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Book 4 (*d

In the First Book of the Iliad, Achilles, the mightiest of the Greek warriors before Troy, quarrels with Agamemnon, the leader of the expedition, and withdraws from all part in the fray.

In the Second Book, the Achaeans are armed for battle with the Trojans.

At the beginning of the Third Book, just as the opposing armies are about to meet, Paris challenges Menelaus to a single combat which shall deeide the issue of the war. Priam is called from Troy, and a truce is struck. ‘If Menelaus slays Paris, the Greeks are to take Helen and peaceably return to their homes. If Paris slays Menelaus, the Greeks are to withdraw at once.’ In the single combat, Menelaus disables and overpowers Paris, and is just about to slay him, when the goddess Aphrodite snatches up her Trojan favorite, and deposits him safely in his home. At the close of “*g”, Menelaus is ranging through the host, seeking Paris, whom (of course) he cannot find; and Agamemnon, declaring that the victory belongs clearly to his brother, demands the surrender of Helen and the treasures which Paris had carried away from Sparta.

The Fourth Book opens with a Council of the Gods in the great hall of Zeus on Olympus. They have watched what has been done on the Trojan plain, and recognize the fact that Menelaus has won the victory. Zeus proposes that the provisions of the treaty be carried into effect,— that the Achaeans withdraw to their homes, taking with them Helen and her treasures. But Hera and Athena cannot consent to any peace which would leave unsacked the hated city of Troy, and they instigate a Lycian archer, a Trojan ally, to break the truce by wounding Menelaus. Then the strife begins anew.

1-219. The wounding of Menelaus.

1-84. Council of the gods. Preparations for a breach of the truce.

cf. “oi( de\ qeoi\ pa\r *zhni\ kaqh/menoi” “a\sterophth=|” (lightener

qheu=nto” (were watching) “me/ga e)/rgon *)axaiw=n xalkoxitw/nwn *h” 443 f.
qeoi/: in appos. with “oi(”. § 24 k.

h)goro/wnto: were in assembly, sc. during the events narrated in the preceding Book; cf. 10-12. The gods assembled in the great hall of Zeus, like retainers in the hall of their feudal lord. For the form, see § 29 c.

[2] xruse/w| ktl.: a more definite statement of “pa\r *zhni/” above. The pavement of the great hall was covered with plates of gold. cf. ‘and the floor of the house he overlaid with gold, within and without,’ 1 Kings vi. 30, of Solomon's temple. See on 1.426.

meta/: adverbial, in their midst. § 37 a.

sfi/si: dat. of interest, for them.

*(/hbh: only here in Homer as cup-bearer; but she renders other services to the gods in 5.722, 905. She does not appear as wife of Heracles in the Iliad, but in Od. 11.603 (a late passage), as in Pindar and other poets.

[3] ne/ktar e)w|noxo/ei: cf. “oi)noxo/ei ne/ktar *a 598, i(/ppoi boukole/onto g” 221, ‘weekly journal’ (diurnus, i.e. ‘daily’). The original meaning of the compound verb was overlooked. The syllabic augment is used since “oi)=nos” began with “*v”. § 25 h; G. 104, N. 1; H. 359.

toi/: “ou(=toi”, § 24 i.

xruse/ois: disyllabic by ‘synizesis.’ § 7.

depa/essi: “de/pasi”, § 18 c, d; cf. “e)pe/essi” 6.

[4] deide/xato: were pledging. Cf. “plhsa/menos d' oi)/noio de/pas dei/dekt) *)axilh=a *i” 224. The gods ‘drank each other's health.’ For the omission of the augment, see § 25 a. For the ending, see § 26 t.

[5] au)ti/ka: at once, straightway; sc. after the close of the single combat described in “*g”. For the omission of a conjunction, see § 2 n.

*kroni/dhs: for the ‘patronymic,’ see § 21 e.

e)reqize/men: “e)reqi/zein”, § 26 j. This he does esp. by the proposition of 18.

[6] parablh/dhn: Zeus teasingly compares Aphrodite's constant care of Paris with the neglect of Menelaus by Hera and Athena. For the ending, see § 38 c.

[7] “doiai/ [du/o]”: emphatic, in contrast with the single defender of Paris, 10.

*menela/w|: dat. with “a)rhgo/nes ei)si/”, which is equiv. to “a)rh/gousi”. cf. “*e 511, *trw/essin a)rwgoi/ *f” 428.

qea/wn: for the uncontracted form, see § 16 d.

8 = 5.908.

*)argei/h: Argos was the chief seat of Hera's worship. cf. “o(/de | *(/hras o( kleino\s nao/s” Soph. El. 8. cf. also 52.

*)alalkomenhi/s: of Alalcomenae, a Boeotian town where Athena was worshipped with special distinction from the earliest times. These epithets of the two goddesses,—“*)alalkomenhi/s” reminding of defence and protection (“a)lalkei=n”),—serve to strengthen the contrast with the ‘smile-loving’ Aphrodite, 10, “h(=| ou) de/dotai polemh/ia e)/rga *e” 428. Observe the ‘chiasmus’; see § 2 o.

[9] a)ll' h)= toi: but truly.

no/sfi: sc. “*menela/ou”.

kaqh/menai: implies inactivity, in contrast with “parme/mblwke”.

ei)soro/wsai: closely connected, as cause, with “te/rpesqon”, delight in looking on.

[10] tw=|: that one, i.e. Paris. The mention of his name is unnecessary, since the gods have been watching the single-combat.

au)=te: on the other hand.

filommeidh/s: by assimilation for “filo-smei-dhs”. See § 12 e.

[11] parme/mblwke: from “parablw/skw”. See §§ 11 a, 12 g.

au)tou=: from himself, from his body. Const. as ablatival gen. with “a)mu/nei”. See § 3 d; cf. “*zeu\s kh=ras” (fates) “a)/munen| paido\s e(ou= *m” 402 f. For “au)to/s” referring to a man's body, cf. “au)tou\s de\ e(lw/ria teu=xe ku/nessin *a” 4. See § 2 v.

[12] kai\ nu=n: introduces a special instance under the general statement of “ai)ei/”. cf. “*a 107, 109, *e” 603 f.

e)cesa/wsen: sc. “qana/toio” (cf. “h)e/ min e)k qana/toio saw/somen *x” 175) or “pole/moio”.

o)io/menon ktl.: cf. “*o 728, u” 21.

[13] ni/kh: sc. “e)sti/”. cf. the words of Agamemnon, “ni/kh me\n dh\ fai/net' a)rhifi/lou *menela/ou *g” 457.

*menela/ou: for the gen., see G. 169, 1; H. 732 a.

14 = 14.61, cf. “r 274, n 365, y” 117.

o(/pws ktl.: how this shall be, i.e. what we shall do. Cf. 2.252. Zeus does not here indicate his preference,—still less his determination. He does not assume that the articles of the truce of “*g” are to be carried out. A loophole of escape has been left since the oath ran (3.281 ff.) ‘if Menelaus shall slay Alexander,’ and this condition had not been literally fulfilled.

ta/de e)/rga: the ‘hiatus’ is merely apparent. See §§ 9 f., 14 a; cf. 18.

[15] cf. Od. 24.475 f., with “teu/ceis” for “o)/rsomen”, and “ti/qhsqa” for “ba/lwmen”. These verses explain the second ‘hemistich’ of 14.—“h)/, h)=”: see § 3 m a.

po/lemon ktl.: cf. 82, 18.242. For the use of nearly synonymous nouns, see § 1 s, and on 3.2.

o)/rsomen: aor. subjv., cf. “ba/lwmen”. For the short mode vowel, see § 27 a.

filo/thta: contrasted by its position before the verse-pause, with “po/lemo/n te” above.

ba/lwmen: bring, cause. Cf.ti/qhsin” 83.

[17] ei) d' au)= ktl.: Zeus is not serious in this proposition. He knows what the answer of the goddesses will be; and, as for himself, his promise to Thetis, that he would secure honor and satisfaction for Achilles, can be kept only by the continuance of hostilities. He is merely teasing (“e)reqize/men” 5) Hera and Athena. Hence he grants Hera's wish for the destruction of Troy more willingly than appears on the surface.

to/de: i.e. the latter of the alternatives presented above,—peaceful reconciliation.

pa=si: made prominent before the verse-pause. Obs. the same position of “pa/ntes” 29.

fi/lon ktl.: Hera cannot be expected to listen quietly to this.

[18] h)= toi me/n: correl. with “de/” 19. cf. 3.168 f.

me/n: long by ‘position.’ See §§ 41 m, 14 a.

oi)ke/oito: may be inhabited, may still stand, or (more freely) men may still dwell in the city of Priam. cf. “oi( d' a)/lloi ... nai/oite *troi/hn *g” 73 f. Trisyllabic by ‘synizesis.’ § 7 a. *pria/moio: “*pria/mou”, § 17 a.

[19] *)argei/hn: a standing epithet of Helen, because of her former Peloponnesian home. cf. 2.161.

a)/goito: may take home as his wife. Obs. the force of the mid. voice. cf. 3.72, 404.

[20] 20-25 = 8.457-462.

e)pe/mucan: “e)pi/” here signifies thereat, at his words.

*)aqhnai/h ktl.: in appos. with “ai(”.

[21] Parenthetical.

plhsi/ai: sc. “a)llh/lais”.

ai(/ g' h(/sqhn: equiv. to “h(/menai”.

kaka\ de\ ktl.: an independent, instead of a participial (“mhdo/menai”), clause. See § 3 t.

*trw/essi: Aeolic form for “*trwsi/”. § 18 c.

[22] *)aqhnai/h: prominent by its position before the pause.

a)ke/wn: seems strictly a participle, but it became stereotyped, and is here used as an adverb. “a)ke/ousa” is used 1.565, 569. For an adv. with “h)=n”, cf. 277, 319, “*a 416, *z” 131.

ou)de/ ti ei)=pen: freq. in Homer, the last clause of the verse repeats the meaning of the earlier clause in more definite, or at least in different, form.—Athena was too angry to speak.

[23] This verse is nearly parenthetical. The beginner will be greatly helped if he learns to notice how often the second half of a verse or one or more verses are parenthetical—used to give life to the picture, without adding anything necessary to the information of the hearer.

skuzome/nh ktl.: const. closely with “a)ke/wn h)=n”.

de/: a causal particle would have made the relation of the clauses more distinct. See § 3 q.

xo/los ktl.: cf. Od. 8.304.

xo/los: a burst of anger, while “ko/tos” is a grudge, and “mh=nis” is enduring wrath. The Attic “o\rgh/” is not found in Homer.

h(/|rein: the impf. is more descriptive than the aor. would be. Athena was growing more and more angry. cf. “ou)de/ min u(/pnos| h(/|rei *w” 4 f.—For the “n”-movable, see § 12 n.

[24] *(/hrh|: for the dative, see § 3 g a.

ou)k ktl.: i.e. her wrath ‘boiled over.’

proshu/da: sc. “mi/n”.

25 = “*a 552, *q 462, *c 330, *p 440, *s” 361. This sent. and the following are exclamatory.

poi=on: predicate. See H. 1012 a. “What is this which,” etc.

[26] pw=s ktl.: a question of surprise, equiv. to the prosaie assertion, ‘it is in no way possible,’ ‘it cannot be.’

alion, a)te/leston: in vain, ineffectual. Pred., after “qei=naimake (§ 2 v). cf. “ou)/ toi e)/peiq' a(li/h o(do\s e)/ssetai ou\d) a)te/lestos b” 273.

po/non: amplified by 27 f.

[27] i(drw=: “i(dro/a, i(drw=ta”, § 18 e.

o(/n: acc. of kindred meaning. G. 159; H. 715b. The article would be needed here in prose. “o(/n” is long by ‘position,’ since “i(/drwsa” (doubtless, Eng. sweat) began with a consonant. cf. “me/n” 18.

mo/gw|: equiv. to “moge/ousa”, cf. “ta\ qe/san moge/ontes *)axaioi/ *m” 29.

kame/thn de\ ktl.: a ‘paratactic’ independent clause, in close connexion with “mo/gw|”. cf. “nou=son a\na\ strato\n w)=rse kakh\n, o)le/konto de\ laoi/ *a” 10; see § 3 n, q.

[28] lao/n: soldiery, sc. that of the Achaeans who went to Troy. The prime author of the expedition is picturesquely represented as herself driving through Greece, rousing the people to avenge the indignity wrought by Paris.

kaka/: as a calamity. In appos, with the whole sentence. cf. Hector's words to Paris, “gunai=ka a)nh=ges ... patri/ te sw=| me/ga ph=ma” (bane) 3.48 ff. The plural may indicate the separate woes which the war occasioned. cf. “o(/t' e)s *au)li/da nh=es *)axaiw=n| h)gere/qonto” (gathered), “kaka\ *pria/mw| kai\ *trwsi\ fe/rousai *b” 303 f.

toi=o/ te paisi/n: and to his sons.toi=o” here, like Attic “au)tou=” refers to the preceding noun; cf. 6.283. Obs. the repetition of the name, instead of the pronoun, in 31, 35, 47.

29 = “*p 443, *x” 181.

e)/rde: the position is prominent. Concessive, but in an angry tone: “You may do it.” But a warning is added at once, in which, for emphasis with reference to 17, the neg. is placed first: “but by no means.”

qeoi\ a)/lloi: in appos. with “pa/ntes”, which has the emphatic position before the verse-pause (cf. 17).

[30] 30 = “*a 517, *h” 454.

th/n: const. with “prose/fh”.

me/ga: adverbial, with the participle. See § 38 b.

o)xqh/sas: inceptive aor., bursting into a rage, in a fit of vexation.

nefelhgere/ta: cf. 5.522. Zeus is the god of all atmospheric and heavenly phænomena. See on 2.146; cf. 75.—For the ending -“ta”, see § 16 b.

[31] daimoni/h: the connection alone determines the tone and meaning of this adjective. cf. 2.190, 200. Here, strange goddess.

ti/: in what, how?

se/: direct obj. of “r(e/zousin”, of which “kaka/” is cognate accusative. See G. 165; H. 725.

*pri/amos ktl.: here and 35 with reference to Hera's words, 28.

[32] o(/ te ktl.: equiv. to “o(/ti te ktl”., that thou dost. Cf. 1.244.

[33] cf. “*a 129, *b” 133.

[34] su/ ge: thou, i.e. with thy fierce anger.

ei)selqou=sa: entering the conquered city.

[35]

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