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οὐδέν γε -- ὀργάνων. Plato puts himself in the position of the Muses, who preferred Apollo's performance on the κιθάρα to that of Marsyas on the flute (Apollod. I 4. 2). This is the force of οὐδέν γε καινὸν ποιοῦμεν. The words τὰ τοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος ὄργανα must not be pressed; for although Apollo invented the cithara, the lyre was ascribed to Hermes (Paus. V 14. 8: cf. the Homeric Hymn to Hermes), and the syrinx to Pan. The discovery of the flute was also ascribed to Athena, especially by the Boeotians. A third account represents Marsyas as picking up the instrument after Athena had discovered and discarded it. This legend may be an attempt to reconcile the two conflicting stories, and probably dates from the decline of the flute as an instrument of education in Athens during the fourth century (Arist. Pol. Θ 6. 1341^{a} 32 ff. Cf. Preller Gr. Myth. p. 223). In making Marsyas its discoverer, Plato declares the flute a foreign instrument, and appropriately excludes it from his ‘Greek city’ (V 470 E).

νὴ τὸν κύνα. This peculiarly Socratic oath occurs only once again in the Republic (IX 592 A). In both passages it marks the highest degree of emphasis. On the oath itself see my note on Ap. 21 E and Blaydes on Ar. Wasps 83.

ἄρτι: II 372 E note

399E - 401A Let us now continue the purgation of our city by laying down rules for rhythm and time. Our rhythm must not be varied or manifold; for time as well as tune should conform to words, and not conversely. It is agreed that there are certain rhythms expressive of sobriety and courage. These and these only will be admitted into our city. For particulars, we shall apply to Damon; but we can enunciate the general principle ourselves. Rhythm and Mode reflect style, and style expresses character. It is to promote the growth of character that we shall require the young to pursue the beautiful throughout the realms alike of Art and Nature.

The section on Rhythms is hardly less difficult than that on Modes. Westphal translates it with a short commentary in his Gr. Rhythmik pp. 237—239, but without shedding any light upon the darkest places. Schneider and Stallbaum give little help. I have found Gleditsch's summary account of die Metrik der Griechen (in Iwan Müller's Handbuch) a most useful guide in dealing with the subject.

βάσεις. The word βάσις in the technical writers on Rhythm generally means a dipody or combination of two feet under one main ictus: cf. Schol. in Heph. I 3. 1 p. 124 ed. Westphal βάσις δέ ἐστι τὸ ἐκ δύο ποδῶν συνεστηκός, τοῦ μὲν ἄρσει, τοῦ δὲ θέσει παραλαμβανομένου. Such a technical use of the word would be out of place here, especially in the mouth of Socrates; and the word is employed throughout as equivalent simply to ‘step’ or ‘foot.’ Even technical writers sometimes so use it: cf. the Scholiast already cited δέξεται δὲ (sc. the Iambic metre) ἐν μὲν τῇ πρώτῃ βάσει ἴαμβον καὶ σπονδεῖον II 5. p. 151 and Gleditsch l.c. p. 702.

κοσμίου τε καὶ ἀνδρείου recalls 399 C σωφρόνων ἀνδρείων, and would seem to point to the necessity of two kinds of rhythm, one to go with the Phrygian mode and express sobriety and self-control, the other to join the Dorian mode in expressing courage. On the ethical qualities of Greek rhythm in general, consult Westphal Gr. Rhythmik pp. 226—239 and Arist. Rhet. III 8, with Cope's notes.

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    • Aristophanes, Wasps, 83
    • Plato, Apology, 21e
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