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καὶ ταῦτά γ᾽ ἤδη κτλ.: ‘and all this only after we have exhorted them’ etc. ἤδη goes with ἀφήσομεν (or the like) understood after πάντα. J. and C. wrongly connect πάντα with προθυμεῖσθαι (‘to use all diligence’). The voice should pause a little before διακελευσάμενοι.

μηδ᾽ εἰς φῶς κτλ.: ne in lucem quidem efferre. Much less shall we permit it to live if born: see App. IV. μηδέ prepares the way for ἐὰν δέ τι βιάσηται κτλ. Hartman strangely prefers μή, “cum post μάλιστα coniunctio μηδέ prorsus frigeat.” But μάλιστα μέν is, of course, ‘if possible.’

μηδὲ ἕν. See cr. n. μηδέ γ᾽ ἕν occurs in a few inferior MSS besides A, and is read by Baiter and others, but we do not find γε thus interposed between οὐδέ (μηδέ) and εἷς.

γένηται κτλ. γένηται sc. κύημα. βιάσηται means ‘force its way’ sc. εἰς τὸ φῶς (J. and C.). The extreme emphasis shews what importance Plato attached to this provision. The procuring of abortion, though perhaps in certain cases punishable by law (Meier and Schömann Att. Process p. 381), was in practice common enough: see Blümner Privatalt. p. 76. Plato permits it also in the Laws (740 D). The general Greek sentiment on this matter is fairly represented by Aristotle when he says (Pol. H 16. 1335^{b} 22 ff.) ὡρίσθαι γὰρ δεῖ τῆς τεκνοποιίας τὸ πλῆθος. ἐὰν δέ τισι γίνηται παρὰ ταῦτα συνδυασθέντων, πρὶν αἴσθησιν ἐγγενέσθαι καὶ ζωήν, ἐμποιεῖσθαι δεῖ τὴν ἄμβλωσιν: τὸ γὰρ ὅσιον καὶ τὸ μὴ διωρισμένον τῇ αἰσθήσει καὶ τῷ ζῆν ἔσται.

τιθέναι κτλ.: ‘so deal with them.’ τιθέναι is more delicate than ἐκτιθέναι, which was read before Bekker, although it has no MS authority. Herwerden suggests that τιθέναι means θάπτειν (as in 469 A), but Plato expresses himself with more refinement. τροφῆς does not mean, as some are fain to believe, merely the educational system reserved for the guardians: see on 459 E and App. IV.

πατέρας κτλ.: ‘how will they distinguish one another's fathers’ etc.? The Aristophanic parallel is here very close: Πῶς οὖν οὕτω ζώντων ἡμῶν τοὺς αὑτοῦ παῖδας ἕκαστος | ἔσται δυνατὸς διαγιγνώσκειν; Τί δὲ δεῖ; πατέρας γὰρ ἅπαντας | τοὺς πρεσβυτέρους αὑτῶν εἶναι τοῖσι χρόνοισιν νομιοῦσιν (Eccl. 635—637). The question touches an obvious difficulty in any system of the community of children; but, as a link in the chain of evidence connecting the Ecclesiazusae and the Republic, the parallel deserves to carry weight, although it has sometimes been pressed too far. See on the one hand Teichmüller Lit. Fehd. 1 pp. 18—19 and Chiappelli Riv. di Filolog. XI p. 213, and on the other Zeller^{4} II 1. p. 551 note 2. Cf. also App. I.

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