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43. οἵαπερ παρἀ is the reading of T: B has οἵα περὶ. The γραμματισταί of Athens were schoolmasters, who besides teaching reading and writing (cf. below, 326D translated (ἑρμηνεύειν) Homer and interpreted his γλῶτται. They were distinct from the γραμματικοί or κριτικοί who pursued more scientific literary and grammatical studies. The κιθαριστής and γραμματιστής between them taught μουσική, and the παιδοτρίβης γυμναστική; and μουσική and γυμναστική were the two parts of παιδεία or liberal education: Rep. II. 376E.

45. ἐπὶ τέχνῃἀλλ᾽ ἐπὶ παιδείᾳ: cf. 315Aἐπὶ τέχνῃ μανθάνει, ὡς σοφιστὴς ἐσόμενος. The distinction between professional and liberal (ὡς τὸν ἰδιώτην καὶ τὸν ἐλεύθερον πρέπει) education is frequently emphasised by Plato (see especially Laws, I. 643D): his word for the latter is always παιδεία, cf. Gorg. 485A, Rep. VI. 492C. The ‘arts’ are throughout the Republic looked on as βάναυσοι, and unfit for men whose souls are free.

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