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ἔφησθα κτλ. IV 445 C. On the pronouns ὧναὐτῶν see II 357 B note Plato is very careful to make it clear that he does not profess, like Aristotle, to give a complete account of faulty States. From his watch-tower he can descry infinite varieties, but only four on which he need expatiate. We may take it that these are, in Plato's view, the four most conspicuous landmarks in the history of political degeneration, as well as the most important and clearly-outlined varieties of existing States. Cf. IV 445 C and infra 544 D ἥτις καὶ ἐν εἴδει διαφανεῖ τινι κεῖται.

ἵνα πάντας κτλ. reminds us of the thread which is the clue to the labyrinthine reasoning of the Republic: cf. 545 A, 548 D and II 368 E note

ἔχοι. The optative, for which Ast and Stallbaum needlessly read ἔχει with Ξ q and some other inferior MSS, is due to the oratio obliqua: cf. VII 515 D note

ἐρομένου. V 449 A.

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