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20. φιλόνικος. The MSS. read φιλόνεικος and presently συμφιλονεικεῖν. It is however clear that the word comes from φιλο- and νίκη, not from φιλο- and νεῖκος (in which case the form would be φιλονεικής: compare φιλοκερδής, φιλοκυδής, but φιλότιμος, φιλόδοξος, φιλόθηρος and the like). Schanz has found only two traces of the original spelling with iota in Plato's MSS. (A, B, T): viz. in Laws, XI. 935B, where Paris A has ἀριστείων πέρι φιλονικήσῃ, and Alcib. I, 122C, where φιλονικίαν appears as a correction for φιλονεικίαν in T. We might in consequence be tempted to suppose that Plato himself wrote φιλόνεικος through the influence of a false etymology, were it not that the derivation from νίκη alone suits the meaning, and that in more than one passage he shows himself conscious of the connection of the word with νίκη, notably in Rep. IX. 586C τί δέ; περὶ τὸ θυμοειδὲς οὐχ ἕτερα τοιαῦτα ἀνάγκη γίγνεσθαι, ὃς ἂν αὐτὸ τοῦτο διαπράττηται φθόνῳ διὰ φιλοτιμίαν βίᾳ διὰ φιλονικίαν (φιλονεικίαν Α) θυμῷ διὰ δυσκολίαν, ρλησμονὴν τιμῆς τε καὶ νίκης καὶ θυμοῦ διώκων ἄνευ λογισμοῦ τε καὶ νοῦ; Cf. also ibid. 581A-B. The orthography of this word is an old subject of dispute (see Stallbaum on Rep. VIII. 545A); Schanz (Preface to vol. VI, p. X) declares himself, after a full discussion, for φιλόνικος.

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