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τὰ γὰρ ἐχθὲς καὶ πρῴην: means “recent events.” Homer also uses the phrase χθιζά τε καὶ πρώιζα, B 303. The Greek idiom requires καί where the Eng. uses “or.”

8 f.

πολλοὶ ἀδικοῦντες ἄνθρωποι: in most cases when the participle is used as an attribute, we can still feel the participial plus as compared with the adjective. Here, however, that has almost completely disappeared, and the participle is as much an adj. as προσήκων, πρέπων, etc.

τὰ ποῖα: it is a matter of individual preference whether the art. be used or not; cf. 449 e. When used, the article limits the attention to what has been already alluded to; here, τὰ ἐχθὲς . . . ταῦτα. In Eng. one also occasionally hears the art. with the interrogative.

Ἀρχέλαον: Archelaus, an ille gitimate son of Perdiccas, seized the throne in B.C. 414, after his father's death, and reigned until 399, when he was murdered by Craterus or Crateuas (name and motive are alike uncertain). The facts brought forward by Polus in their darkest colors are probably correct; but Archelaus laid the foundation for the later importance of Macedonia by introducing Greek culture. He invited famous artists, among others Euripides, to his court. There is also a tradition that he invited Socrates, but that is hardly credible.

ὁρᾷς: well expresses the lively interest which Polus, as well as many other Greeks, took in that admired ruler, whose apparent success was doubtless envied by many an aspiring and ambitious man. The answer of Socrates sounds somewhat pedantic, but it is probably jesting, and designed to cool the extravagant ardor of Polus, while at the same time it prepares the way for οὔπω συγγέγονα τῷ ἀνδρί below.

ἀλλὰ . . . γε: nevertheless, at least. H. 1046, 2, a.

15-This passage is translated by Cicero, Tusc. Disp. v. 12.

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    • Plato, Gorgias, 449e
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