Book 6 (Ζ）The beginning of the Sixth Book seems to be closely connected with the last verses of the Fifth Book. Diomed is still the mightiest and most feared of the Achaean chieftains although he is not mentioned among the combatants in the early part of the Book, and finally disappears in the interest which is excited by Hector. The latter's visit to the city of Ilios assumes the ‘Bravery of Diomed’ in E. On the departure of the divinities from the field of battle, the Trojans are hard pressed by their foes. Helenus advises his brother Hector to go to the city and urge the matrons to offer sacrifices and vows to the goddess Athena, in the hope that she may be propitiated and break the spear of Diomed. The action soon passes to quieter scenes. The time occupied by Hector in traversing the Trojan plain, is occupied by the meeting of Glaucus and Diomed, which emphasizes the sanctity of friendship and the tie between guest and host (so sadly wronged by Paris). The visit of Priam's great son to Ilios affords the poet the opportunity to take up the story of the Third Book and give the hearer a view of the homes of the royal family of Troy and a glimpse of their relations to each other. At the close of the Book, Hector's loving wife and infant child are introduced in an episode which has given its name to the Book, ‘The Meeting of Hector and Andromache.’ Paris suggests a contrast to the sanctity of both Diomed's friendship and Hector's love.
1-60. Victorious conflict of the Achaeans, after the departure of the divinities.οἰώθη (“οἶος”): was left alone, was deserted, by the gods. “ἐμονώθησαν οἱ μαχόμενοι”. cf. the closing verses of the preceding Book. ἴθυσε: cf. “ἰθὺς φέρον κτλ. Ε” 506. — The following caesura is unusual. § 40 m. πεδίοιο: local gen. with “ἴθυσε”. G. 179, 2; H. 760. ἰθυνομένων: sc. “μαχητῶν”. cf. “περὶ στήθεσσι δὲ χαλκὸς ι σμερδαλέον κονάβιζε” (rang) “τιτυσκομένων” (aiming) “καθ᾽ ὅμιλον ι ἀλλήλων Ν” 497 ff. In later Greek, this would be considered as gen. abs., but here the implied noun is prob. a limiting gen. with “μάχη”. § 3 f.
 This verse defines the scene of the conflict. cf. 5.774.Σιμόεντος: connected directly with “μεσσηγύς” by the rhythm of the verse. cf. “τόσσα μεσηγὺ νεῶν ἠδὲ Ξάνθοιο ῥοάων ι . . . πύρχ φαίνετο Ἰλιόθι πρό Θ” 560 f. Ξάνθοιο: i.e. the Scamander, not the Lycian Xanthus of 5.479. cf. (“ποταμὸς”) “ὃν Ξάνθον καλέουσι θεοί, ἄνδρες δὲ Σκάμανδρον γ” 74.
 cf. 12.378.πρῶτος: sc. after the departure of the gods. ἕρκος Ἀχαιῶν: cf. 3.229, (Achilles) “ὃς μέγα πᾶσιν ι ἕρκος Ἀχαιοῖσιν πέλεται πολέμοιο κακοῖο Α” 283 f. Ajax is called a “πύργος” (“tower of strength”) Od. 11.556. φάλαγγα: only here in the sing.; of the troop nearest Ajax. — “φόως [φάος, φῶς]”: figurative. This metaphor is freq. in the Old Testament, as well as its opposite (darkness) as a figure for trouble. ἔθηκεν: equiv. to “ἐποίησε”. cf. “Ε 122, Ἀχαιοῖς ἄλγἐ ἔθηκεν Α” 2.
 9-11 = 4.459-461.Ἀρίσβῃ: near Abydus. cf. 2.836.
 φιλέεσκεν: of hospitable reception, as is made clear by the following half-verse. cf. “τοὺς δ᾽ ἐγὼ” “ἐξείνισσα καὶ ἐν μεγάροισι φίλησα Γ 207, χαῖρε, ξεῖνε, παρ᾽ ἄμμι φιλήσεαι α 123, χρὴ ξεῖνον παρεόντα φιλεῖν, ἐθέλοντα δὲ πέμπειν” (“welcome the coming, speed the parting guest”) Od. 15.74. Obs. the play on “φίλος” 14.ὁδῷ κτλ.: living upon a highway, Axylus had special opportunities for the exercise of hospitality. οἰκία: the ‘quantity’ of the ultima marks the declension, — if any such help is needed.
 cf. 5.53, nec tibi Thessalicos tunc profuit, Ornyte, regeshospitiis aut mente moras fovisse benigna Val. Flacc. Arg. iii. 173 f.
τῶν γε: refers to “πάντας”, to whom he had shown hospitality. ἤρκεσε κτλ.: cf. “Β 873, γ” 289. ἀπηύρα: sc. “Διομήδης”. Followed by two accusatives. τὼ δ᾽ ἄμφω: emphatic repetition of “ἄμφω” 17. γαῖαν ἐδύτην: i.e. their souls descended to Hades. cf. “τί παθόντες ἐρεμνὴν” (gloomy) “γαῖαν ἔδυτε ω” 106, a question addressed by the shade of Agamemnon to the souls of Penelope's suitors. Ὀφέλτιον: an Achaean ‘homonym’ is slain by Hector, 11.302. Πήδασον: named from the town of the same name. cf. 35.
 νηίς: naiad, fountain-nymph. In appos. with “νύμφη”. — cf. “τὼ Γυγαίη τέκε λίμνη Β” 865. — For ‘orestiads,’ see 420. cf. “τῇ” (i.e. Artemis) “δέ θ᾽ ἅμα νύμφαι, κοῦραι Διὸς αἰγιόχοιο ι ἀγρονόμοι παίζουσι ζ” 105 f. ‘Dryads’ and ‘hamadryads’ are not mentioned in Homer. The Homeric nymphs who become enamored of mortals, all dwell in. Asia Minor, and for the most part in its northwest corner. Nymphs apparently did not abound in the Homeric times.Ἀβαρβαρέη: i.e. the nymph of the pond near which Bucolion tended his flocks. The name is thought to refer to the clearness of the water. — These episodes in the poem served to relieve the monotony of long lists of warriors.
 A parenthetical remark.
 σκότιον: pred. adj., in secret, i.e. without marriage. cf. furtim in Helenor | Maeonio regi quem serva Licymnia furtim | sustulerat Verg. Aen. ix. 546; also, “Ἐύδωρος παρθένιος Π 180, σκότιοι παῖδες” Eur. Alc. 989.ἐπ᾽ ὄεσσι: cf. 5.137. μίγη: sc. “Βουκολίων νύμφῃ. — φιλότητι κτλ”.: cf. 3.445. φαίδιμα: a standing epithet of the “γυῖα. — γυῖα”: in this connexion is interchangeable with “γούνατα”. τεύχεα κτλ.: cf. 5.164. — Seven Trojans now have been slain by three Achaeans. In the next eight verses, seven Trojans are slain by seven Achaeans.
 ἄρα: marks a new member in the enumeration.Πολυποίτης: king of the Lapithae. cf. “Β 740, Μ” 129 ff. Περκώσιον: from Percote, on the south shore of the Hellespont. ἐξενάριξεν: here plainly equiv. to slew. Cf. “ἐνήρατο” 32.
 Τεῦκρος: son of Telamon (father of Ajax) and Hesione (on 5.640). He was famed as an archer. cf. 8.266 ff., “Τεῦκρός θ᾽ , ὃς ἄριστος Ἀχαιῶν ι τοξοσύνῃ, ἀγαθὸς δὲ καὶ ἐν σταδίῃ ὑσμίνῃ Ν” 313 f., 23.859 ff.Ἀντίλοχος: cf. 4.457.
 Σατνιόεντος: a stream in the territory of the Trojan Leleges.ἐυρρείταο: strictly a substantive. παρ᾽ ὄχθας: on the banks. Cf. “Ξ 445, παρ᾽ ὄχθας Σαγγαρίοιο Γ 187, Δ 487, τέμενος νεμόμεσθα μέγα Ξάνθοιο παῤ ὄχθας Μ 313, Σ 533, Φ 337. παρά” with the acc. sometimes in Homer, as regularly in the later Boeotian dialect, is used where “παρά” with the dat. is expected. The acc. with preps. tended to supplant the dative. Φύλακον: a Trojan. A ‘homonym’ was more noted; “Β 705, Ν 698, ο” 231. Λήιτος: a Boeotian leader. 2.494.
 φεύγοντα: in flight.Εὐρύπυλος: on 5.76. Μελάνθιον: mentioned only here. — Both names of this verse appear in the Odyssey. ἀτυζομένω: “fleeing in fright.” cf. 41, 18.7.
 βλαφθέντε: hindered, i.e. entangled. This is antecedent to, and cause of, “ἄξαντε. — μυρικίνῳ”: tamariskshrubs on the Trojan plain are mentioned also “Κ 466, Φ” 18, 350. They are common in modern Greece.ἀγκύλον: on 5.231.
 ἄξαντε: from “ἄγνυμι. — ἐν πρώτῳ ῥυμῷ”: at the front end of the pole. Cf. “Π 371, Ε 729, ἐυξέστῳ ἐπὶ ῥυμῷ ι πέζῃ ἔπι πρώτῃ Ω” 271 f. The pole broke in the same place at 16.371. — The horses were held to the chariot only by the yoke, which was fastened to the pole. Thus when the pole was broken, the horses were free. On 5.730.αὐτώ: themselves, in contrast with the deserted chariot.
 cf. 21.4, 554.οἱ ἄλλοι: those others. 42 = 23.394. αὐτός: i.e. Adrastus. στόμα: cf. Lat. os. ἔστη: inceptive; took his stand.
 ἐλλίσσετο (“λίσσομαι”): sc. “Μενέλαον”. For the doubling of the “λ” after the augment, see § 25 f. — “γούνων [γονάτων]”: const. with “λαβών”. cf. “παρέζεο καὶ λαβὲ γούνων Α 407, ἑλὼν ἐλλίσσετο γούνων Φ” 71.46 = 11.131. ζώγρει: sc. “μέ”. On 5.698. cf. “ζωγρεῖτ᾽ αὐτὰρ ἐγὼν ἐμὲ λύσομαι Κ” 378. ἄξια: worthy. Equiv. to Attic “ἀντάξια”. It seems never to mean ‘deserving’ in Homer. ἄποινα. the ransom was the strongest motive for sparing a prisoner's life.
 cf. 11.132.ἐν πατρός: sc. “δόμῳ”. cf. 378 f., “ἐς Ἀχιλλῆος ἐλθεῖν Ω 309, εἰς Ἀίδαο Θ 367, εἰν Ἀίδαο Χ 389, Ἄϊδος εἴσω” 284. κειμήλια: connected with “κεῖμαι” lie, stored up. Explained by the fg. verse. φ 10, ξ” 324. πολύκμητος: the poet was well aware of the difficulty of working iron as compared with copper, the more usual metal for tools and weapons. ἀπερείσια κτλ.: cf. 1.13. ζωόν: pred. to “ἐμέ”, that I was alive. Cf. “αὐτὰρ Ὀδυσσῆος ταλασίφρονος οὔ ποτ᾽ ἔφασκεν ι ζωοῦ οὐδὲ θανόντος ἐπιχθονίων τευ ἀκοῦσαι ρ” 114 f., 527. — This thought is repeated in “ἐπὶ νηυσὶν Ἀχαιῶν”, i.e. in the Greek camp (to which Menelaus would have sent him; cf. 52). cf. “εἰ δ᾽ ἤδη τεθνᾶσι καὶ εἰν Ἀίδαο δόμοισιν Χ” 52. — For the ‘acc. of the person’ with “πεπύθοιτο”, cf. 5.702.
 cf. 4.208.ἔπειθεν: parallel to “φάτο”. τάχ᾽ ἔμελλε: cf. “Λ 181, Ψ 773, ι” 378. θέων: running. Much like the adv. “θοῶς. — ὁμοκλήσας”: on 5.439. ὦ Μενέλαε: the repetition of the address marks the speaker's strong feeling. cf. “Ρ 238, ὦ δαιμόνιε, τί χρῆμα πάσχεις, ὦ πάτερ”; Ar. Clouds 816. δέ: marks a contrast, i.e. an objection, to the deed of the person addressed. cf. “Ξ 264, Ο 244, Ρ” 170. οὕτως: thus, sc. as Menelaus was doing, in sparing the life of Adrastus. cf. Od. 4.543. ἦ σοι κτλ.: an ironical question, with reference to the crime of Paris. — “You, I suppose, have been excellently treated by the Trojans.” σοί: always emphatic in Homer. Here it marks the identity of person with “σύ” 55. ἄριστα: corresponds to the Attic “εὖ”.
 τῶν: demonstrative.ὑπεκφύγοι: cf. “Ε 318, κῆρας ὑπεξέφυγεν θανάτοιο Χ” 202. φέροι: the verb is attracted to the mood of the principal clause. cf. 3.299. G. 235, 1; H. 919 a. μηδ᾽ ὅς: ne is quidem. Resumption of the principal thought of 57. ἀλλ᾽ ἅμα πάντες: the affirmative contrast to the preceding. ἀκήδεστοι: unburied. Cf. “σώματ᾽ ἀκηδέα ω 187, κηδεμόνες Ψ” 674. ἄφαντοι: leaving no trace behind. — Both adjs. are ‘proleptic.’ “May they perish and be” etc. 61 = “Η 120, Ν” 788. παρέπεισεν: with reference to “ἔπειθεν” 51. “Wrought a change in the mind of his brother.” ἀδελφειοῦ: cf. 5.21. The form “ἀδελφός” is not Homeric. “κασίγνητος” is more than twice as freq. as “ἀδελφεός”. παρειπών: cf. 337. — For the length of the first syllable, see § 41 m. ὁ δέ: i.e. Menelaus, who had now left Adrastus to Agamemmon. ἀπό: for the length of the ‘ultima,’ see on 5.343.
 cf. 14.447, 517.ἀνετράπετο: equiv. to “ὕπτιος ἔπεσεν”. cf. 4.108. Ἀτρεΐδης: i.e. Agamemnon. λάξ: cf. 5.620. μακρὸν ἀύσας: cf. “Ν 413, 445, Ξ 453, 478, Χ” 294. ἀύσας: cf. 4.508. 67 = “Β 110, Ο 733, Τ” 78. ὦ φίλοι κτλ.: an honorable address to all warriors. θεράποντες κτλ.: applied to the two Ajaxes in “Θ 79, Κ” 228.
 The Greeks are first to make sure of the victory and to follow it up, and not to delay the pursuit by gathering the spoils.ἐνάρων: made emphatic by the verse-pause. Gen. after “ἐπιβαλλόμενος”, laying hands upon.
 πλεῖστα: “more than any one else.”κέν: in a final clause. See G. 216, 1 N. 2; II. 885 c. φέρων: the partic. contains the more important thought. § 3 v. συλήσετε: fut. of positive assurance, after the command. cf. “νῦν μὲν παυσώμεσθα, . . . ὕστερον αὖτε μαχησόμεθα Η” 290 f., “εἴξατέ μοι διελθέμεν: αὐτὰρ ἔπειτα ι ἄσεσθε κλαυθμοῖο Ω” 716 f., Od. 12.23 ff. — The speaker included himself in the subj. of “κτείνωμεν”, but, with indifference, he leaves the plunder to the inferiors. For the change of person, cf. “εἴδομεν ἤ κεν Ἀχιλλεὺς ι νῶι κατακτείνας ἔναρα βροτόεντα φέρηται ι . . . ἤ κεν ς ῷ δουρὶ δαμήῃ Χ” 244 ff. συλήσετε: followed by two accusatives. cf. “ἀπηύρα” 17.
 72-118. On the advice of Helenus, Hector goes to the city, in order to bid the Trojan matrons supplicate Athena's mercy.72 = 5.470, 792. ἔνθα αὖτε: on 5.1. ὑπ᾽ Ἀχαιῶν: gen. of agent, since the connexion implies a passive idea. See “Π”. 820. ἀναλκείῃσι: for the dat. of the agent, cf. “κηρὶ δαμείς ζ 11, ἀνδρὶ δαμείς Γ” 429. — For the pl. of the abstract, cf. “Δ 409, Ε” 649.
 Αἰνείᾳ: Aeneas is made prominent here as in E. As commander of the Dardanians, he is next in rank to Hector in the Trojan army. cf. 2.819. Little more is heard of him until the last of the four days of battle, when he meets Achilles, Od. 3.158 ff., but is saved by Poseidon.
 Ἕλενος: has here and 7.44 ff. decisive influence on the course of action. He takes part in the conflict, 13.576, but is not prominent as a warrior. He is the prophetic son of Priam, corresponding to Priam's daughter Cassandra, who does not exercise the seer's gifts in Homer.οἰωνοπόλων κτλ.: cf. 1.69, of Calchas. πόνος: i.e. the battle, and the care and responsibility for it. On “πονεύμενον Δ” 374. — “ὔμμι [ὑμῖν] κτλ”.: (is leaned) rests upon you.
 Τρώων κτλ.: partitive gen. with “μάλιστα. — Λυκίων”: cf. 4.197. These here represent the whole body of allies. This is esp. fitting since Sarpedon had been prominent in the preceding Book, and the other Lycian leader, Glaucus, is to have an important place in this Book.ἰθύν: course, enterprise. μάχεσθαι κτλ.: “in battle and in council.” A freq. pair. — The second half-verse is parallel to “ἐπ᾽ ἰθύν”. cf. 6, 60, 82, 106 f., 115. ἐρυκάκετε: for the redup., cf. “ἠνίπαπε Ε” 650. αὖτε: again. Uttered in a reproachful tone. ἐν χερσί: in the arms, sc. for shelter and protection. cf. “ἐν χερσὶ τίθει Α 441, ἐν νήεσσι πεσόντες Β” 175. Const. with “πεσέειν”. On 5.370. γυναικῶν: sc. who have come even before the Scaean Gate. cf. 238. δηίοισι κτλ.: cf. “δυσμενέσιν μὲν χάρμα Γ” 51. — Either “η” is shortened here before “ι”, or the antepenultimate “ι” is pronounced as y. χάρμα (“χαίρω”): an object of joy, a delight. — Cf. “Κ 193, Ρ 636, Ψ” 342.
 φάλαγγας: not yet used as a technical term, in Homer.ἐποτρύνητον: aor. subjunctive.
 Ἕκτορ: the voc. in Greek poetry is often placed for emphasis before the clause with which it is connected. Of course it has no syntactical construction.ἀτάρ: follows the voc., as 429, 22.331; cf. “ὦ Φίντις, ἀλλὰ ζεῦξον ἤδη μοι σθένος ἡμιόνων” Pind. Ol. vi. 22. πόλινδε: the locative force of -“δε” is repeated in the prep. of “μετέρχεο. — εἰπέ”: say, i.e. bid.
 σῇ καὶ ἐμῇ: marks the relationship of the two brothers with more feeling than “ἡμετέρῃ”. More than half of Hector's brothers were only half-brothers. cf. the same feeling in (Joseph) ‘saw his brother Benjamin, his mother's son,’ Genesis xliii. 29.ἡ δέ: subj. of the imperatival “θεῖναι” 92. The commission is given in direct discourse. ξυνάγουσα: leading together, gathering; i.e. calling by messengers. cf. 286 ff. — “γεραιάς [γραῦς]”: fem. of “γέροντας”. ἐν πόλει ἄκρῃ: “ἐν ἀκροπόλει”. ἱεροῖο κτλ.: i.e. “νηοῦ”.
 90-92. cf. 271 ff.
 cf. 273, 303.θεῖναι: on “ἡ δέ” 87. — For the inf. as imv. of the third person, cf. “εἰ μέν κεν ἐμὲ κεῖνος ἕλῃ . . . σῶμα δὲ οἴκαδ᾽ ἐμὸν δόμεναι Η” 77 ff., “ἀλλὰ τὸ μὲν φάσθαι, τὸ δὲ καὶ κεκρυμμένον εἶναι λ” 443. ἐπὶ γούνασιν: on the lap of the sitting statue. The robe was placed on the knees of the goddess as if for actual use. The worshipper desired to adorn the image of the divinity. Thus, in modern times, robes and jewels are given to figures of the Virgin and the Holy Child. — This is the only distinct reference in the Homeric poems to a graven image (here, prob. of wood) of a divinity, and temples do not seem to abound. — Strabo, xiii. 601, says that very many of the early statues of Athena represented her in a sitting posture.
 93-97 = 274-278; cf. 308 ff.ὑποσχέσθαι: vow.
 ἤνις: cf. (iuvencum) candentem Verg. Aen. ix. 628. — “ἠκέστας [ὰκεντήτους]”: ungoaded (“κεντέω”), i.e. not used for menial labor and thus rendered unfit for sacrifice. cf. “σοὶ” (i.e. Athena) “δ᾽ αὖ ἐγὼ ῥέξω βοῦν ἦνιν εὐρυμέτωπον, ι ἀδμήτην, ἣν οὔ πω ὑπὸ ζυγὸν ἤγαγεν ἀνήρ γ” 382 f. ‘All the firstling males that come of thy herd and of thy flock, thou shalt sanctify unto the Lord thy God: thou shalt do no work with the firstling of thy bullock. . . . And if there be any blemish therein, as if it be lame or blind, or have any ill blemish, thou shalt not sacrifice it unto the Lord thy God,’ Deuteronomy xv. 19, 21; ‘a red heifer, without spot, wherein is no blemish, and upon which never came yoke,’ Numbers xix. 2; ‘take two milch kine, on which there hath come no yoke,’ 1 Sam. vi. 7.αἴ κε: if haply, in the hope that. GMT. 487, 1; “Π”. 907. 95 = 310; cf. 17.223. Τυδέος υἱόν: Diomed is the chief terror of the Trojans, after his exploits in the preceding Book. μήστωρα: cf. 4.328. γενέσθαι: “proved himself.” cf. “ἐν τούτῳ τῷ πόνῳ” (sc. at Marathon) “ὁ πολέμαρχος Καλλίμαχος διαφθείρεται, ἀνὴρ γενόμενος ἀγαθός” Hdt. vi. 114.
 οὐδέ: not even.ποτέ: ever, i.e. during the time when the Trojans remained within their walls in fear of Achilles, and ventured out of their gates only with caution (5.788 ff., 15.721 ff.), while some were captured or at least pursued (11.104 ff., Od. 3.89 ff., 21.35 ff.); and all were in dread of his reappearance (18.261 ff.). ὧδε: thus, sc. as we now fear Diomed. ὄρχαμον κτλ.: only here of Achilles. θεᾶς: const. with the following “ἐξ”. cf. 5.637; see on “Ἰλίου” 60. — The caesura falls, as usual, in the the third foot, after “θεᾶς”. Here it is no musical rest, but a hold, making “θεᾶς” prominent. ἀλλά: in contrast to the preceding rel. clause, leads back to the thought of 98. μένος: acc. of specification. cf. “ὅτι μοι μένος ἰσοφαρίζεις Φ” 411.
 103-106 = 5.494-497.
 φόνοιο: gen. of separation.ἀθανάτων κτλ.: sc. as Ares had done, 5.594 ff. ἀστερόεντος: the Homeric heavens are starry even in broad daylight. § 1 p. Θ 172, Ο” 346; cf. 66. 111 = 9.233; cf. 11.564. For another form of address, cf. “Τρῶες καὶ Λύκιοι καὶ Δάρδανοι ἀγχιμαχηταί Θ” 173. Τρῶες κτλ.: cf. “Ρ 276, γ” 366. τηλεκλειτοί: cf. 5.491. 112 = “Θ 174, Λ 287, Ο 487, 734, Π 270, Ρ” 185; cf. “Ε 529, Δ” 234, 418. — The second half-verse is parallel to the first.
 ὄφρα: while.βήω: “βῶ”. βουλευτῇσι: in appos. with “γέρουσιν”. The word is not found elsewhere in Homer. It corresponds to “δημογέροντες Γ” 149. — These senators are not mentioned in the account of what Hector actually did in Troy. ἡμετέρῃς κτλ.: cf. 240 ff., 297 ff. — This speech of Hector is less definite than that of Helenus, 86 ff. 17.188. ὀμφαλοέσσης: cf. 4.448.
 119-236. Glaucus and Diomed discover that their ancestors were bound by the ties of friendly hospitality. They exchange arms.Γλαῦκος: one of the two leaders of the Lycians. From him the later kings of Lycia were said by Herodotus to derive their descent. Hdt. i. 147. 120 = “γ 159, Ψ” 814; cf. 5.244, 569. ἐς μέσον: into the midst. — “μέσον” is used as a subst., like “τὸ μεταίχμιον”. cf. “ἐν καιρίῳ Δ” 185. ἀμφοτέρων: i.e. of both armies. συνίτην (“εἶμι”): sc. on chariots. cf. 232.
 On 5.14.
 τίς δὲ κτλ.: cf. “Ο 247, Ω” 387. A lively question of surprise, for which the explanation is given by the following sentence. For the meaning of the question, cf. 145. — For the force of “δέ”, see on 55.φέριστε: a friendly form of address. ὄπωπα: sc. “σέ. — πολὺ κτλ”.: thou dost stand far in advance, i.e. as champion. cf. “πρόμαχος”. — Why had not Diomed met Glaucus before? One answer is that many words and deeds are reported from this tenth year of the war which would have been expected earlier. cf. the ‘View from the Scaean Gate,’ 3.161 ff., and the arrangement of the Greek forces into definite divisions, 2.362 ff. Possibly, however, Glaucus and the Lycians were not among the early allies of the Trojans, but have only recently arrived at Troy. Thus Rhesus and his Thracians came late, 10.434, and Memnon with his Aethiopians, and the Amazons, came to the help of the city after the action of the Iliad. ἐμόν: receives emphasis from the following verse-pause.
 127 = 21.151. — This verse is closely connected in thought with the preceding.δυστήνων: emphatic from its position. “Unhappy are they whose sons meet my might”; i.e. the parents have to mourn their sons' death. cf. “πέπνυσαί τε νόῳ, μακάρων δ᾽ ἔξεσσι τοκήων Ω 377, ζ” 154 ff. ἀντιόωσιν: from “ἀντιάω”.
 cf. Od. 7.199. — “If thou art an immortal.” The thought that Glaucus may be a god, was suggested possibly by the splendor of his golden armor, 236, in connexion with the fact that his face was not familiar; or it may be a commonplace remark suggested by “καταθνητῶν”. — Diomed seems to have lost his ability to distinguish divinities (5.127 ff.), and his daring in attacking them (5.362).τις ἀθανάτων: pred. to the subj. of “εἰλήλουθας”. — The spondaic close (§ 39 h, i) seems to be intentional here, after the light dactylic rhythm. θεοῖσιν: the pl. shows that the determination of Diomed is general. ἐπουρανίοισι: contrasted with “ἐπιχθόνιοι, Δ” 45. μαχοίμην: a ‘potential opt.’ as a conclusion to a condition of the first form. GMT. 403, 503; H. 901 b. Δρύαντος: the preceding “ε” is not lengthened. See § 41 i “α, β. — υἱός”: for the short penult, cf. 4.473. Λυκόοργος: a Thracian king. — This story seems to be the result and trace of an opposition to the introduction of the Bacchic worship in Thrace. cf. the story of Pentheus at Thebes, as represented in the Bacchantes of Euripides. — Dionysus is not a Homeric divinity, and this mention of him is thought to indicate a later origin for this passage. ὃς κτλ.: the rel. clause is causal, as it is frequently. cf. 165, 235. μαινομένοιο: raving, with reference to the mad revelry of the Bacchic festivals. cf. the name ‘maenads,’ “μαινάδες. — Διωνύσοιο [Διονύσου]”: the Boeotian dialect preserves the “ω” in this name. τιθήνας: nurses, attendants; corresponding to the later Bacchantes. κατέχευαν: poured down, i.e. dropped. cf. “κατέχευεν Ε” 734.
 βουπλῆγι: cf. ‘after him was Shamgar, the son of Anath, which slew of the Philistines six hundred men with an ox-goad,’ Judges iii. 31.φοβηθείς: taking to flight before Lycurgus. κόλπῳ: to her bosom. For the dat., see on “ἑτάροισι Δ” 523. — Thetis lived with her father, in the Aegean Sea, not far from Thrace. On another occasion she gave similar refuge to Hephaestus; 18.398. ἔχε: sc. “Διώνυσον. — τρόμος”: cf. “Ε 862, ὑπό τε τρόμος ἔλλαβε γυῖα Γ” 34.
 τῷ: i.e. Lycurgus.ῥεῖα ζώοντες: in contrast with the hard lot of men; cf. “ὀιζυροῖσι βροτοῖσιν Ν” 569. cf. ‘to that new world of light and bliss, among | The gods who live at case,’ Milton, Par. Lost ii. 867 f. Κρόνου πάις: sc. as chief of the gods. ἔτι: for the length of the ‘ultima,’ see § 41 j “β”.
 οὐδ᾽ ἂν ἐγὼ κτλ.: resumes the thought of 129, as a logical inference from the fate of Lycurgus. cf. “Ἥφαιστ᾽ , οὔ τις σοί γε θεῶν δύνατ̓ ἀντιφερίζειν, ι οὐδ̓ ἂν ἐγὼ σοί γ̓ ὧδε πυρὶ φλεγέθοντι μαχοίμην Φ” 357 f., Od. 9.275 ff. — “I, too, should not live long, if I should fight with the gods,” is implied.
 βροτῶν: made prominent not only by the caesura but also by the repetition of the idea in the second half-verse.οἳ ἀρούρης κτλ.: a standing expression for men, from their principal food, as contrasted with gods who live on ambrosia and nectar (5.341). cf. “ὃς θνητός τ᾽ εἴη καὶ ἔδοι Δημήτερος ἀκτήν Ν 322, ὅσοι νῦν βροτοί εἰσιν ἐπὶ χθονὶ σῖτον ἔδοντες θ 222, οὐδὲ ἐῴκειν ι ἀνδρί γε σιτοφάγῳ ι” 190 f., quicunque terrae munere vescimur Hor. Carm. ii. 14. 10. 143 = Od. 3.429. ἆσσον κτλ.: sarcastic. cf. “εἰ δέ τις ἐκπάγλως ἐθέλει οἰκόνδε νέεσθαι, ι ἁπτέσθω ἧς νηὸς . . . ὄφρα πρόοθ᾽ ἄλλων θάνατον καὶ πότμον ἐπίσπῃ Β” 357 ff. — The poet seems to play on the words “ἆσσον” and “θᾶσσον”. cf. 5.440. ὀλέθρου πείρατα: “net of destruction.” cf. “ἐκφυγέειν μέγα πεῖραρ ὀιζύος ε” 289. ἵκηαι: “ἵκῃ”. cf. “πύθηαι Ε” 351.
 cf. 123, 21.153.γενεὴν κτλ.: this shows Glaucus's understanding of the question of 123. — “Why should you ask of my family? No family enjoys distinction long. All pass away.” — Glaucus recognizes Diomed. Doubtless he had seen some of his exploits in E. δέ: in apodosis. § 3 n; GMT. 564. ἀνδρῶν: here equiv. to “ἀνθρώπων”. — For the thought, cf. (“βροτῶν”) “δειλῶν, οἳ φύλλοισιν ἐοικότες ἄλλοτε μέν τε ι ζαφλεγέες” (full of fire and life) “τελέθουσιν, ἀρούρης καρπὸν ἔδοντες, ι ἄλλοτε δὲ φθινύθουσιν ἀκήριοι Φ” 464 ff., “ἡμεῖς δ᾽ οἷά τε φύλλα φύει πολυάνθεμος ὥρη ι ἔαρος, ὅτ̓ αἶψ̓ αὐγῇς᾿ αὔξεται ἠελίου, ι τοῖς᾿ ἴκελοι πήχυιον ἐπὶ χρόνον” (“for a span of time”) “ἄνθεσιν ἥβης ι τερπόμεθα” Mimnermus ii. 1 ff., “ἓν δὲ τὸ κάλλιστον Χῖος ἔειπεν ἀνήρ:” (this is the best thing that Homer ever said) | “οἵη περ φύλλων κτλ”. Simonides 69. 1 f., “ἄγε δὴ φύσιν ἄνδρες ἀμαυρόβιοι, φύλλων γενεᾷ προσόμοιοι” Ar. Birds 685, ‘As of the green leaves on a tree, some fall and some grow; so is the generation of flesh and blood, one cometh to an end and another is born,’ Wisdom of the Son of Sirach xiv. 18; ut silvae foliis pronos mutantur in annos, | prima cadunt, ita verborum vetus interit aetas Hor. Ars Poet. 60 f. ἐπιγίγνεται: comes on (“ἐπί”).
 φύει: here intrans., grows up.150 = Od. 3.213; cf. 21.487. εἰ δ᾽ ἐθέλεις κτλ.: this protasis is left without an apodosis. After the final clause (“ὄφρ᾽ ἐὺ εἰδῇς”) and the parenthetical “πολλοὶ κτλ”., the story follows immediately, in 152. καὶ ταῦτα: this too, of which you ask. — “But I am not ashamed of my family.” 151 = Od. 3.214. ἡμετέ ρην: with emphasis, after the general preface, 146-149. μίν: i.e. “γενεήν”. — The second half-verse is parenthetical.
 ἔστι: a favorite epic beginning for a story. cf. “Ε 9, ἔστι δέ τις νῆσος κτλ. δ 844, ἔστι δέ τις πέτρη γ” 293, urbs antiqua fuit Verg. Aen. i. 12, est locus, Hesperiam Grai cognomine dicunt ib. iii. 163.Ἑφύρη: the old name of Corinth. The name “Κόρινθος” is not put into the mouth of any Homeric speaker, though the poet uses it in his own narrative (2.570). μυχῷ Ἄργεος: in the recess of Argos, i.e. in the Corinthian Gulf. cf. the same expression of Mycenae (on the Argolic Gulf), Od. 3.263.
 Σίσυφος: the name seems to be formed by reduplication (cf. “δί-δωμι”) from the stem of “σοφός” (cf. “κέρδιστος”). Glaucus does not show any familiarity with the story which set Sisyphus to work, rolling a huge stone up hill, in Hades (Od. 11.593 ff.); and Pindar enumerates among the glories of Corinth “Σίσυφον μὲν πυκνότατον παλάμαις” (devices) “ὡς θεόν” Pind. Ol. xiii. 50. — Later stories made Sisyphus an ancestor of Odysseus.
 Σίσυφος: for the repetition, ‘epanalepsis,’ cf. 396. § 2 p.ὁ δέ: cf. “Δ 491, Ε” 148. Βελλεροφόντην: acc. to the later story (which may have been built largely upon what Homer tells), he was first called Hipponoüs, and gained his Homeric name by killing Bellerus, a Corinthian prince, on whose death he fled to King Proetus at Tiryns in order to secure purification from the guilt (an un-Homeric idea) and security against vengeance. The Corinthian tradition laid special stress on Bellerophon's capture of the winged horse Pegasus. His exploits occupy a large part of Pindar's Thirteenth Olympian Ode, in which the poet refers also to Glaucus, “ἐκ Λυκίας δὲ Γλαῦκον ἐλθόντα τρόμεον Δαναοί” Ol. xiii. 58. κάλλος τε: obs. the force of the position. — Both qualities seem to be mentioned with reference to the following story. ἐπεὶ κτλ.: cf. 7.105. — The second half-verse shows why Bellerophon was obliged to obey Proetus, — not the reason for his exile.
 Nearly parenthetical.Ἀργείων: added to explain “δήμον”, and to make distinct the place of Bellerophon's sojourn. Without it, the hearer might think of him as in his home at Corinth. ἐδάμασσεν: sc. “δῆμον. — Ζεύς”: the king of the gods is the special patron of the mortal kings, and gives to them their authority. They reign Iovis gratia. δῖα: without moral quality. The same epithet is applied to Clytaemnestra, Od. 3.266. Ἄντεια: called Stheneboea by the Attic tragedians. Βελλεροφόντην: in appos. with “τόν” 161.
 Ψευσαμένη: contrived a falsehood and said.
 τεθναίης κτλ.: “I hope you may die if you do not” etc. The opt. here clearly approaches the force of an imperative. GMT. 725. cf. “ἀλλ᾽ ἔξελθε θύραζε . . . ἢ τάχα καὶ δαλῷ” (firebrand) “βεβλημένος εἶσθα θύραζε τ” 68 f.κάκτανε: “κατάκτανε”. § 11 b. σεβάσσατο κτλ.: i.e. his conscience would not allow Proetus to kill his guest with his own hand (cf. 179 ff.), but he did not shrink from asking his father-in-law to do the deed. Similarly, David would not kill Uriah himself, but put him where he would be slain by the enemy. — For the expression, cf. 417. σήματα λυγρά: destructive tokens. A kind of tessera hospitalis, with symbols previously agreed upon between the separated friends. cf. 176, 178. — This has been thought by some to imply acquaintance with the art of writing. Perhaps it was a kind of ‘picture-writing’ resembling that of the ancient Mexicans. ἐν πίνακι: in a tablet (‘diptych’). Two plates of wood (covered with wax, in later times, and joined by a hinge) were tied together so that the inner surfaces should not be seen by the bearer. This, rather than “γράψας”, indicates the form of an epistle. θυμοφθόρα: life-destroying, death-bringing, i.e. directing that the bearer should be put into a place of danger.
 πενθερῷ: the Homeric language was not so poor as to have but one word for ‘father-in-law,’ but distinguished “πενθερός” wife's father from “ἑκυρός” husband's father. Cf. “γαλόως” husband's sister, “εἰνάτερες” husband's brothers' wives, 378. — Antea's father was called Iobates, acc. to the later story.ἐννῆμαρ: freq. as here with following “δεκάτη.” cf. “Α 53, Ω 610, 664, 784, η 253, κ” 28, etc. — Only after a guest had received hospitality, was he questioned about his errand. Bellerophon, as coming from the court of the king's son-in-law, received a royal welcome. The king made a great feast each day.
 cf. 1.477.ἰδέσθαι: for the mid., see § 32 a. φέροιτο: brought with him. For the opt. ‘expressing the previous thought of another,’ see GMT. 700.
 κακόν: cf. 169.παρεδέξατο: the poet does not think it necessary to state explicitly that the Lycian deciphered the tablet's contents. ῥά: i.e. in accordance with Proetus's injunction. Χίμαιραν: here a proper name. — This is the only ‘composite’ monster of Homer; — dragons, mermaids, and satyrs being unknown, and Scylla (Od. 12.85 ff.), though deformed, not being made up of woman, fish, and wolf. Acc. to Hesiod, the Chimaera was (like Cerberus and the Lernaean Hydra) the offspring of Typhon and Echidna, “ἡ δὲ Χίμαιραν ἔτικτε, πνέουσαν ἀμαιμάκετον πῦρ, ι δεινήν τε μεγάλην τε. ποδώκεά τε κρατερήν τε. ι τῆς δ᾽ ἦν τρεῖς κεφαλαί: μία μὲν χαροποῖο λέοντος, ι ἡ δὲ χιμαίρης, ἡ δ̓ ὄφιος, κρατεροῖο δράκοντος. ι . . . τὴν μὲν Πήγασος εἷλε καὶ ἐσθλὸς Βελλεροφόντης” Theog. 319 ff. ἀμαιμακέτην: impetuous, fierce. Cf. “Ἀμισωδάρου, ὅς ῥα Χίμαιραν ι θρέψεν ἀμαιμακέτην πολέσιν κακὸν ἀνθρώποισιν Π” 328 f. — cf. ‘Gorgons, and Hydras, and Chimaeras dire,’ Milton Par. Lost ii. 628. γένος: offspring. Cf. “δῖον γένος Ι 538, Σθενέλοιο πάις ι σὸν γένος Τ” 124. χίμαιρα: kid. Here a common noun. — This verse is translated, ante leo, postrema draco, media ipsa Chimaera, by Lucretius, v. 905, not only preserving the exact order of words but also making the last clause more distinct even than it is in the Greek. ἀποπνείουσα (“πνέω”): const. with “ἡ” 180, the intervening verse being parenthetical. πυρὸς μένος: cf. “ἀλλ᾽ Ἕκτωρ πυρὸς αἰνὸν ἔχει μένος Ρ 565, ἐν δὲ πυρὸς μένος ἧκε σιδήρεον Ψ” 177.
 καρτίστην: predicate. cf. 326, “Ε 635, τὸν δὴ μήκιστον καὶ κάρτιστον κτάνον ἄνδρα Η” 155, (“Ῥῆσος”) “τοῦ δὴ καλλίστους ἵππους ἴδον ἠδὲ μεγίστους Κ 436, οἰκτροτάτην δ᾽ ἤκουσα ὄπα Πριάμοιο θυγατρός λ 421, οἴκτιστον δὴ κεῖνο ἐμοῖς ἴδον ὀφθαλμοῖσιν μ 258.”ἀνδρῶν: const. with “μάχην”.—“This was the hardest battle he ever fought.” Ἀμαζόνας: Priam, 3.189, refers to his serving the Phrygians as an ally against the invading Amazons.—The later story gave to Bellerophon the assistance of the winged-horse Pegasus in these conflicts. cf. “σὺν δὲ κείνῳ” (i.e. Pegasus) “καί ποτ᾽ Ἀμαζονίδων ι αἰθέρος ψυχρᾶς ἀπὸ κόλπων ἐρήμου ι τοξόταν βάλλων γυναικεῖον στρατόν, ι καὶ Χίμαιραν πῦρ πνέοισαν καὶ Σολύμους ἔπεφνεν” Pindar Ol. xiii. 84 ff.
 τῷ: i.e. Bellerophon.ἀνερχομένῳ: returning. Cf. “Δ 392.— πυκινὸν κτλ”.: shrewd device. ὕφαινεν: sc. “ἄναξ Λυκίης”. For the change of subj., see § 1 b.
 For the ‘asyndeton,’ cf. 152, 174.εὐρείης: cf. 210.
 γίγνωσκε: was coming to know, recognized, sc. from his achievements. Clearly, no guilty mortal,—none but one of the race of the gods and enjoying their favor, could have overcome such difficulties and escaped such dangers.θεοῦ: indefinite. In Pindar, this god is Poseidon. ἐόντα: supplementary participle, as after a verb of seeing or hearing. 192 = “Λ 226.” δίδου: offered in marriage. ὅ γε: cf. 168. θυγατέρα: for the ‘quantity’ of the last syllable, see on 5.343. τέμενος: here, royal domain. Cf. “Ι 578, Μ 313, Σ 550, Υ 184, 391, ζ” 293. Elsewhere, as in later Greek, of the land set apart for sacred uses. cf. templum. Connected in derivation with “τέμνω.” τάμον: i.e. set apart, marked off. ἔξοχον ἄλλων: sc. in size and fertility. As in later times, much land was held in common, esp. for pastures, but private property in land seems to have been recognized.—cf. “ἔδωκε” (sc. Lycurgus to the Spartan kings) “δὲ καὶ γέρα ἀπὸ τῶν θυομένων λαμβάνειν, καὶ γῆν δὲ ἐν πολλαῖς τῶν περιοίκων πόλεων ἀπέδειξεν ἐξαίρετον” Xen. de Rep. Lac. xv. 3. καλόν: const. with “τέμενος”. See on “Ε 413.— φυταλιῆς”: appositional gen. with “τέμενος. φυταλιή” includes vineyards as well as orchards. νέμοιτο: cultivate. —Cf. (“τέμενος”) “πεντηκοντόγυον, τὸ μὲν ἥμισυ οἰνοπέδοιο”, | “ἥμισυ δὲ ψιλὴν” (cleared) “ἄροσιν Ι” 579 f.
 For the ‘asyndeton,’ cf. 5.270 ff.Λαοδαμείῃ μέν: correl. with “Ἴσανδρον δέ 203, Ἱππόλοχος δέ” 206. The daughter is mentioned first naturally, as being the last mentioned in the previous verse, and thus in the front of the poet's mind. § 2 o. She is also the mother of the mightiest of Bellerophon's descendants.
 Acc. to Hdt. i. 173, Sarpedon was brother of Minos of Crete, and son of Europa.καὶ κεῖνος: even he, i.e. even Bellerophon, who had received such signal proofs of the gods' care. ἀπήχθετο: cf. 140. sc. as appeared from his morbid melancholy (on the death of his children?). The later form of the myth said that Bellerophon attempted to rise to heaven by the aid of Pegasus, but the rider was thrown off, and the horse returned alone to the stalls of Zeus.
 Homer only intimates the insanity of Bellerophon.—cf. qui miser in campis maerens er rabat Aleis, | ipse suum cor edens hominum vestigia vitans Cic. Tusc. iii. 26. 63, ‘Lest . . . as once Bellerophon, on th' Aleian field I fall, | Erroneous there to wander and forlorn,’ Milton Par. Lost vii. 17 ff.κάπ: “κατά.” τὸ Ἀλήιον: in appos. with “πεδίον”. Clearly connected in derivation by the poet with “ἀλᾶτο”, as the ‘Plain of Wandering.’ Herodotus, vi. 95, mentions an “Ἀλήιον πεδίον” in Cilicia. πάτον κτλ.: parallel to “οἶος” above. πάτον: footsteps.
 Ἄρης κατέκτανε κτλ.: i.e. Isander fell in battle. cf. 205, 428, “τῷ ἴκελος ὅν τ᾽ ἀργυρότοξος Ἀπόλλων ι οἷς ἀγανοῖς βελέεσσιν ἐποιχόμενος κατέπεφνεν” (i.e. one who has had a peaceful death) 24.758 f.ἆτος πολέμοιο: cf. 5.388.
 χολωσαμένη: “in a burst of rage,” sc. because Laodamia had yielded to Zeus, 198.χρυσήνιος: gold-gleaming, with reference to hunting-equipment and dress. ἔκτα: cf. “ἔκτανε” 204. § 35.—“Laodamia died suddenly and quietly.” Artemis sent sudden and peaceful death to women, as Apollo to men. cf. 203 f., 428, “ἐπεί σε λέοντα γυναιξὶν ι Ζεὺς θῆκεν, καὶ ἔδωκε κατακτάμεν ἥν κ᾽ ἐθέλῃσθα Φ” 483 f. (Hera's words to Artemis). 11.784, where it is the parting injunction given to Achilles by his father. A famous and noble verse. ἀρλστεύειν: equiv. to “ἄριστον εἶναι”. μέγα: as adv., modifies all three degrees of comparison.
 i.e. as well the early generations, Sisyphus and Glaucus, at Corinth, as the later generations in Lycia, who were descended from Bellerophon.211 = 20.241, where Aeneas speaks. ταύτης: in thought is const. with both nouns. τοί: “since you ask the question”; with reference to 123. Glaucus ends as he began. γενεῆς: ablatival gen. of source. cf. 5.265.
 ἔγχος μὲν κτλ.: correl. with “αὐτάρ” 214.—Diomed abandoned at once all thoughts of a contest. His action shows his thought sooner than his words do. “Guest-friends must not fight with each other.”κατέπηξεν: cf. “ἐν γαίῃ κατέπηκτο Λ 378, ἔγχεα δέ σφιν ι ὄρθ᾽ ἐπὶ σαυρωτῆρος” (i.e. the spike at the butt of the spear) “ἐλήλατο Κ” 152 f. ξεῖνος: one of the few (unwritten) laws of the Homeric age made the tie of hospitality almost as strong as that of blood. πατρώιος: of the fathers, i.e. of the family. ἐνί: for the length of the last syliable, see § 41 j; cf. “Ε 270. ” ἐρύξας: coincident in time with “ξεἴνισε”.
 cf. 7.305.—For the asyndeton, cf. 174.ζωστῆρα: on “Δ 132.— φοίνικι”: cf. “Δ 141, ψ” 201. μίν: i.e. “δέπας.” ἰών: sc. “ἐς Τροίην”. cf. 5.198.
 Τυδέα κτλ.: the mention of the grandfather reminds the speaker of his father, who had died in his son's infancy.—“I was but a child when my father went to Thebes, and I have no recollection of him.”—The acc. after “μέμνημαι” is remarkable. Perhaps the ‘person’ is treated as a ‘thing.’ cf. “μέμνημαι τόδε ἔργον Ι 527, πῖνε, καὶ ἄλλα παρὲξ μεμνώμεθα ξ 168, μέμνημαι τάδε πάντα ω 122.”τυτθὸν ἐόντα: all the emphasis rests on the partic. and its predicate. ἐν Θήβῃσιν: i.e. near Thebes. The first expedition was repulsed, and did not enter the city. cf. 4.409.
 τῷ: so, therefore, i.e. on the ground of this friendship of their ancestors.ξεῖνος: host. Ἄργει: local, in Argos, in the strict sense.—“I shall receive you to my home when you come to Argos, and you will be my host in Lycia.” τῶν: i.e. “Λυκίων”, easily supplied from “ἐν Λυκίῃ”. ἐμοί: sc. “εἰσίν”, have I. Contrasted with “σοί” 229.
 κτείνειν: explanatory (or final) infinitive. cf. “μιγήμεναι” 161. This thought is carried on also with “πόρῃ.—ὃν κτλ”.: gives the necessary limitation to the preceding expression. It is parallel to “ὅν κε δύνηαι” 229.θεὸς πόρῃ: placed before “ποσὶ κιχείω” because of its precedence in thought. κιχείω: “κιχῶ”.
 ἀλλήλοις: on 226.οἵδε deictic, pointing to the armies on either side. It would be prosaic to ask what these warriors had been doing since 122,—whether they had continued the battle, or had stopped fighting and listened! But the poet almost assumes that the Greeks and Trojans were as much interested as his hearers in this meeting of Glaucus and Diomed.
 πιστώσαντο: gare each other assurance, pledged each other. ‘Reciprocal’ middle.
 Γλαύκῳ: dat. of disadvantage.φρένας ἐξέλετο: took the senses from. Cf. “Ρ 470, Τ 137, Ι 377, Σ 311, Η” 360.—Any unaccountable act was ascribed to a god's interposition.
 This verse became proverbial of an uneven exchange. cf. “ἀλλ᾽ ἀντὶ δόξης ἀλήθειαν καλῶν κτᾶσθαι ἐπιχειρεῖς καὶ τῷ ὄντι χρύσεα χαλκείων διαμείβεσθαι νοεῖς” Plato Symp. 219 a, habes ad omnia, non, ut potulasti, “χρύσεα χαλκείων”, sed paria paribus respondimus Cic. ad Att. vi. I. 22, aut si disparibus bellum incidat, ut Diomedi | cum Lycio Glauco, discedat pigrior, ultromuneribus mis sis Hor. Sat. i. 7. 16 ff.—Obs. the apposition of the second half-verse to the first.
ἑκατόμβοια: having the worth of a hundred cattle. Cattle were the standard of value in the Homeric times. A tripod might be worth twelve cattle (Od. 23.703), and a woman slave from four (Od. 23.705) to twenty cattle (Od. 1.431); while Achilles sold a captured son of Priam for one hundred cattle (21.79). cf. pecunia and ‘chattels.’—“ἑκατόν” and “ἐννέα” are round numbers. The inference that gold was worth only eleven times as much as bronze, would be unreasonable.
 237-311. Hector and Hecaba. The Trojan matrons offer prayers and vows to Athena.cf. “Ι 354, Λ 170.” Ἕκτωρ δέ: here the poet returns to the story of 116. ὡς: for the position, after the emphatic word in making the transition in the story, cf. “ἀλλ᾽ ἴθι, μὴ ἐρέθιζε, σαώτερος ὥς κε νέηαι Α 32.” φηγόν: on 5.693.—Doubtless Hector reached the tree before he came to the gate, but the latter is named first as more prominent and important, by a sort of ‘hysteron proteron.’ § 2 u.
 ἀμφ᾽ ἄρα μιν: only here is “μίν” separated by “ἄρα” from its preposition.—The women of Troy had come to the tower at the Scaean Gate, in order to watch the conflict. cf. 386 ff., 3.145 ff., 420, 22.79, 450 ff.κασιγνήτους κτλ.: cf. “Π 456, ο” 273.—For the acc. of the person for whom inquiry is made, cf. “φύλακας δ᾽ ἃς εἴρεαι, ἥρως Κ 416, εἴρεαι Ἕκτορα δῖον Ω” 390.
 πόσιας: the last syllable is treated as long before the pause. § 41 p.δέ: here introduces a cause. κήδἐ ἐφῆπτο: cf. “Τρώεσσι δὲ κήδἐ ἐφῆπται Β 15, πολλοῖσι δὲ κήδἐ ἐφῆκεν Φ” 524. δόμον: i.e. the palace as a whole, including the court. ἐν αὐτῷ: within the palace itself, in contrast to the gate and the corridors.—The prep. is repeated in “ἔνεσαν” 244.
 πεντήκοντα: Priam, like other Oriental princes, had several wives and many sons. 24.493 ff. All (with two or three exceptions) lived together in patriarchal fashion. Priam's is the only instance of downright polygamy mentioned in the Homeric poems.—cf. quinquaginta illi thalami, spes ampla nepotum | barbarico postes auro spoliisque superbi Verg. Aen. ii. 503 f.λίθοιο: gen. of material. ἀλλήλων: for the gen., cf. “Ἀχαιῶν 106.” δεδμημένοι: from “δέμω”.
 κουράων: daughters.ἑτέρωθεν κτλ.: “on the other side, opposite the former, in the courtyard.” ἐναντίοι: explains “ἑτέρωθεν”.
 ἔνθα: the protasis, 242, was interrupted by the description, and then forgotten. So the poet takes a fresh start, with an independent sentence.ἠπιόδωρος: with kindly gifts. ἐναντίη: predicate. cf. 54.—Hecaba was on her way from one apartment to another. Ξ 232, Σ 384, 423, Τ 7, β 302, θ 291, κ 280, λ 247, ο 530.” ἐν: const. with “φῦ [ἔφυ]”. “She grew to him in his hand,” i.e. she grasped his hand.—cf. excepitque manu dextramque amplexus inhaesit Verg. Aen. viii. 124. τίπτε: const. both with “λιπών” (the principal idea) and “εἰλήλουθας”. τείρουσι: cf. 387. δυσώνυμοι: (of unhappy name,) accursed. Cf. “Κακοΐλιον οὐκ ὀνομαστήν τ” 260.
 περί: local. cf. 327.σὲ δέ: introduces the result of “τείρουσι κτλ”. cf. “γ 252, ρ 379.” ἐνθάδε: only roughly can it be said that this is to be construed with “ἐλθόντα”. The order of words is significant, and connects it with “ἀνῆκεν”, while “ἐλθόντα κτλ”. is added in explanation. “Thy heart urged thee hither,—to come and lift thy hands” etc. χεῖρας ἀνασχεῖν: equiv. to “εὔξασθαι”, since this was the usual attitude in prayer. cf. “Ε 174, πολλά κεν ἀθανάτοισι φίλας ἀνὰ χεῖρας ἀείραι” (“he would pray fervently”) 7.130. Thus the phrase takes an indirect object. μελιηδέα: cf. “μελίφρονα” 264.
 πρῶτον: the position of the word shows that this verse is added as an afterthought, and “ὀνήσεαι” is not under the influence of “ὡς. πρῶτον” serves to mark the distinction of the ideas. cf. “νῦν μὲν παύσωμεν πόλεμον καὶ δηιότητα ι σήμερον: ὕστερον αὖτε μαχήσονται Η” 29 f.αὐτός: by its position is contrasted with “Διὶ πατρί” 259. αἴ κε πίῃσθα: “ἐὰν πίῃς”.
 ἀνδρί: dat. of interest.δέ: the English idiom would use ‘for.’ κεκμηῶτι: for the so-called 2d pf. partic., while “κέκμηκας” 262 is 1st pf., see § 31 a. μέγα: pred. to “μένος”, after “ἀέξει [αὔξει]” increases. Cf. “μέγα πένθος ἄεξεν ρ” 489.
 ὡς: refers to “κεκμηῶτι”, the closing word of the first half-verse of 261, which is repeated in “κέκμηκας”, the closing word in the first halfverse of 262. cf. “ἀνέρι κηδομένῳ, ὡς νῦν ἐμὲ κῆδος ἱκάνει Π 516.”τύνη: cf. “Ε 485.” ἔτῃσιν: clansmen, people. 263 = 359.
 ἄειρε: “bring.” Lit. of lifting the beaker.μελίφρονα: cf. “ἐύφρονα Γ” 246.—Hector replies first to 260262.
 Hector fears that the wine will affect him too much.λάθωμαι: forget, i.e. lose. cf. “ὄφρα σ᾽ ὑποδείσας μένεος κτλ. Χ” 282, and the converse “παντοίης ἀρετῆς μιμνήσκεο Χ” 268. In general, in Homer, to remember a thing is to do it. cf. (“Μενέλαος ἀνώγει”) “νόστου μιμνήσκεσθαι ἐπ᾽ εὐρέα νῶτα θαλάσσης γ” 142 “to enter upon their return.” See on 4.222.
 λύθρῳ: with gory filth.πεπαλαγμένον (“παλάσσω”): agrees with the indefinite subj. of the infinitive.— Hector had no time for ablutions. 269 = 279. σὺ μέν: correl. with “ἐγὼ δέ 280.” ἀγελείης: cf. 4.128.
 σὺν θυέεσσιν: with burnt sacrifices,—only, not of animals, but of some kind of incense. cf. “τοὺς” (i.e. “θεοὺς”) “θυέεσσι καὶ εὐχωλῇς ἀγανῇσιν ι λοιβῇ τε κνίσῃ τε παρατρωπῶσ᾽ ἄνθῥ:᾿ποι ι λισσόμενοι Ι” 499 f.ἀολλίσσασα: cf. 87, 296.
 271-278 = 90-97, mutatis mutandis.
 Repeated from 269, in order to mark the coincidence in time. “While you go to the temple, I will go to the home of Paris.”—For the repetition, cf. 183 (with “μέν”), as resuming 179, and 5.134 and 143.εἰπόντος (sc. “μοῦ”): “my voice,” i.e. my words. ὡς: introduces a wish. κέ: unusual in a wish; but cf. “Τηλέμαχ᾽ , εἰ γάρ κεν σὺ πολὺν χρόνον ἐνθάδε μίμνοις ο” 545.—This wish follows immediately after Hector's statement of his purpose, almost as if he corrected himself, and desired Paris to go to Hades rather than to the field of battle. μέγα πῆμα: pred. to “μίν.” Ὀλύμπιος: cf. “Δ 160. ” ἔτρεφε: bred, i.e. suffered to grow up. cf. “διοτρεφέεσσι Ε” 463.—This is strong language for Hector to use of his own brother, but cf. 325 ff., “αἴθ̓ ὄφελες ἄγονός <*>᾿ ἔμεναι ἄγαμός τ̓ ἀπολέσθαι Γ” 40 (Hector to Paris), and the wish of the old herald Idaeus “ὡς πρὶν ὤφελλ᾽ ἀπολέσθαι” (of Paris) 7.390. τοῖο: on “τοῖο Δ” 28.
 ἴδοιμι κατελθόντα: pieturesque for “κατέλθοι”, as “φαίην ἐκλελαθέσθαι” for “ἐκλελάθοιτο”. cf. 330, 4.98 f. A still more prosaic form would be, “εἰ ἐκεῖνος ἀποθάνοι”. The aor. partic. here differs from the pres. partie. only as the aor. inf. would from the pres. infinitive. cf. “εἰπόντος 281.— Ἄιδος”: the gen. is to be const. not with the adv. “εἴσω”, but with the implied “δόμον”. On “ἐν πατρός” 47.ἦτοπ: subj. of the infinitive.
 μέγαρα: the house, as distinguished from the courtyard, where Hecaba met Hector.ἄρα: “as she bade.” ἀόλλισσαν: i.e. the servants went through the town, and summoned the matrons. 288 = “Ω 191, ο 99.” θάλαμον: the storeroom, in a remote part of the palace, in or near the women's apartments. κηώεντα: fragrant. Perhaps because of cedar chests.
 cf. “ο 105.”οἷ: prob. the pers. pron., although the force of its initial “ϝ” is lost here.
 Σιδονίων: not in direct agreement with “γυναικῶν”, but added in appos., introdueing 290 f.—Homer mentions Sidon but not the younger Tyre.—The Phoenicians were the skilled workmen and traders of early times. cf. 2 Chronicles ii., ix. 21. Ezekiel xxvii., Hdt. i. 1.
 Σιδονίηθεν: acc. to the story which seems to have been more fully developed in post-Homeric times, Paris and Helen on leaving Sparta were driven by a storm to Egypt, and went to Troy by way of Phoenicia. Hdt. ii. 117. In the Odyssey, Homer tells of the visit of Helen and Menelaus to Phoenicia and Aegypt, and of the gifts there received, on the voyage home from Troy. Od. 4.83 ff., 125 ff., 228 ff.ἐπιπλώς: 2d aorist. § 35. εὐρέα: “εὐρύν”. § 20 d. ἀνήγαγεν: led home. Cf. “γυναῖκ᾽ ἐυειδἔ ἀνῆγες ι ἐξ ἀπίης γαίης Γ” 48 f. εὐπατέρειαν: daughter of a noble father. Leda is nowhere named as Helen's mother in Homer. φέρε: sc. from the “θάλαμος.” δῶρον: as a gift. νείατος: predicate. As most precious and magnificent, this robe was least used, and so came to lie at the bottom of the pile. ἄλλων: of all. This const. with “ἄλλων” is specifically Homeric. cf. “ὠκυμορώτατος ἄλλων Α” 505, ‘Adam the goodliest man of men since born | His sons, the fairest of her daughters, Eve,’ Milton Par. Lost iv. 323 f. See on 1.505.
 μετεσσεύοντο (“σεύω”): hurried after her. For the doubling of “ς” after the augment, see § 25 f; cf. “ἀπέσσυτο” 390.—cf. interea ad templum non aequae Palladis ibant | crinibus Iliades passis peplumque ferebant | suppliciter tristes et tunsae pectora palmis Verg. Aen. i. 470 ff.
 Κισσηίς: for the patronymic, see § 21 g. Hecaba also was daughter of Cisses, acc. to Eur. Hec. 3.
 ἔθηκαν: the priestess, then, was chosen by the people. Her sacerdotal duties did not interfere with her family relations. In general Greek priests were not exclusively devoted to their priestly work.
 ὀλολυγῇ: these pious shrieks (cf. Od. 3.450) were intended as responses in the liturgical service; just as “χεῖρας ἀνέσχον” (cf. 257) corresponded to the modern posture of devotion, kneeling. cf. “δοκέει δ᾽ ἔμοιγε καὶ ἡ ὀλολυγὴ ἐπ̓ ἰροῖσι ἐνθαῦτα” (i.e. in Libya) “πρῶτον γενέσθαι: κάρτα γὰρ ταύτῃ χρέωνται αἱ Λίβυσσαι” Hdt. iv. 189.
 cf. 92, 273.
 ῥυσίπτολι: defender of the city. This name is applied to Athena in Ilios although she is one of the two divinities most bent on the destruction of the city. cf. “Ἀθηνᾶ Πολιάς” (“πολιάοχος”) at Athens, and “πολιοῦχος Ἀθάνα” at Sparta; “σύ τ᾽ , ὦ Διογενὲς φιλόμαχον κράτος”, | “ῥυσίπολις γενοῦ”, | “Παλλάς” Aesch. Septem 120 f.—From the stem of “ῥύομαι”, cf. “Ι 396.”θεάων: partitive genitive. cf. 5.381. δή: gives urgency to the imperative. αὐτόν: sc. as contrasted with the spear. cf. “ἔκλαγξαν δ᾽ ἄῤ ὀιστοὶ ἐπ̓ ὤμων χωομένοιο”, | “αὐτοῦ κινηθέντος Α” 46 f.—cf. armipotens, praeses belli, Tritonia virgo, | frange manu telum Phrygii praedonis et ipsum, | pronum sterne solo Verg. Aen. xi. 483 ff.
 308-310. cf. 93-95, 274-276.ἀνένευε: even now in Greece, negation is indieated by an upward motion of the head. The contrary is “κατανεύω”. cf. 4.267.—The poet knew Athena's refusal to grant the matrons' prayers from the outcome; the Trojan women knew it from the lack of favorable omen.
 312-368. Hector at the home of Paris and Helen.This verse, with a beginning similar to that of the preceding, forms a transition to the following action, which was contemporary with the prayers to Athena. cf. “Ε 84, Ρ 424, Ψ 1, ν” 185.—“While these were praying.”—For the ‘parataxis,’ cf. 148. Ἀλεξάνδροιο: the Greek name of Paris is used in Homer four times as freq. as the other. The gen. “Πάριος” is found only 3.325.
 αὐτὸς ἔτευξε: so Odysseus built his own house, and made his own bedstead. The occupations of Homeric princes were not very different from those of Homeric peasants. —Verses 314-317 are added as a sort of afterthought.
 οἵ: these.θάλαμον: i.e. apartments for the women. These with “δῶμα” (the great hall or “μέγαρον” of the men) and “αὐλήν” were the three chief divisions of the home. cf. “εὖ διεθείωσεν” (fumigated) “μέγαρον καὶ δῶμα καὶ αὐλήν χ” 494. Πριάμοιο: const. with “ἐγγύθι”. G. 182, 2; H. 757. (Or, it may be, with “δωμάτων” to be supplied. cf. 47.)
 318-320. cf. “Θ 493-495.”ἔνθα: local, there. This resumes 313.
 ἔγχος ἑνδεκάπηχυ: a long spear! But only about the length of the Macedonian pikes (“σάρισσαι”), which were 14-18 feet long. The lance of the Prussian Uhlan is about ten feet in length. Ajax wielded a boarding pike of twenty-two cubits, 15.678. The Chalybes had lances fifteen cubits long, acc. to Xen. An. iv. 7. 16.—“δουρός [δόρατος”, § 18 f]: const. with “πάροιθε”, at the head of the spear.—This description does much to bring the scene before the mind of the hearer or reader.πόρκης: the ferule, which bound the lower part of the spear-point to the upper part (“καυλός”) of the shaft. περικαλλέα κτλ.: just as a hunter enjoys busying himself about his gun, for which he has a personal affection.
 Explanatory of 321,—the nouns being a more definite and detailed statement of “τεύχεα”.
 Ἀργείη: a standing epithet of Helen.—Helen seems to be in the same apartment as Paris.ἔργα: i.e. weaving and spinning. cf. 490 f., “αἱ δ᾽ ἱστοὺς ὑφόωσι καὶ ἠλάκατα στρωφῶσιν η” 105. Thus Helen spins as she sits in the hall of her husband Menelaus at Sparta, Od. 4.123 ff. 325 = “Γ 38.” αἰσχροῖς: reproachful.
 Hector assumed anger at the Trojans as the cause of his brother's absence from the field of battle. Of course he knew nothing of Aphrodite's interference to save Paris when he was worsted in the single combat with Menelaus (3.380 ff.), and to carry him back to his home; and being assured that his brother was no coward (cf. 522), he supposed that he had withdrawn from the conflict simply in vexation at the Trojans' lack of sympathy with him and his cause (“ἶσον γάρ σφιν πᾶσιν ἀπήχθετο κηρὶ μελαίνῃ Γ” 454).δαιμόνιε: strange man! sir! οὐ καλά: ‘litotes.’ Predicate; adverbial. ἔνθεο: “ἐνέθου”.
 λαοὶ μέν: correl. with “σὺ δέ”. Hector begins as if he would say, “While the people are fighting and dying for your sake, you sit idle at home.” But after the parenthetical “σέο δ᾽ εἵνεκα κτλ”. 328 f., he continues his thought in a new form.περὶ πτόλιν: cf. 256. ἀυτὴ κτλ.: cf. 1.492.
 ἀμφιδέδηε: cf. “Β 93, Μ 35.— σὺ δὲ κτλ”.: “You should be ashamed of withdrawing. You would be angry at any one else who should act thus.” The thought that Paris has left the battlefield is passed over the more easily here since it is implied in the whole reproach.μαχέσαιο: on 5.875. Here not much more than blame sererely. πυρὸς δηίοιο: cf. “πρῆσαι δὲ πυρὸς δηίοιο θύρετρα Β” 415. For the gen. of place with “θέρηται”, see H. 760; cf. “ἐπεί κε πυρὸς θερέω ρ” 23.
 = 3.58 f.334 = Od. 18.129; cf. “ο 318, Α 76.” τούνεκα: resumes “ἐπεί” 333.
 Reply to 326.τοί: “believe me,” “let me tell you.” τόσσον: has its correl. in “ἔθελον δὲ κτλ”. 336, where “ὅσσον ἐθέλων” is expected. cf. 21.275 f., “οὐδέ νυ τῶν ἔτι τόσσον ὀδύρομαι . . . ἀλλά μ᾽ Ὀδυσσῆος πόθος αἴνυται ξ” 142 ff.—“νεμέσσι [νεμέσει”]: just blame. Cf. “Ε 757, Ἥρῃ δ᾽ οὔ τι τόσον νεμεσίζομαι οὐδὲ χολοῦμαι Θ” 407.
 ἥμην: was sitting, i.e. tarrying.ἄχεϊ κτλ.: give myself up to my grief, sc. at the defeat by Menelaus. ἀρήια: of war, martial. δύω: subjunctive. I will put on. No final or temporal particle is to be supplied here. This is a survival of the old construction. GMT. 257. cf. “δεῦτε, δύω μοι ἕπεσθον, ἴδωμ᾽ ὅτιν̓ ἔργα τέτυκται Χ 450, 418, θάπτε με ὅττι τάχιστα: πύλας Ἀίδαο περήσω Ψ” 71.—The verb “δύω” is distinguished from the numeral by the quantity of the penult. 342 = 5.689; cf. 1.511.—Hector is too much vexed at Paris to reply, and not much was to be said. He assents to his brother's last proposition, and is about to depart.
 τόν: i.e. Hector.ἤματι τῷ ὃτε: cf. “Ε 210.—ὅτε κτλ”.: cf. Od. 19.355. “As soon as I was born.” θύελλα: stormy blast.
 ἀπόερσε: a past tense of the ind., without “ἄν”, like “ᾔδη” 351, of the impossible result of the accomplishment of the wish introduced by “ὄφελε” 345. This verb is ‘assimilated’ to “ὄφελε”. GMT. 528; H. 919 b.πάρος: const. with the inf. (but not with the other moods), like “πρίν”. GMT. 656; H. 955 a. τάδε ἔργα: a general expression for all the battles and sorrows of which Helen had been the cause or occasion. ᾔδη: knew, appreciated, felt. νέμεσιν: cf. 335. αἴσχεα: reproaches. Cf. 325, 524. οὔτ᾽ ἂρ νῦν οὔτ̓ ἄῤ ὀπίσσω: i.e. never. ἔμπεδοι: firm, i.e. prudent. cf. “ὁ δ᾽ ἔμπεδος οὐδ̓ ἀεσίφρων γ” 183 of Priam, “Τηλέμαχ᾽ , οὐκέτι τοι φρένες ἔμπεδοι οὐδὲ νόημα ς” 215.
 τῷ: therefore.καί: also, belongs to the whole thought. ἐπαυρήσεσθαι: shall reap the fruits of it. Always ironical in Homer. cf. 1.410.
 “The toil of battle rests heavily on thy soul.” cf. 77.ἀμφιβέβηκεν: stands about, surrounds.
 ἄτης: blind infatuation.ἀοίδιμοι: sung of, theme of song. Cf. “θεοὶ ἐπεκλώσαντο δ᾽ ὄλεθρον ι ἀνθρώποις ἵνα ᾖσι καὶ ἐσσομένοισιν ἀοιδή θ” 579 f., “τεύξουσι δ᾽ ἐπιχθονίοισιν ἀοιδὴν ι ἀθάνατοι χαρίεσσαν ἐχέφρονι Πηνελοπείῃ: ι οὐχ ὡς Τυνδαρέου κούρη κακὰ μήσατο ἔργα . . . στυγερὴ δέ τ̓ ἀοιδὴ ι ἔσσετ̓ ἐπ̓ ἀνθρώπους ω” 197 ff. ἐσσομένοισιν: amplifies “ὀπίσσω” 357. 359 = 263. φιλέουσα περ: though thou art very hospitable. For the meaning, cf. “φιλέεσκεν 15.—οὐδὲ κτλ”.: but (i.e. yet) you will not etc. ὄφρ᾽ ἐπαμύνω: an ‘object-clause,’ equiv. to “ἐπαμῦναι”. cf. 4.465 f.
 τοῦτον: cf. 352.καὶ αὐτός: i.e. without the admonitions. καταμάρψῃ: equiv. to “κιχήσεσθαι” 341. cf. 5.65. οἰκόνδε κτλ.: am going to my house. See on “πόλινδε” 86. ὑπότροπος: reversus. Predicate. cf. 501; “ἐναντίη 251.” δαμόωσιν: fut., cf. “ἵξομαι” 367. For the form, see § 30 b.
 369-502. Parting scene between Hector and Andromache. One of the most charming episodes of the Iliad.369 = 116. 370 = 497; cf. “ρ 28.” ἐὺ ναιετάοντας: “comfortable.” cf. 4.45.
 The second half-verse of this and the two following lines, is simply picturesque,—not necessary for thought or construction.λευκώλενον: this epithet is generally reserved for Hera.
 πύργῳ: i.e. that tower at the Scaean Gate whence Andromache could look forth toward the Achaean camp and upon the plain with the opposing armies.—Andromache had set out for the Tower, apparently, after Hector reached the city, and while he was at the home of Priam or of Paris. So she had missed meeting her husband. But she learned at the Tower that Hector was in the city, and hastened home to greet him.
 ἔνδον: at home.τέτμεν: equiv. to “εὗρεν”. cf. 4.293.
 cf. “υ 128.”ἐπ᾽ οὐδόν: const. with “ἔστη” which is inceptive and implies motion (cf. 43).—Apparently the threshold of the women's apartments. μετὰ κτλ.: cf. 323. γαλόων, εἰνατέρων: glores, ianitrices. On “πενθερῷ” 170. ἔνθα κτλ.: cf. 286 ff.
 ἐυπλόκαμοι: a standing epithet,—without reference to color, quality, or abundance of the hair, but only to the neatness of the braids.δεινήν: cf. “Ε 839.” ἱλάσκονται: are propitiating, i.e. are striving to appease.
 383-385 = 378-380.
 κράτος: strength, hence victory (which is gained by strength).
 ἐπειγομένη: in haste.ἀφικάνει: pres. with pf. meaning; is come, has reached. Cf. “τίπτε δεῦρ᾽ ἀφικάνεις Ξ 43, ξ” 159.—The maid judges from the speed with which Andromache left her home.
 μαινομένῃ κτλ.: sc. in her anxiety. This repeats in more energetic form the thought of “ἐπειγομένη”. cf. (also of Andromache) “μεγάροιο διέσσυτο μαινάδι ἴση”, | “παλλομένη” (quirering) “κραδίην Χ” 460 f.φέρει κτλ.: “accompanied by her child and maid.” τιθήνη: cf. “ἀμφίπολος” 399. γυνὴ ταμίη: “ταμίη” is used as an attrib. adj.; cf. “τέκτονες ἄνδρες 315, ἄνδρες στρατηγοί, κτλ”. τὴν αὐτήν: equiv. to Attic “ταύτην τὴν αὐτήν”, the Homeric art. being demonstrative.
 εὖτε: just when. Always with asyndeton.τῇ ἄρα: “where naturally.”—“ἔμελλε διεξίμεναι [-ιέναι”]: was about to pass out. Cf. 52 f. πολύδωρος: cf. “ἠπιόδωρος 251.—ἐναντίη κτλ”.: cf. 15.88. On “ἀντίος” 54.—For the situation, see on 373. 395 = 8.187.
 Ἠετίων: attracted to the case of the following relative. For the repetition, cf. 154.Πλάκῳ: prob. a spur of the range of Mt. Ida, in Mysia.
 Θήβῃ: local.ὑποπλακίῃ: distinguishing this Thebes from Boeotian (seven-gated) Thebes and Egyptian (hundred-gated) Thebes. Κιλίκεσσι: dat. of interest.—Not to be confounded with the historical Cilicians on the northeast corner of the Mediterranean. Ἕκτορι: the personal dat. of the agent with the passive is more freely used in Homer than in later Greek.
 ἡ: demonstrative.ἔπειτα: points to 394 f. αὐτῇ: herself, as contrasted with the maid. cf. “αὐτόν” 306. νήπιον αὔτως: a mere infant. For the force of “αὔτως”, see § 24 h.
 Ἀστυάνακτα: Protector of the City. The people gave to the son the name which was appropriate to the father. This child never reigned, and “ἀστυάναξ” cannot have meant ‘crown prince.’ So the son of Odysseus is called Telemachus (“Δ 354, τηλοῦ, μάχομαι”);—not because the boy fought far away from home, but because the father was fighting at Troy while the son was a child. cf. “Μεγαπένθης” (“πένθος”) Od. 4.11, son of Menelaus; “Εὐρυσάκης” (“σάκος”), Soph. Aj. 340, son of Ajax; “Νεοπτόλεμος”, son of Achilles, “λ 506; Ἀλκυόνην καλέεσκον . . . οὕνεκ᾽ ἄῤ αὐτῆς ι μήτηρ ἀλκυόνος πολυπενθέος οἶτον ἔχουσα ι κλαῖε Ι” 562 ff.; (and Zipporah bare Moses a son,) ‘and he called his name Gershon [a stranger here]: for he said, I have been a stranger in a strange land,’ Exodus ii. 22.—The original meaning of “ἄναξ” seems to have been ‘protecting lord,’ with no more emphasis upon the privilege of the power than upon the duty of defence. cf. 478. This meaning alone gives point to the close of this verse; “ἐρύετο” repeats the thought of “ἄναξ”.σιωπῇ: const. with “ἰδὼν ἐς παῖδα”.—This second half-verse pictures the father's joy. 406 = 253.
 407-439. Andromache begs Hector to remain within the walls. He can direct from the tower the defence of the city.δαιμόνιε: cf. 326, and note the difference in meaning marked by the speaker's tone. φθίσει: placed first, with emphasis. τὸ σὸν μένος: this courage of thine. Cf. “ἦλθον ἐγὼ παύσουσα τὸ σὸν μένος Α 207, οὔ ποτ᾽ ἐνὶ πληθυῖ μένεν ἀνδρῶν”, | “ἀλλὰ πολὺ προθέεσκε, τὸ ὃν μένος οὐδενὶ εἴκων Χ” 458 f. (Andromache of Hector). οὐδ᾽ ἐλεαίρεις: a reproach for not considering the fate of wife and child in case of the husband's death. χθόνα δύμεναι: cf. 19.—cf. (Tecmessa to Ajax) “οἴκτιρε δ᾽ , ὦναξ, παῖδα” “τὸν σόν, εἰ νέας ι τροφῆς στερηθεὶς σοῦ διοίσεται μόνος ι ὑπ᾽ ὀρφανιστῶν μὴ φίλων, ὅσον κακὸν ι κείνῳ τε κἀμοὶ τοῦθ̓, ὅταν θάνῃς, νεμεῖς”. | “ἐμοὶ γὰρ οὐκέτ᾽ ἐστὶν εἰς ὅ τι βλέπω ι πλὴν σοῦ. σὺ γάρ μοι πατρίδ̓ ᾔστωσας δορί”, | “καὶ μήτερ᾽ αὑτὴ μοῖρα τὸν φύσαντά τε ι καθεῖλεν Ἅιδου θανασίμους οἰκήτορας”. | “τίς δῆτ᾽ ἐμοὶ γένοιτ̓ ἂν ἀντὶ σοῦ πατρίς”; | “τίς πλοῦτος; ἐν σοὶ πᾶσ᾽ ἔγωγε σῴζομαι”. | “ἀλλ᾽ ἴσχε κἀμοῦ μνῆστιν”. Soph. Aj. 510 ff. σύγε: on this lies all emphasis. cf. 429 f. πότμον ἐπίσπῃς (“ἐφέπω”): cf. “ὄφρα πρόσθ᾽ ἄλλων θάνατον καὶ πότμον ἐπίσπῃ Β” 359. καί: though after “οὐδέ”. This makes but one thought of “πατὴρ καὶ μήτηρ”. cf. nihil usquam prisci et integri moris Tacitus Ann. i. 4; “οὐ μέν σοί γε πατὴρ καὶ πότνια μήτηρ ι ὄσσε καθαιρήσουσι Λ” 452. ἐξενάριξε: in the literal sense. cf. 30 with “Ε 842.—σεβάσσατο κτλ”.: cf. 167. τό γε: i.e. “ἐξεναρίξαι”.—Achilles respected the old king too much to treat his body with despite, and so gave him an honorable burial (“σὺν ἔντεσι”). περί: adv., round about.
 ὀρεστιάδες: of the mountains. On 22.Ἄιδος εἴσω: cf. 284. ὑπὸ Πλάκῳ: cf. 396. ἤγαγε: on “Δ 239.— ἅμ̓ ἄλλοισι κτλ”.: the captive queen may have been counted as part of the “κτήματα”, but this may be taken as “with her treasures, too.” cf. 5.621. λαβών: sc. from her father. ἀπερείσια κτλ.: cf. 1.13.
 πατρός: i.e. Andromache's grandfather, who had ransomed his daughter and brought her back to his home. Eëtion's house of course had been destroyed.βάλ᾽ Ἄρτεμις: i.e. the old queen died a peaceful death. On 205.
 Ἕκτορ, ἀτὰρ σύ: cf. 86.— Hector—Andromache's all—is contrasted with the preceding. This thought prepares the way for the urgent request of 431, that Hector should remain within the walls.— cf. “γενοῦ δὲ τοῖσδε συγγενής, γενοῦ φίλος”, | “πατὴρ, ἀδελφὸς, δεσπότης” Eur. Heraclidae 229 f., “ἥδ᾽ ἀντὶ πολλῶν ἐστί μοι παραψυχή”,— | “πόλις, τιθήνη, βάκτρον, ἡγεμὼν ὁδοῦ” Eur. Hec. 280 f., Hel. 277 ff., tot tamen amissis te compensavimus unum: | tu dominus, tu vir, tu mihi frater eras Ovid Her. iii. 51 f., te isti virum do, amicum, tutorem, patrem Terence And. i. 5. 60.
 νῦν: sc. as he had not been doing.αὐτοῦ: right here, made definite by “ἐπὶ πύργῳ”, where Andromache had been (373). From that commanding position, Hector could direct the defence of the city. ὀρφανικόν: predicate. θήῃς: “θῇς”. cf. “βήω 113.” γυναῖκα: is more pathetic than “ἐμέ”, and forms a better contrast to “παῖδα”.
 This advice is not out of place in the mouth of the general's wife, who doubtless had taken more interest than most Trojan women in the details of the plans for the safety of the city.ἐρινεόν: on a height near the walls and the Scaean Gate (else Hector could not have stood upon the tower to direct operations). cf. “Λ 167, Χ” 145.—Acc. to the later story, Poseidon and Apollo called Aeacus to their aid in building the wall of Troy. The work of the gods could not be overthrown by mortals; but what Aeacus had built could be destroyed by his descendants (Achilles, Ajax, Neoptolemus). Pindar Ol. viii. 31 ff. Homer nowhere else intimates that there was such an accessible or vulnerable place, at which the city should be captured. καὶ ἐπίδρομον (“ἔδραμον, δρόμος”): i.e. exposed to attack. This gives the result of experience. ἔπλετο: used as present.
 ἐλθόντες: Homer is fond of a participle which completes the picture, but is not strictly necessary to the sense.ἐπειρήσαντο: intrans., made an attempt, sc. to scale the wall. No other mention is made in Homer of such an assault.
 Two possible explanations of the assaults made at this particular spot.θεοπροπίων: for the gen., cf. “τόξων Δ” 196. This refers to some such prophecy as that of Apollo, “Πέργαμος ἀμφὶ τεαῖς, ἥρως” (i.e. Aeacus), “χερὸς ἐργασίαις ἁλίσκεται” Pindar Ol. viii. 42.
 cf. “Ο 43.”ἤ νυ καί: or possibly too. αὐτῶν θυμός: their own hearts, as opposed to oracles and omens. ἐποτρύνει: after the aor., the pres. expresses the general truth which doubtless still abides.
 440-465. Hector's reply. “I am not unmindful of thee, but I cannot play the coward and remain within the walls.”440 = 22.232. 22.105; cf. “Η 297.” Τρῶας: for the acc., see G. 158, N. 2; H. 712 a. ἑλκεσιπέπλους: with trailing robes. Only in this phrase. cf. “Ἑλένη τανύπεπλος Γ” 228, and “Ἰάονες ἑλκεχίτωνες Ν” 685.
 Reply to 433.κακὸς ὥς: cf. “κύνες ὥς Ε 476.” ϝόσφιν πολέμοιο: Hector uses this expression of the safe position on the tower which Andromache had suggested. cf. 5.253.
 A second reason against adopting the suggestion of 431.— “And my own courage forbids it.”ἄνωγεν: pf. as present. μάθον: I learned. To know was to do; cf. 265. cf. “ἀθεμίστια ᾔδη” he had a lawless heart “ι 189, κεδνὰ ἰδυῖα” trusty-hearted “α 428, ἄγρια οἶδεν” he has a cruel heart 24.41,— in all of which expressions, corresponding action is implied. ἔμμεναι ἐσθλός: equiv. to “ἀριστεύειν” 208.
 Hector feels that he cannot save the city, but he will save his father's fame and his own.ἀρνύμενος: striving to gain. Cf. “Α 159, α 5, Χ 160.” πατρός: “πατρί” might have been used, with little difference of meaning. αὐτοῦ: intensive, agreeing with “ἐμοῦ” implied in “ἐμόν”. cf. 490, 5.741.
 Reply to 429 f.Τρώων: objective gen. with “ἄλγος”. Contrasted with “σεῦ” 454.—Obs. that “Τρώων, Ἑκάβης”, and “κασιγνήτων” all come immediately before the verse-pause. ὑπ᾽ ἀνδράσι: for “ὑπό” with the dat., cf. 4.291. ἐλεύθερον ἦμαρ: equiv. to “ἐλευθερίαν”, which is not Homeric. § 2 s. Cf. 463.—For the second half-verse, cf. “Π 831, Υ” 193.
 Hector sees with his mind's eye the time when Andromache will be put to menial service.ἐν Ἄργεϊ: i.e. in Peloponnesus. πρὸς ἄλλης: i.e. as a slave, “at the bidding of another.”
 ὕδωρ: ‘fetching water’ is an important duty of women in Oriental countries. cf. ‘Let them live; but let them be hewers of wood and drawers of water unto all the congregation,’ Joshua ix. 21; ‘from the hewer of thy wood unto the drawer of they water,’ Deut. xxix. 11; ‘at the time of the evening, even the time that women go out to draw water,’ Genesis xxiv. 11 (Rebekah at the well).Μεσσηίδος: sc. “κρήνης”. Ablatival gen., from Messeïs. A spring of this name is mentioned by Pausanias, iii. 20. 1, as near Therapne, the old seat of the Dioscuri, not far from Sparta. Ὑπερείης: mentioned as a spring in Thessaly, 2.734.—Perhaps the poet thus intimates the possibility that the captive Andromache may be given as a prize to Menelaus or Achilles. Later tradition made her the “γέρας” of Achilles's son Neoptolemus. At any rate, this verse makes “ἐν Ἄργεϊ” more definite.—That the Homeric poet should make Hector speak as if familiar with the names of springs in Greece, is not strange. ὃς κτλ.: cf. “Λ 746, Ρ 351. ” μάχεσθαι: cf. 5.536. The inf. follows the verb easily since “ἀριστεύεσκε” is equiv. to “ἄριστος ἦν”. cf. 208.—cf. (Tecmessa to Ajax, see on 411) “εἰ γὰρ θάνῃς σὺ καὶ τελευτήσας μ᾽ ἀφῇς”, | “ταύτῃ νόμιζε κἀμὲ τῇ τόθ᾽ ἡμέρᾳ ι βίᾳ ξυναρπασθεῖσαν Ἀργείων ὕπο ι ξὺν παιδὶ τῷ σῷ δουλίαν ἕξειν τροφήν”. | “καί τις πικρὸν πρόσφθεγμα δεσποτῶν ἐρεῖ ι λόγοις ἰάπτων: ἴδετε τὴν δμευνέτιν ι Αἴαντος ὃς μέγιστον ἴσχυσε στρατοῦ” Soph. Aj. 496 ff.
 ἀμφεμάχοντο: sc. ‘they’ in a general sense, ‘our army.’τοιοῦδε: “such a one as I am.” ἀμύνειν: equiv. to “ὃς ἂν ἀμύνοι”, depends on “τοιοῦδε”. GMT. 760. δούλιον ἦμαρ: on 455. “δουλοσύνη” is not Homeric.
 “But may I be dead and buried.”χυτὴ (“χέω”) γαῖα: cf. “Ξ 114, Ψ 256, γ 258.” κατὰ καλύπτοι: cf. 4.182. βοῆς, ἑλκηθμοῖο: both after “πυθέσθαι”, but in different relations; “σῆς” is ‘subjective,’ while “σοῦ” is ‘objective.’ “Hear thy cry of distress and learn that thou art dragged into captivity.” “σῆς βοῆς” is nearly equiv. to “σοῦ βοώσης.— ἑλκηθμοῖο”: cf. Priam's words, “κακὰ πόλλ᾽ ἐπιδόντα”,— | “ϝἷάς τ᾽ ὀλλυμένους, ἑλκηθείσας τε θύγατρας”, | . . . “ἑλκομένας τε νυοὺς” (sons' wives) “ὀλοῇς ὑπὸ χερσὶν Ἀχαιῶν Χ” 61 ff.
 πατρὸς κτλ.: parenthetical, giving the cause of “ἐκλίνθη ἰάχων”. It is explained by the following verse, which is further explained by 470. The partics. in 468-470 might be translated in reverse order: the child “ἐνόησε”, then “ἐτάρβησε”, then “ἠτύχθη”, and then “ἐκλίνθη ἰάχων”.
 χαλκόν: the bronze, esp. of the helmet. cf. 473.ἰδέ: for the length of the ‘ultima,’ see § 41 j. νεύοντα: supplementary partic. after “νοήσας”. cf. “νοέω κακὸν ὔμμιν ι ἐρχόμενον υ” 367 f.
 αὐτίκα: for the ‘asyndeton,’ see § 2 l, n.κρα_τός: cf. 5.7. For the inflection, see § 18 f.
 cf. 3.293.
 ἐπεί: is expected at the beginning of the clause. On “ὡς 237.— κύσε”: the Homeric warriors were not ashamed to express their emotions, but they seem to have done little kissing. Such salutation of adults is mentioned only as greeting after a long absence, or as an act of homage. KISSING is mentioned in but two other passages of the Iliad (“Θ 371, Ω” 478), both of which refer to the acts of suppliants.
 With this prayer, cf. that of Ajax, “ὦ παῖ, γένοιο πατρὸς εὐτυχέστερος”, | “τὰ δ᾽ ἄλλ̓ ὅμοιος: καὶ γένοἰ ἂν οὐ κακός” Soph. Ajax 550 f.; Aeneas's prayer for Ascanius, disce, puer, virtutem ex me verumque laborem, | fortunam ex aliis Verg. Aen. xii. 435 f.; ‘My son! my son! may kinder starsUpon thy fortune shine; | And may those pleasures gild thy reign | That ne'er wad blink on mine,’ Burns's Lament of Mary Queen of Scots; ‘Bright as his manly sire the son shall be | In form and soul, but ah! more blest than he,’ Campbell, Pleasures of Hope.
Τρώεσσιν: “in the eyes of the Trojans.” ‘Dat. of interest in looser relations.’ H. 771. Originally this seems to have been ‘dat. of the agent.’ τέ: in free position. See on 317. ἀνάσσειν: correl. with “βίην”. For the meaning of the verb, see on “Ἀστυάνακτα” 403.—Here Hector thinks no longer of the destruction of Troy (cf. 448 f.),—forgetting the war and its dangers at the sight of his child.
 τὶς: many a one.εἴποι: opt. of wish. πατρὸς κτλ.: a verbal quotation of the desired praise. ὅδε: deictic. πολλόν: originally ‘acc. of extent,’ and then adverbial. “πολλῷ” might have been used.—“May many a one say of him as he returns from the war.”
 ἀνιόντα: as if “τόνδε πατρὸς ἀμείνω” had preceded. The acc. depends on “εἴποι”. G. 165; H. 725 a. The clause “πατρὸς κτλ”. is the other obj. of the verb.—For the thought cf. “παῦροι” (few) “γάρ τοι παῖδες ὁμοῖοι πατρὶ πέλονται”, | “οἱ πλέονες κακίους, παῦροι δέ τε πατρὸς ἀρείους β” 276 f.φέροι: sc. “ἐκ πολέμοιο”. This aids in making the situation vivid.
 ἀλόχοιο: this is a delicate touch of the poet,—that Hector does not return the child to the nurse (from whom he took him, 466 ff.), but gives him into the arms of his wife, thus entrusting him to her care.
 κηώδεϊ: fragrant, sc. because of her perfumed clothing. cf. 288.κόλπῳ: cf. 136. ἐλέησε: inceptive aorist. “Pity came over him.” 485 = 5.372.
 δαιμονίη: “my poor wife.” cf. 407.μοί: ‘ethical.’ τι λίην: a common order. cf. “Ν 284, Ξ 368, Φ” 288.
 The most distinct expression of fatalism in Homer. “I shall not die if death is not appointed for me now, nor can I escape death if that is decreed.”ὑπὲρ αἶσαν: cf. “Π 780, Ρ 321.—Ἄιδι κτλ”.: cf. 5.190.
 μοῖραν: fate, i.e. death.πεφυγμένον ἔμμεναι: “πεφευγέναι”. cf. “Ε 873.” ἀνδρῶν: const. with “οὔ τινα”. 489 = Od. 8.553; cf. “χ 415, ψ 66.” οὐδὲ μέν: nor indeed, even not. τὰ πρῶτα: “once.” cf. 1.6.
 490-493. cf. “α 356-359, φ” 350-353. These verses are intended to quiet Andromache. She is to return to her home, and attend to her regular duties, assured that the men will do their part for the safety of the city.αὐτῆς: cf. “αὐτοῦ” 446.
 πόλεμος κτλ.: cf. “Υ 137.— μελήσει”: cf. 5.430.—cf. “ἀνδρῶν τάδ᾽ ἐστί, σφάγια καὶ χρηστήρια ι θεοῖσιν ἕρδειν, πολεμίων πειρωμένων: ι σὸν δ̓ αὖ τὸ σιγᾶν καὶ μένειν εἴσω δόμων” Aesch. Septem 212 ff., “ἀνδρῶν γὰρ ἀλκή: σοὶ δὲ χρὴ τούτων” (i.e. children) “μέλειν” Eur. Heraclidae 711. The second half-verse is quoted in Aristophanes, Lysistrata 520, as a common admonition of husbands to wives, that they should mind their own business.πᾶσιν: in appos. with “ἄνδρεσσι”. On “Ε 313.— τοὶ κτλ”.: cf. 17.145. Added after the verse-pause, making “πᾶσιν” more definite. ἐγγεγάασιν: cf. “Ε 477, Δ” 41.— This seems to have been planned by the poet as the last meeting of Hector and his wife. In the Twentysecond Book, Andromache is following her husband's directions, and is engaged in weaving when she hears the shriek from the women on the tower which announces Hector's death. 22.437 ff. She appears in a third scene in the Homeric poems, when the body of Hector is brought back to Troy. 24.723 ff.
 εἵλετο: the poet does not need to say that Hector proceeded to don his helmet. cf. 178.—Andromache does not trust herself to speak again. The leave-taking is brief and simple.
 Εκτορος: does not limit “δόμους” directly, as if the end of a verse had not intervened, but is added in a sort of apposition. “She came to the house,—the house of Hector.” Similarly, “πολλάς” at the close of this verse does not agree directly with “ἀμφιπόλους” 499, which follows in apposition.ἐνῶρσεν: sc. by her tears. γόον: lamented. This lament for the yet-living Hector, forms a prelude to the dirges sung at his death. 22.416 ff., 24.725 ff. ᾧἐνὶ οἴκῳ: in his own home. Cf. “Η 127, Θ” 284.
 503-529. Paris joins Hector, and both return to the field of battle. Resumption of the story of 312-368, esp. 340 f.—This scene forms a sharp contrast with the preceding. Paris goes forth to battle without Hector's premonitions of disaster, and with no fears for the safety of his family.οὐδέ: nor. ἀνὰ ἄστυ: clearly not of ascent, since the home of Paris was near that of Hector, and the latter rushed “κατ᾽ ἀγυιάς” 391. cf. “Δ 209. ” πεποιθώς: cf. 5.299.
 506-511 = 15.263-268, of Hector.στατός: “kept in a stall.” ἀκοστήσας: “high-fed on grain.”— cf. (Turnus) fulgebatque alta decurrens aureus arce | exultatque animis . . . qualis ubi abruptis fugit praesepia vinclis | tandem liber equus campoque potitus aperto aut ille in pastus armentaque tendit equarum | aut adsuetus aquae perfundi flumine noto | emicat arrectisque fremit cervicibus alte | luxurians lu duntque iubae per colla, per armos Verg. Aen. xi. 490 ff.; ‘Contention, like a horse | Full of high feeding, madly hath broke loose,’ Shakspere 2 Henry IV. i. 1. 9 f.; ‘But like a proud steed reined, went haughty on, | Champing his iron curb,’ Milton Par. Lost iv. 858 f.— Paris is a well-fed, comfortable creature, without cares, and with a very good opinion of himself.
πεδίοιο: cf. 38. ποταμοῖο: for the gen., cf. “Ὠκεανοῖο Ε” 6. ἀμφί: adverbial. It is made more definite by “ὤμοις” on the shoulders 510.
 ὁ δέ: the const. is changed, and this is left without a verb. For the ‘anacoluthon,’ cf. 5.135 f., 11.833 f., ‘The eye that mocketh at his father, and despiseth to obey his mother, the ravens of the valley shall pick it out, and the young eagles shall eat it,’ Proverbs xxx. 17.
 ἤθεα: haunts. Always of brutes, in Homer. Later, it was used of the character of men (‘ethies’), and in Herodotus (vii. 75) of the home of a nation.