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ἐπειδὰν -- τελευτήσειν: ‘when a man faces the thought that he must die,’ not (with Jowett) ‘when a man thinks himself to be near death,’ which would be ἐπειδάν τις ἐγγὺς εἶναι οἴηται τοῦ τελευτῆσαι, as Herwerden proposes to read (cf. Laws 922 C ὅταν ἤδη μέλλειν ἡγώμεθα τελευτᾶν). “Senum, non iuvenum τὸ οἴεσθαι τελευτήσειν est” (Hartman): the weakness of old age convinces us at last that we too must die. Cf. Simon. 85. 7—10 θνητῶν δ᾽ ὄφρα τις ἄνθος ἔχῃ πολυήρατον ἥβης | κοῦφον ἔχων θυμόν, πόλλ᾽ ἀτέλεστα νοεῖ: | οὔτε γὰρ ἐλπίδ᾽ ἔχει γηρασέμεν οὔτε θανεῖσθαι, | οὐδ᾽ ὑγιὴς ὅταν , φροντίδ᾽ ἔχει καμάτου.

ἀδικήσαντα -- διδόναι δίκην. Plato is fond of this verbal play: cf Euthyph. 8 B and 8 E τῷ γε ἀδικοῦντι δοτέον δίκην. He who does not render justice in deeds must render justice in punishment: for the tale of justice must be made up. Note that we have here in ἀδικία and δίκη the first casual allusion to the subject of the Republic.

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    • Plato, Euthyphro, 8b
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