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αυ<*>τό: draws especial attention to the following clause, which it introduces. By its proximity to αὐτή this emphasis is still more increased.

ἀμείνω: is here probably used purposely instead of κρείττω, as Callicles had in mind also the mental superiority of the rhetorically educated over the great multitude. Hence, too, δυνατώτερον.

δηλοῖ: can be taken in construction with φύσις, or, which is better, as an impersonal verb equiv. to δῆλόν (δῆλά) ἐστιν. The subj. is the following ὅτι clause, whose own subj., ταῦτα, has been attracted to the government of the leading verb.

πολλαχοῦ: introduces facts in support of the general statement.—

καὶ ἐν τοῖς ἄλλοις ζῴοις: the law of nature is the principle which is at the basis of national law. Here is, moreover, an indication of the moral character of those who hold this view, in that they put the ἄνθρωπος on the plane of the ζῷον.

ὅλαις ταῖς πόλεσι: in international relations this natural law (‘might makes right’) has preserved its force longer than in the intercourse of individual men; hence γένος is equiv. to gens. The clause following, ὅτο . . . ἔχειν, is explanatory of ταῦτα ὅτι οὕτως ἔχει.

κέκριται: in 520 e νενόμισται is the word.

ἄρχειν: is the legal, πλέον ἔχειν the natural expression of the same idea.

ἐπεὶ ποίῳ δικαίῳ κτἑ.: is not purely neg., but has somewhat the sense: “What other right had Xerxes than that of nature?” The choice of examples shows that with this selfish, immoral view of life is connected also a lack of national feeling. Callicles himself feels the impropriety of declaring Xerxes to be ἀμείνων and δυνατώτερος τῶν Ἑλλήνων, and therefore hastily seeks another example which will not arouse personal feeling.

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    • Plato, Gorgias, 520e
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