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ὥσπερ καὶ -- δύο. Literally ‘as these names, war and civil discord, are named two, so also they are two.’ ὀνομάζεται δύο is opposed to εἷναι δύο, which means δύο οὐσίας εἶναι ‘are,’ ‘express two realities,’ as is further explained in ὄντα—διαφοραῖν. Instead of ταῦτα τὰ ὀνόματα, ταῦτα ὀνόματα—see cr. n.—is now usually read. With this reading, the sense would be ‘as these things’ (viz. War and Discord) ‘are called by two names, so also they are in reality two,’ ὄντα ἐπὶ κτλ. That is to say, ὄντα ἐπί would be said of things; but it is clearly intended to be said of names: cf. κέκληται ἐπί just below. Schneider noticed the difficulty, but thought the confusion between names and things excusable. It is surely a grave blemish in a passage which is written expressly to distinguish between the two. Richards would transpose and read ὥσπερ καὶ— στάσις, ὄντα ἐπὶ δυοῖν τινοῖν διαφοραῖν, οὕτω καὶ ε<*>ναι δύο, or make ὄντα—διαφοραῖν follow ὀνόματα. This solution effects, at great cost, what is only after all a partial cure. ὄντα ἐπὶ κτλ. ἐπί governs διαφοραῖν, and δυοῖν τινοῖν, which is neuter, depends on διαφοραῖν. The literal meaning is ‘being applied to two kinds of disagreements, arising in two things.’ The two things—continues Plato—are τὸ οἰκεῖον (ξυγγενές), and τὸ ἀλλότριον (ὀθνεῖον). Disagreement—for διαφορά is substituted <*>χθρά—in τὸ οἰκεῖον is called στάσις, in τὸ ἀλλότριον, πόλεμος. ὄντα— διαφοραῖν is a marvellous example of Greek brevity, simplicity, and precision. Schneider, and J. and C., explain the words correctly; but D. and V. plunge everything into confusion by taking δυοῖν τινοῖν with διαφοραῖν.
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