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νὴ τοὺς θεοὺς ἀλλ᾽ ἐπιθυμῶ: ἀλλά is used after an expression of asseveration, as in 463 d. The words of Chaerephon contain the challenge, “Why don't you rather turn to Socrates himself?” to which Callicles replies, “But that is just what I do desire.” In Callicles' manner of expression we discern his excitable nature as well as his strong faith in his own views, which he is the more surprised to find opposed, not only by Socrates, but also by Chaerephon. Artistically also his words form the text for the discussion which follows.

φῶμεν . . . παίζοντα: this is a very unusual construction for φημί. G. 260, 2, N. 1.

ἀνατετραμμένος: cf. ἀνατρέπειν τὰ πράγματα, πόλιν, οἰκίαν. For if you be both in earnest, and the thing which you say prove to be (τυγχάνει) true, would not the only (ἄλλο τι ) conclusion be that the manner of life of us men has been entirely upside down?

τῶν ἀνθρώπων: is emphatically added because Callicles does not intend that under ἡμῶν only a limited circle shall be understood. Cf. Ar. Plut. 500 ὡς μὲν γὰρ νῦν ἡμῖν βίος τοῖς ἀνθρώποις διάκειται.

πάντα τὰ ἐναντία: like πᾶν τοὐναντίον, quite the contrary.

εἰ μή τι κτἑ.: Socrates recognizes indeed the opposition in their views of life, but refers it to the different exercise of a common feeling, —love,—which varies according to the difference in the objects to which it is directed. The comparison of love of wisdom with other varieties of human love is often found in Plato, e.g. Phaedo 68 a.

πάθος: denotes a state of mind brought about by external influences. According to cause and circumstances it may be love, hate, admiration, or scorn. But no variety is peculiar to any single man; this is made clear by the explanatory clause inserted between πάθος and τὸ αὐτό.

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    • Plato, Gorgias, 463d
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