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ἀμφοτέρων: “et publicorum negotiorum et philosophiae” Stallbaum. Cf. Gorg. 485 A ἀλλ̓, ο<*>μαι, τὸ ὀρθότατόν ἐστιν ἀμφοτέρων μετασχεῖν. Is the θεωρητικός or the πρακτικὸς βίος the better? It is clear that the subject was often debated in Plato's time: see the fragments of Euripides' Antiope in Pl. Gorg. 484 E ff. and Arist. Eth. Nic. I 3. 1095^{b} 17 ff., X 7. 1177^{a} 12 ff. If we contrast them with each other, Plato would reply, the θεωρητικός easily wins the prize, but under the existing conditions of human nature the best life is a combination of both. The practical statesman must derive his inspiration from θεωρία, and experience of affairs is an advantage as well as a duty to the thinker. Cf. VI 496 D—497 A notes

ξυνεθιζόμενοι κτλ. Cf. 518 A note

εἴδωλα. 517 D note The word is here used quite generally of all the idols of Plato's cave. “We have risen to a point of view from which the σκευαστά and the σκιαί are included under one notion as εἴδωλα” (J. and C.).

ὕπαρ κτλ. Cf. V 476 C. The Homeric line οὐκ ὄναρ, ἀλλ̓ ὕπαρ <*>σθλόν, τοι τετελεσμένον ἔσται (Od. 19. 547) is in Plato's mind, though ὕπαρ and ὄναρ are here adverbial accusatives (cf. Cobet V. L.^{2} pp. 523 ff.).

σκιαμαχούντων: ‘fighting about shadows.’ See 517 D note and cf. IX 586 C note Dreamland is also shadowland.

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    • Plato, Gorgias, 484e
    • Plato, Gorgias, 485a
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