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Vs. 1-75. The advance of both armies. Paris and Menelaus meet. Hector's rebuke and the answer of Paris.

1-14. A transition to the scene of the approaching conflict.

This verse refers to 2.476, 815.

ἕκαστοι: i.e. the separate divisions of each army. The sing. would have been used of individuals; see on A 606.

[2] Τρῶες: i.e. Trojans and their allies; as 2.826, not as “Β 816. — κλαγγῇ κτλ”.: with clamor and outcry; one idea, expressed for emphasis by two synonymous nouns; cf. “Α 492, Β” 339, v. 242, “κακότητι καὶ ἄλγεσι υ 203, ἔρις καὶ νεῖκος ὄρηται υ 267, σθένεός τε καὶ ἀλκῆς πειρήτιζεν χ” 237; see § 1 s.

ὄρνιθες ὥς: cf. 2.764, see on 2.190. This comparison is made definite by a special illustration.—The Achaeans silent in the consciousness of their power are contrasted with the noisy Trojans. Elsewhere also the Trojans are represented as exercising less selfrestraint, as less disciplined than the Greeks. When the strife is renewed, 4.429 ff., the Achaeans advance in solemn silence, while the Trojans come to meet them with the noise of a flock of sheep. The Achaeans shout once, in panic flight, 17.759.

[3] ἠύτε: see on 2.87.

οὐρανόθι πρό: the adv. “πρό” makes “οὐρανόθι” more definite. To the observer, the sky seems to be behind the cranes in their lofty flight, see on 2.456. — cf. quales sub nubibus atris | Strymoniae dantsigna grues, atque aethera tranant | cum sonitu, fugiuntque notos clamore secundo Verg. Aen. x. 264 ff., ‘As multitudinous on the ocean line | As cranes upon the cloudless Thracian wind,’ Shelley, Hellas.

[4] ἐπεὶ οὖν: as “Α 57. — χειμῶνα”: cf. “γέρανοι δὲ φεύγουσαι χειμῶνα τὸν ἐν τῇ Σκυθικῇ χώρῃ γινόμενον, φοιτέουσι ἐς χειμασίην” (winter quarters) “ἐς τοὺς τόπους τούσδε” (of the Nile) Hdt. ii. 22, quam multae glomerantur aves, ubi frigidus annus | trans portum fugat, et terris immittit apricis Verg. Aen. vi. 311 f.

φύγον: for the gnomic aor. in comparisons, cf. vs. 10, 23, 33; see § 2 k.

[5] κλαγγῇ: contains the real point of the comparison; vs. 6 f. are added simply to complete the picture, see § 2 e.

ταί γε: repeats the subj., “αἵ τε” v. 4. See on “Α 97. — ἐπὶ κτλ”.: toward the currents etc., i.e. toward the South; see on 1.423.

[6] ἀνδράσι: made prominent in contrast with the cranes. “ἀνήρ” often stands in attributive connection with nouns, cf. “ἄνδρες στρατιῶται, ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, κτλ”. See § 1 u.

Πυγμαίοισι: these Liliputians (lit. Fistlings) on the southern shore of the Mediterranean, were attacked yearly by the cranes, acc. to the common story. For the mythical trait in a comparison, cf. B 782. — cf. ‘that small infantry | Warr'd on by cranes’ Milton Par. Lost i. 575. — “φόνον κτλ”.: cf. “Β 352, ἵκηται δηιοτῆτα φέρων ζ 203, Π” 757.

[7] ἠέριαι: see on 1.497; i.e. on the day after their arrival in the land.

κακήν: destructive, as 1.10; sc. to the Pygmies. — “ἔριδα κτλ”.: offer (lit. bring forward) strife; cf.ἔριδα προφέρουσαι ξ” 92 “in rivalry,” “ἔριδυ προβαλόντες Λ” 529.

[8] οἱ δ̓ ἄρα: correlative with “Τρῶες μέν” v. 2.

ἴσαν σιγῇ: cf. “οὐ γὰρ κραυγῇ ἀλλὰ σιγῇ ... καὶ ἡσυχῇ ... προσῇσαν” Xen. An. i. 8. 11.

μένεα πνείοντες: see on 2.536. — cf. ‘Thus they | Breathing united force with fixed thought | Moved on in silence,’ Milton Par. Lost i. 559 ff.

[9] ἐν θυμῷ: emphatic; in heart, though they did not shout. cf. 2.223.

[10] εὖτε: generally a temporal particle; here and 19.386, a comparative conj., as, like “ἠύτε” v. 3. “As the South wind veils the mountain tops with mist.”

[11] “οὔ τι φίλην κτλ”.: since the shepherd on the mountains in a thick mist cannot easily watch and guard his flock.

νυκτὸς ἀμείνω: perhaps because the sheep were usually shut up in their fold at night.

[12] τόσσον, ὅσον: acc. of extent, with “ἐπί”, cf. “Β 616. — τέ, τέ”: these mark the correlation of the clauses; see on 1.82. — Distances are thus measured in Homer: as the cast of a spear (“δουρηνεκές Κ 357, δουρὸς ἐρωή Ο” 358), or of a discus (“δίσκου οὖρα Ψ” 431), or of a shepherd's crook (23.845), or a bow-shot (Od. 12.83 f.), or a furrow's length (10.351), or the reach of the voice (Od. 9.473).

[13] “ὣς ἄρα κτλ”.: as B 784.

14 = 2.785.

15 = “Ε 14, 630, 850, Ζ 121, Λ 232, Ν 604, Π 462, Υ 176, Φ 148, Χ 248, Υ” 816. A formula which, in close connection with what has preceded, introduces the single combat of two warriors.

σχεδὸν ἦσαν: were near each other. For the use of the adv., see on 1.416.

ἐπ̓ ἀλλήλοισιν: const. with “ἰόντες”. For “ἐπί” in hostile sense, cf. v. 132; see on 1.382.

[16] Τρωσίν: for the Trojans, cf. “τοῖσι δ̓ Ἐρευσαλίων πρόμος ἵστατο” (equiv. to “προμάχιζεν”) “Η 136. — Ἀλέξανδρος”: the Greek name of Paris, and used four times as freq. as the other. The dat, of “Πάρις” is not used, “Πάριος” only v. 325, “Πάριν” but thrice.

θεοειδής: this epith. is given him because of his personal beauty; cf. vs<*> 39, 44 ff., 55, 64.

[17] παρδαλέην: adj. as subst.; see on A 54. As a light-armed warrior (he was eminently a bowman, 11.369 ff), he wore no armor, and thus has a panther's skin on his shoulders. See on B 43.

[18] αὐτάρ: on the other hand; this gives prominence to “δοῦρε”, since the spears do not belong properly to the archer's equipment, which has just been described.

δοῦρεδύω: as “Μ 298, Φ 145, α” 256; i.e. one in either hand. cf. v. 338. For “δύω” with the dual, see on “Α 16. — κεκορυθμένα κτλ”.: helmeted with bronze, i.e. bronze pointed. For the pl. in agreement with the dual, cf. “Α 200, ὄσσε φαεινά Ν” 435. — cf. bina manu lato crispans hastilia ferro Verg. Aen. i. 313, laeva duo forte gerebat | praefixa hastilia ferro ib. xii. 488 f.

[19] πάλλων: parallel with “ἔχων” v. 17.

προκαλίζετο: challenged; by his mien rather than by words, cf. v. 21. “προκαλιζόμενος” would give a smoother const. here, but the finite verb is used in order to give it more prominence; cf. “ἔβαλλον” v. 80. Thus “ἔχων” and “πάλλων” seem to be related to both imperfects.

πάντας ἀρίστους: in marked contrast with his yielding before Menelaus, who was not distinguished in battle (“μαλθακὸς αἰχμητής Ρ” 588). — Here the period returns to v. 16, since this verse explains “προμάχιζεν”. — Paris and Menelaus are introduced first in the action, since the two are the prime cause of the war. Their feud is private as well as public. The description of the two foes is made specially effective by the contrast of their characters.

20 = 7.40, 51.

ἀντίβιον: cf. “ἀντιβίην Α” 278; used only of the hand to hand conflict.

μαχέσασθαι: inceptive aor.

[21] δέ: correl. with “μέν” v. 16.

ὡς: for its position, see on 1.32.

ἀρηίφιλος: this epith. is generally (21 times) applied as here to Menelaus. The epith. and the name form a convenient close to the verse, see on 1.7, § 40 d.

[22] προπάροιθεν ὁμίλου: sc. as “πρόμαχος. — μακρὰ βιβάντα”: with long strides. This gives the manner of “ἐρχόμενον”. It is here a sign of courage, for Paris was no coward; cf. “Η 213, Ν 809, Ο” 307, 676, 686, longe gradientem Verg. Aen. x. 572, ‘Satan with vast and haughty strides advanced’ Milton Par. Lost, vi. 109, and (as a sign of pride) Od. 11.539.

[23] “ὥς τε λέων κτλ”.: a comparison instead of the apod., which (with “ὀφθαλμοῖσιν ἰδών” as a repetition of “ὡς ἐνόησεν”) follows at v. 27. The gnomic aor. “ἐχάρη” contains the point of comparison; but “πεινάων” also receives emphasis from its position and corresponds to “φάτο γὰρ τίσασθαι” v. 28, i.e. joy at the promised satisfaction of a passionate desire.

ἐπὶ σώματι κύρσας: as he happened upon the carcass of a beast just slain in the chase (cf. v. 26). “σῶμα” is used in Homer only of a dead body, see § 2 v.—Cf. impastus stabula alta leo ceu saepe peragrans, | suadet enim vesana fames; si forte fugacem | conspexit capream aut surgentem in cornua cervum | gaudet Verg. Aen. x. 723 ff. Similar comparison is found 11.474 ff. The aor. is gnomic, like “εὑρών” below.

[24] εὑρών: as he found; explaining “κύρσας”, and in appos. with it.

ἄγριον αἶγα: cf. “αἶγας ὀρεσκῴους” (“of the mountain”) Od. 9.155.

[25] μάλα κατεσθίει: eagerly devours, as “Φ 24. — γάρ τε κτλ”.: explains “πεινάων. — εἴ περ ἄν”: see on “Β 597. — αὐτόν”: himself, in contrast with the goat or deer.

[26] “κύνες κτλ”.: “hounds and hunters,” as “Λ 414, Ρ” 282.

[27] θεοειδέα: with synizesis of the last two vowels of the verse, as vs. 237, 450; see § 7 c.

[28] τίσασθαι: for the aor. inf. after a verb of expecting, cf. vs. 112, 366; see G. 203 N. 2.

29 = “Ε 494, Ζ 103, Μ 81, Ν” 749; cf. “Δ 419, Λ” 211. The close of the verse also “Ε 111, Π 733, 755, Ω” 469. — Paris was on foot, see v. 22.

ἐξ ὀχέων: equiv. to “ἐξ ἵππων” v. 265.

30 = 11.581.

[31] κατεπλήγη: “was filled with dismay”; not from natural cowardice (cf. Hector's words to Paris, “ἐπεὶ ἄλκιμός ἐσσι Ζ” 522), but his guilty conscience robbed him of courage, at sight of Menelaus. ‘Conscience does make cowards of us all.’

φίλον: see on v. 138, 1.491.

ἦτορ: see on 1.44.

32 = “Λ 585, Ν 566, 596, 648, Ξ 408, Π” 817; cf. 13.165, 533.

[33] ὡς δ̓ ὅτε: introduces a comparison, with the gnomic aor., as “Δ 275, Ε 902, Λ 558, Π 823. — τέ, τέ”: as v. 12. For the “ε” remaining short before “δρ”, see § 41 i “β”.

παλίνορσος ἀπέστη: stepped back again, sc. in terror; in this lies the point of the comparison. For the pred. adj. used as an adv., cf. “ἠέριαι” v. 7, “ἀντίοι Α” 535. —cf. improvisum aspris veluti qui sentibus anguem | pressit humi nitens, trepidusque repente refugit | ... haud secus Androgeus visu tremefactus abibat Verg. Aen. ii. 379 ff., ‘False Sextus saw and trembled, | and turned and fled away; | As turns, as flies the woodman | In the Calabrian brake | When thro' the reeds gleams the round eye | Of that fell speckled snake, | So turned, so fled false Sextus | And hid him in the rear,’ Macaulay Lays, Battle of Regillus xv.

[34] ὑπό: below, referring to the weakness of his knees; cf. “Δ 421, Ξ 506, Υ” 44. Const. with “ἔλλαβε”.

[35] παρειάς: in appos. with “μίν”, as a ‘part’ with the ‘whole’; cf. vs. 438, 442.

ὦχρος: cf. “τοὺς δὲ χλωρὸν δέος ᾕρειν Η” 479.

[36] καθ̓ ὅμιλον: into the throng.

ἀγερώχων: prob. courageous, impetuous; also B 654.

[37] Ἀλέξανδρος: in appos. with the subj. of “ἔδυ”, expressed here for the sake of the contrast with “Ἀτρέος υἱόν”.

38 = “Ζ 325. — αἰσχροῖς”: i.e. reproachful, cf.ὸνειδείοις Β” 277.

39 = 13.769.

Δύσπαρι: a determinative compound (G. 132. 2; H. 590), stronger than “Unhappy Paris”; cf. “μῆτερ δύσμητερ ψ 97, Κακοΐλιον οὐκ” “ὀνομαστήν Ψ 19, Δύσπαρις, αἰνόπαρις, κακὸν Ἑλλάδι βωτιανείρῃ” Alcman 40.

εἶδος ἄριστε: as v 124; in contrast with “Δύσπαρι”, cf. v. 45, “κάκ̓ ἐλέγχεα, εἶδος ἀγητοί Ε 787, Π” 142. Thus the excellence that is granted is made a reproach.

ἠπεροπευτά: cf. v. 399.

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