” 71 f. — “δειρὴν στήθεα κτλ”.: these parts were unchanged by the transformation (vs. 386-389); the divinities retained their characteristics even under a disguise, except when they desired to make themselves entirely unrecognizable by mortals. cf. “ὡς δὲ ἴδεν” (sc. “Ἀγχίσης”) “δειρήν τε κα<*> ὄμματα κάλ̓ Ἀφροδίτης” Hom. Hy. iv. 181. — All but Helen saw only the old woman.

[398] θάμβησεν: cf. 1.199. Wonder mingled with dread came over her, fearing some new device of Aphrodite who had already led her far from her Spartan home. — “ἔπος κτλ”.: as 1.361.

[399] δαιμονίη: cruel divinity. See on 2.190.

ταῦτα: cognate acc. with “ἠπεροπεύειν” which takes “μέ” as dir. obj. “To trick me with these deceits”; cf. “τοῦτο ὑμᾶς ἐξαπατῆσαι” Xen. An. v. 7. 6.

[400] : surely; with mocking irony.

προτέρω: still farther from Lacedaemon.

πολίων: const. with “πῄ”, “into any one of these cities.” G. 168; H. 757.

[401] cf. “Σ 291. — Φρυγίης”: const. with “πολίων”.

[402] καὶ κεῖθι: there also; just as Alexander in Ilios.

μερόπων: as 1.250.

[403] οὕνεκα δὴ νῦν: this introduces sarcastically the reason for the conjecture of vs. 400 f. “Since now, as it seems, I cannot remain longer with your favorite Paris.”

[404] στυγερήν: see on v. 173.

[405] “τούνεκα δὴ κτλ”.: again a sarcastic tone. This is closely connected with the causal rel. sent., as is shown by the repetition of the particles “δὴ νῦν”. Thus the thought returns to v. 399.

δολοφρονέουσα: in pretending that Paris summons her, v. 390.

[406] παῤ αὐτόν: by himself; contrasted with “δεῦρο” v. 405. “Leave me alone.” The asyndeton marks her excitement. — “θεῶν κτλ”.: abandon the path of the gods, “give up thine immortality.” cf. “εἶκε, Διὸς θύγατερ, πολέμου καὶ δηιότητος” (conflict) E 348. The expression is suggested doubtless by the following verse which was already before her mind.

[407] Ὄλυμπον: the limit of motion.

[408] περὶ κεῖνον: about him, at his side.

ὀίζυε: endure woe, “bear all the troubles of human life.”

φύλασσε: watch him, sc. that he does not escape thee or prove unfaithful to thee.

[409] ποιήσεται: aor. subjv. with “εἰς κε”, cf. B 332.

γε: see on A 97; for its position in the second member of the sent., as 2.664, cf. “πολλὰ δ̓ γ̓ ἐν πόντῳ πάθεν ἄλγεα α” 4, nunc dextra ingeminans ictus, nunc ille sinistra Verg. Aen. v. 457, nec dulces amores | sperne puer neque tu choreas Hor. Carm. i. 9. 15 f.

δούλην: this word is found only here and Od. 4.12; the masc. “δοῦλος” is not found in Homer. See § 2 y.

[410] “νεμεσσητὸν κτλ”.: parenthetical; cf. “Ξ 336, Ω 463, χ 489. — νεμεσσητόν”: cf. v. 156, B 223.

[411] κείνου: indicates contempt or abhorrence.

πορσυνέουσα: to prepare, to share.

δέ: the clause is causal in effect.

ὀπίσσω: hereafter; cf. “μετόπισθε Ι” 249.

[412] μωμήσονται: sc. if I give myself to this frivolous coward after the decision by the duel. The fut. is used (more definite than the potential opt.) although the supposition at the basis of this expectation is negatived (“οὐκ εἶμι” v. 410). — “ἔχω κτλ”.: as 24.91. “And yet I have already” etc.

ἄκριτα: cf. 2.246, 796.

[413] χολωσαμένη: falling into a rage, cf. “ὀχθήσας Α” 517. The mid. does not differ greatly from the pass., cf. “χολωθείς Α” 9; see § 32 d.

[414] σχετλίη: disyllabic, with syn izesis of “ιη”, see on “Ἱστίαιαν Β” 537.

μεθείω: for the subjv., cf. 1.28; for the form, (Att. “μεθῶ”), cf. “κιχείω Α” 26.

[415] τῶς: see on 2.330.

ἀπεχθήρω: aor. subjv.; conceive violent hatred.

νῦν: opposed to the future, till now.

ἔκπαγλα: furiously; cf. “αἰνῶς” v. 158.

φίλησα: came to love you, “bestowed my love upon you.”

[416] ἀμφοτέρων: explained by “Τρώων καὶ Δαναῶν. — μητίσομαι”: aor. subjv., still dependent on “μή. — ἔχθεα λυγρά”: grievous hates, which would be destructive to Helen. — cf.

illa (sc. Helen) sibi infestos eversa ob Pergama Teucros
et poenas Danaum, et deserti coniugis iras,
praemetuens

[417] σὺ δὲ ... ὄληαι: an independent addition, as is shown by “κέν”, in order to explain the effect of “ἔχθεα λυγρά”. For the subjv. with “κέν”, see on A 137.

οἶτον: cognate acc.

[418] ἔδεισεν: see on 1.33. Helen does not yield until after the sternest threat.

[419] κατασχονένη: wrapping herself, cf. “καλυψαμένη” v. 141.

[420] Τρωάς: see on v. 384.

λάθεν: sc. “βᾶσα”, as she departed with her two maids (cf. vs. 143, 422). — Helen, in her shame, veiled herself silently, and followed the goddess without attracting attention.

ἦρχε: as “Α 495. — δαίμων”: nowhere else in Homer of a definite divinity.

[421] Vs. 421-447. Helen and Paris.

δόμον: on the citadel of Ilios, near the dwellings of Priam and Hector, cf. 6.313 ff.

[422] ἀμφίπολοι: the two who had accompanied her, v. 143.

[423] κίε: i.e. following Aphrodite, cf. v. 420.

[424] τῇ: for her.

δίφρον: a low seat without a back.

ἑλοῦδα: prior in time to “κατέθηκε φέρουσα”. Obs. the distinction between the aor. and pres. partics.

[425] ἀντἴ Ἀλεξάνδροιο: acc. to v. 391, Alexander was on the bed, but this is disregarded in the following narration, cf. “ἄρχε λέχοσδε κιών” v. 447.

θεά: added to give prominence to her condescension in performing a maid's duties.

φέρουσα: for the use of the partic., see on “ἰών Α” 138.

[426] κούρη Διός: generally of Athene, but of Artemis “Ι 536, ζ” 151, and of Aphrodite 20.105; cf. “κούρην Βρισῆος Α” 392.

[427] πάλιν: back, away from Paris, here as a sign of her displeasure; cf. “πάλιν τρέπεν ὄσσε φαεινώ Ν” 3, talia dicentem iamdudum aversa tuetur Verg. Aen. iv. 362.

ἠνίπαπε: for the form, cf. 1.245.

[428] ἤλυθες: an excl. She reproaches him for his return, cf. 1.23.

αὐτόθι: there, see § 15 d.

[429] δαμείς: with dat. of the agent, as v. 301.

πρότερος: see on 140.

[430] “ μὲν δὴ κτλ”.: with disdainful mockery; truly thou wast wont to boast etc.

[431] σῇ: added with emphasis, as B 164.

βίῃ καὶ χερσίν: thus united also “Μ 135, Ο 139, μ” 246 etc.

[432] ἀλλ̓ ἴθι νῦν: an ironical exhortation. The following asyndeton is usual, cf. 10.53, 175 f., “Λ 611. — προκάλεσσαι”: challenge, call forth to meet thee. Mid., as v. 19, 7.150, 285.

Μενέλαον: obs. the emphatic repetition of the name with the same epith., in the same position in the verse as v. 430. See on v. 223.

[433] “ἀλλὰ κτλ”.: Helen now speaks in earnest. cf. “Π 30, Υ 196. — ἐγώ γε”: cf. A 173. — “But I advise you” etc.

[434] παύεσθαι: cease for ever. Pres. infs. are used also to explain this injunction.

ξανθῷ: cf. v. 284.

[435] ἀντίβιον: for the const. cf. 2.121, 452.

πόλεμον: for the cognate acc., see on 2.788.

[436] μή πως τάχα: lest in some way, soon.

ὑπ̓ αὐτοῦ δουρί: by the spear of this very man, cf. 11.821. For the dat. with “ὑπό”, cf. 2.860 and note.

[437] cf. “Ψ 794. — μύθοισιν”: const. with “προσέειπεν”.

[438] θυμόν: in partitive appos. with “μέ”, cf. vs. 35, 442; see on 1.362.

[439] μὲν γάρ: always in this order; never “γὰρ μέν. — σὺν Ἀθήνῃ”: by the aid of Athene. This diminishes the personal credit of Menelaus for his success.

[440] αὖτις: another time, as “Α 140. — ἐγώ”: sc. “νικήσω. — παρὰ εἰσί”: more freq. in this sense is “παρίστασθαι. — ἡμῖν”: i.e. with Paris and his countrymen.

[441] cf. 14.314 f.

τραπείομεν: aor. pass. subjv. from “τέρπω”, see §§ 13, 32 d, f.

εὐνηθέντε: in the Eng. idiom, this would be in the same const. as “τραπείομεν”, see on 2.113.

[442] ὧδε: so completely, sc. as now (v. 446); cf. 2.802.

ἔρος φρένας ἀμφεκάλυψεν: as 14.294, cf. “θυμὸν ἐνὶ στήθεσσι περιπροχυθεὶς ἐδάμασσεν” (sc. “ἔρος”) “Ξ 316, Κύκλωπα περὶ φρένας ἤλυθεν οἶνος ι” 362. See on 1.103.

[443] οὐδ̓ ὅτε: not even then when.

[444] ἔπλεον ἐν νήεσσι: “was on the voyage.”

[445] Κρανάῃ: perhaps this name was invented for the situation, cf. v. 201; at least the ancients were completely at a loss concerning it. Strabo thought it was the small island Helena between Attica and Cos. Others thought it to be Cythera, south of Sparta. In the second century of our era, with reference to this passage, the name “Κρανάη” was given to a small island in the Laconian gulf.

446=“Ξ 328. — ὡς”: refers to “ὧδε” v. 442.

[447] ἄρχε: made the beginning, began; with a supplementary partic., “κιών”, as B 378.

εἵπετο: the fear of Aphrodite's anger had its effect, in spite of vs. 428 ff. — The whole scene, from v. 382, characterizes the sensual frivolity of Paris.

[448] Vs. 448-461. Menelaus seeks Paris in vain. Agamemnon claims the victory and demands the restitution of Helen.

τὼ μὲν ἄρα: so these two.

[449] The story returns to the point where Aphrodite interposed, v. 380.

ἀν̓ ὅμιλον: sc. “Τρώων. — θηρὶ ἐοικώς”: as “Λ 546, Ο” 586; like to a wild beast in fury and power.

[450] εἴ που ἐσαθρήσειεν: for the opt., see G. 226, 4 N. 1; H. 907. If he but might catch sight of him somewhere, cf.Πάνδαρον διζημένη” (seeking), “εἴ που ἐφεύροι Δ 88, Ν 760. — θεοειδέα”: for the synizesis, cf. v. 27.

[451] οὔ τις δύνατο δεῖξαι: the logical proof of this statement is given below. “They would have pointed him out, if they could.”

κλειτῶν κτλ.: cf. “τηλεκλειτοί τ̓ ἐπίκουροι Ζ” 111.

[452] τότε: i.e. when he sought him.

[453] “They did not conceal him through love (cf. vs. 321 ff.), nor would they have concealed him if any one had seen him.”

[454] κηρί: dat. of likeness with “κ̓̂σον”. For the comparison, cf. “Α 228, ρ 500, ἐχθρὸς ὁμῶς” (like) “Ἀίδαο πύλῃσιν” 9.312

μελαίνῃ: cf. “morti atraeHor. Carm. i. 28. 13, “post equitem sedet atra curaib. iii. I. 40.

[455] καί: also. A standing expression, generally referring to previous speakers.

456 — “Η 348, 368, Θ” 497; cf. v. 86.

Δάρδανοι: see on B 819.

[457] δή: as you see, surely.

φαίνεται: belongs evidently. Cf. the words of Zeus, “ἀλλ᾽ τοι νίκη μὲν ἀρηιφίλου Μενελάου” (sc. “ἐστίν”) 4.13.

[458] Ἀργείην: as 2.161; cf. “ornatus Argivae Helenae Verg. Aen. i. 650.

[459] “τιμὴν κτλ”.: cf. v. 286.

460 — v. 287.

[461] cf. Od. 12.294, 352.

ἐπὶ ἤνεον: cf. “ἐπευφήμησαν Α” 22. — The poet does not tell how Hector and the other Trojans received this demand, but implies that they allowed it as just.

The beginning of the next Book transports the hearers to Olympus, where Hera contrives a breach of the treaty. She cannot consent to any peace that would return Helen and the treasures to Menelaus but would leave unsacked the city that she hated. The Trojans discuss among themselves the return of Helen, 7.345 ff. — The Lycian archer Pandarus (2.827) shot an arrow and wounded Menelaus at the suggestion of Athena (4.116 ff.) Agamemnon thereupon roused the Greek forces, and the opposing armies meet in battle near the close of the Fourth Book (4.446 ff.). Most of the Fifth Book is devoted to the exploits of Diomed (“Διομήδους ἀριστεία”). In the Sixth Book, Hector visits the city, tells the matrons to pray to Athena, and bids farewell to Andromache. In the Seventh Book, Hector and Ajax meet in single combat but night separates them, and the 22d day of the action of the Iliad ends.

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