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αὐτὰ ἕκαστα . αὐτά is ipsa, i.e. by themselves, alone, without qualification: cf. αὐτὰ—μόνα αὐτῶν μόνων in D and αὐτοῦ πώματος etc. 437 E. Plato now proceeds to establish the universality of his rule. It is obvious that the reasons for believing the rule true of ἐπιθυμία are confirmed if we can shew that it is true universally. The phraseology of this passage—πλήθους παρουσία, αὐτὰ ἕκαστα, αὐτὴ ἐπιστήμη— is no doubt interesting for the light which it throws on the origin of the terminology adopted in the Theory of Ideas (cf. VI 507 B note): but we could make no greater mistake than to suppose that Plato is here speaking of hypostasized Ideas. Cf. Pfleiderer Zur Lösung etc. p. 19. τὸ μεῖζον -- μεῖζον. Cf. (with Stallbaum) Charm. 168 B ff., where the nature of relative notions is similarly defined: also Gorg. 476 B ff.
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