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[110]

[111] cf. “Τ 74. — Ἀχαιοὶ κτλ”.: in appos. with “οἱ”.

[112] παύσασθαι: for the aor. inf. after “ἐλπόμενοι”, see on v. 28; to free themselves from, be freed from, with ablatival gen. “αἴ κ̓ ἐθέλωσιν παύσασθαι πολέμοιο δυσηχέος, εἰς κε ϝεκροὺς κήομεν Η” 375 ff. is different.

[113] καί ῥα: and so.

ἐπὶ στίχας: cf. “Β 687. — ἐκ δ̓ ἔβαν [ἔβησαν]”: sc. from their war chariots.

[114] κατέθεντο: sc. “Ἀχαιοί τε Τρῶές τε.” cf. “ἀποθέσθαι” v. 89.

[115] πλησίον ἀλλήλων: refers to “τὰ μέν”. This thought is stated in different form by the rest of the verse: little ground was round about each suit of armor.

[116] δύω: this numeral is const. with the pl. where the two persons are not necessarily and closely connected, as “Ε 10, δὔ Αἴαντες Θ 79, Μ 127. — κήρυκας”: the heralds were the only official members of the king's household; cf. 1.320 ff., 2.183 f. Thus the service of the heralds, v. 268 ff., is because of their relations to the king's person.

[118] Ταλθύβιον: see on 1.320.

[120] οἰσέμεναι aor. inf., cf. v. 103.

ἄρα: then, so; the immediate result of the commission.

οὐκ ἀπίθησε: followed by a dat. of the person.

[121] Vs. 121-244. The view from the walls. Helen, questioned by Priam, tells him about some of the Achaean heroes.

Ἶρις: Iris, elsewhere the messenger of the gods (see on 2.786), here of her own accord (cf. “Ε 353, Ψ” 198 ff.) brings into the action Helen, the cause of the war and the prize of the expected single combat. The following scene (“Τειχοσκοπία”) which occupies the time necessary for the preparations for the principal action (see on 1.318), introduces the hearer to the Trojans and their relations to each other.

λευκωλένῳ: see on 1.55.

[122] γαλόῳ: husband's sister. The Greeks were not restricted to such a clumsy and indefinite expression as sister-in-law; cf.γαλόῳ καὶ εὶνατέρες” (husband's brothers' wives) “Χ 473, δαήρ” v. 180, “ἕκυρε” v. 172.

[123] εἶχε: cf. v. 53.

Ἑλικάων: he does not appear elsewhere in Homer.

[124] cf. 6.252.

Λαοδίκην: attracted to the case of the rel. “τήν”, see on “Β 764. — εἶδος ἀρίστην”: lit. most excellent in appearance, most beautiful. The same expression is used of Laodice again Z 252, of Cassandra N 365. cf. v. 39, B 715, N 378.

[125] ἐν μεγάρῳ: in her chamber, cf. v. 142, “ἀλλ̓ γ̓” (sc. Andromache) “ἱστὸν ὕφαινε μυχῷ δόμου ὑψηλοῖο δίπλακα πορφυρέην, ἐν δὲ θρόνα” (flowers) “ποικίλ̓ ἔπασσεν Χ” 440 f.

ἱστόν: web. Weaving was the most honorable employment of Homeric women; it occupied queens and goddesses. So Hector, on parting from Andromache, says “ἀλλ̓ εἰς οἶκον ἰοῦσα τὰ ς᾿ αὐτῆς ἔργα κόμιζε” (care for), | “ἱστόν τ̓” (loom) “ἠλακάτην τε” (spindle) 6.490 f. cf. the web of Penelope Od. 2.94 ff., of Circe Od. 10.221 ff., the looms of the Ithacan nymphs Od. 13.107 f., the robes made by Athena 8.385 f., 14.178 f., the robe woven by Helen and given to Telemachus Od. 15.123 ff.

[126] δίπλακα: fem. adj. as subst., see on 1.54; sc. “χλαῖναν”, cf. “χλαῖναν διπλῆν τ 225, δίπτυχον λώπην ν” 224. A double cloak (cf. doublet); so large that it could be thrown twice (or double) about the body. It is contrasted with “ἁπλοΐδας χλαίνας Ω 230. — πορφυρέην”: of purple, while the interwoven scenes (“ποικίλματα, ο” 107) were of some other color. For this artistic working in colors, cf. “Ξ 179, Χ” 441 (quoted on v. 125). This art was prob. still dependent on oriental patterns, but evidently had advanced to the representation of persons.

πολέας: as 1.559.

ἐνέπασσεν: wove in.

ἀέθλους: battles, fought on the plain of Troy, before the action of the Iliad. Other allusions to these conflicts are found v. 132 f., 1.520 f., 2.29 f., “Ε 788, Η” 113 f., I 352 ff., 13.101 ff. But most of the earlier fighting seems to have been done at a distance, as Achilles pursued Aeneas not on the Trojan plain, but on Mt. Ida, 20.188 ff.

127 = vs. 131, 251, 8.71.

[128] ἕθεν: not enclitic, since it is reflexive, referring to the subj. of the principal sent. — “ὑπ̓ Ἄρηος κτλ”.: by the hands of Ares.ὑπὸ χερσὶν κτλ”. is more freq. in similar expressions.

[129] See on 2.790.

[130] δεῦῤ ἴθι: cf. “βάσκ̓ ἴθι Β 8, δεῦτ̓ ἄγε θ” 11.

νύμφα φίλη: dear lady, as “δ 743. — θέσκελα ἔργα”: an indefinite expression, to excite Helen's curiosity.

[131] See on v. 127.

[132] οἳ πρίν: who before, i.e. until now. The antec. of the rel. follows, “οἱ δὴ νῦν” v. 134. — “ἐπὶ κτλ”.: see on v. 15.

πολύδακρυν: i.e. causing many tears, cf. v. 165, “πόλεμον δακρυόεντα Ε 737, μάχης δακρυοέσσης Ν” 765, lacrimabile bellum Verg. Aen. vii. 604.

[133] For the rhyme between the two halves of the verse, cf. 2.484.

[134] δὴ νῦν: already now. — “ἕαται [ἧνται]σιγῇ: with the collateral notion of inactivity. See on B 255. — “πόλεμος κτλ”.: parenthetical; see on 2.333.

[135] ἀσπίσι κεκλιμένοι: leaning on their shields, as they stood; cf. vs. 231, 326, “κεκλιμένοι καλῇσιν ἐπάλξεσιν” (battlements) 22.3.

παρά: adv., by their side.

πέπηγεν: i.e. with the “σαυρωτήρ” (bronze point of the butt, 10.153) fixed in the ground. cf. defigunt telluri hastas et scuta reclinant Verg. Aen. xii. 130, stant terra defixae hastae ib. vi. 652.

[136] = vs. 253 f., mutatis mutandis.

[138] τῷ κε ϝικήσαντι: him who gains the victory. For the dem. art. with the partic., cf. “τῷ μὲν νικήσαντι ... ἀνδρὶ δὲ νικηθέντι Ψ” 702 ff., “τὸν ἄγοντα Φ 262, νικηθείς Ψ 663. — κέ”: const. with “νικήσαντι”, as is shown by its position and by “ὁππότερος δέ κε νικήσῃ” v. 71. So v. 255. No other example of this const. is found in Homer.

φίλη: standing epith., esp. with words which denote relationship (as “τοκῆες, πατήρ, πάις, τέκνον, ξεῖνος, ἑταῖρος”) or a part of the human body (as “κεφαλή, χεῖρ, γυῖα”), or mind (“κῆρ, ἦτορ”). See on A 491, § 1 p.

κεκλήση: thou shalt be called. See on “Α 293, Β” 260.

[139] εἰποῦσα: coincides in time with “ἔμβαλε”.

γλυκὺν ἵμερον: cf. v. 446.

[140] προτέροιο: Helen was no longer wife of Menelaus; so she says of Agamemnon, “δαὴρ” (husband's brother) “αὖτ̓ ἐμὸς ἔσκε” v. 180, while her “δαέρες, Ω” 769, are Priam's sons.

ἄστεος: used of the native city, as “πόλις”, v. 50.

τοκήων: Tyndareüs and Leda were thought of as alive. Tyndareüs is called Helen's father, just as Heracles is called son of Amphitryo, 5.392; this is not inconsistent with vs. 199, 418.

[141] “ἀργεννῇσι κτλ”.: cf. v. 419, “ἀπὸ δὲ λιπαρὴν ἔρριψε καλύπτρην Χ 406, ά̀ντα παρειάων” (cheeks) “σχομένη λιπαρὰ κρήδεμνα” (veil) Od. 1.334. In accordance with oriental custom, women and maidens were veiled when they went on the streets or came into the presence of men who were not immediate relations.

[142] θαλάμοιο: the apartments of the women in the rear part of the house. There Helen sits and spins with her maids, Z 321 ff.

143 = “α 331, ς” 207; cf. “ζ 84, τ 601. — ἅμα τῇ γε κτλ”.: in appos. with “οὐκ οἴη”, cf. 2.822. — Princely ladies generally are attended by two maids, cf. “Χ 450, 461, ς” 182 ff. But Andromache goes to the Tower (6.389) attended only by one maid, who carries the infant Astyanax.

[144] Αἴθρα: Pittheus, king of Troezene, was son of Pelops. His daughter Aethra bore Theseus to Aegeus, king of Athens. She, living in Athens, had under her care Helen whom Theseus had carried off from Sparta, until Castor and Polydeuces freed their sister Helen and captured Aethra at or near Athens. So Aethra was made Helen's slave, first in Sparta and afterwards in Ilios. But this seems to be a post-Homeric story.

Κλυμένη: likewise a slave brought with Helen from Sparta, cf. vs. 386 ff.

βοῶπις: see on A 551.

[145] ὅθι: thither where.

Σκαιαὶ πύλαι: see on 2.809.

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