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εἱλκέτην κτλ. The logical object of εἱλκέτην and ἠγέτην (in line 13) is τὴν πολιτείαν. For the omission of the object with ἕλκω and ἄγω cf. 560 B, X 604 A, 604 D et al. It is only another way of expressing oneself to say that the verbs are practically intransitive. The sedition which arises is not between rulers and ruled, but between the rulers among themselves, as is clear from 545 D and elsewhere: hence τὸ μὲν σιδηροῦν καὶ χαλκοῦν does not refer to the farmers and artisans, who probably possessed οἰκίαι from the first (III 417 A note), but to the section of the rulers who have become σιδηροῦν and χαλκοῦν by the intermixture of different breeds. Cf. the oracle foretelling the destruction of the city ὅταν αὐτὴν σίδηρος χαλκὸς φυλάξῃ (III 415 C). γῆς κτῆσιν κτλ. means ‘the possession of land and a private dwelling-place as well as of gold and silver,’ all of which were forbidden to Plato's rulers. ἔγκτησις γῆς καὶ οἰκίας was a familiar expression to the Greeks, and one of the well-recognised privileges of μέτοικοι at Athens (Gilbert Gr. Staatsalt. II p. 295). On the reading χρυσοῦ see cr. n. It is usual to read χρυσίου, but ἀργύρου immediately following favours χρυσοῦ, whose authority is not much inferior to that of χρυσίου. Cf. χρυσόν τε καὶ ἄργυρον 548 A. Herwerden, retaining χρυσίου, would write ἀργυρίου instead of ἀργύρου with some MSS of little value: but the reading printed above has much more MS support. His further proposal ἐπὶ χρηματισμὸν χρυσίου τε καὶ ἀργυρίου καὶ γῆς κτῆσιν καὶ οἰκίας will not find favour among scholars.

φύσει -- ψυχάς. They are not rich in worldly possessions, but they have the true riches—the riches of the soul. Cf. the prayer of Socrates in Phaedr. 279 C πλούσιον δὲ νομίζοιμι τὸν σοφόν, and see also on III 416 E. The usual view, which makes τὰς ψυχάς depend on ἠγέτην (Schneider, J. and C., D. and V., etc.) is surely wrong. Jowett from his translation appears to have caught the meaning.

εἰς μέσον ὡμολόγησαν κτλ. The change is effected, as in the case of the corresponding man (550 B), by a peaceful compromise. In the later stages of political decay, when ἀνομοιότης has gathered strength, revolution is attended by civil war (557 A), and the tyrant wades through bloodshed to his throne (565 E ff.).

περιοίκους τε καὶ οἰκέτας. We meet with περίοικοι not only in Sparta, of which city Plato is chiefly thinking, but also in Crete, Thessaly and Argos: see Gilbert Gr. Staatsalt. II pp. 16, 74, 220. In each of these States there was also an inferior grade, in Sparta the Helots, in Crete the ϝοικέες of the Gortynian inscription, sometimes also spoken of as οἰκέται, in Thessaly the πενέσται, and in Argos the γυμνῆτες or γυμνήσιοι (Gilbert l.c.). It is clear, I think, that in οἰκέτας Plato is thinking of this lowest order. The Spartan Helots had to perform the duties of domestic servants, as appears from Plut. Lyc. et Num. comp. 2. 4 ἦν περὶ τὰ χρήματα κατασκευὴ δεδομένη δούλοις καὶ Εἵλωσιν, ὥσπερ περὶ τὸ δεῖπνον καὶ ὄψον διακονία.

φυλακῆς αὐτῶν: the duty of watching and guarding—sensu inimico— the περίοικοι and οἰκέται. The institutions and history of Sparta are a sufficient commentary on the phrase.

οὐκοῦν -- πολιτεία. Cf. 547 C note

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