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τῶν καλῶν: sc. φιλοτιμιῶν. In χρήματά τε the τε connects its own with the preceding clause, and does not here mean ‘both.’ τοιούτων: i.e. εὐδόξων. This interpretation is more idiomatic and forcible than to refer τοιούτων to φιλοτιμίας κτλ. φιλονικίαν κτλ. The ὀλιγαρχικός, when competing for νίκη, is a φαῦλος ἀνταγωνιστής, because he is afraid to summon his ἀναλωτικαὶ ἐπιθυμίαι ‘to fight and strive for victory along with him,’ precisely as the oligarchical city was afraid to arm the πλῆθος (551 D note). And just as the oligarchs found themselves ὡς ἀληθῶς ὀλιγ-αργικοὶ ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ μάχεσθαι (551 E), so the ὀλιγαρχικὸς ἀνήρ, ‘true to his name of olig-arch’ (ὀλιγαρχικῶς), ‘employs but few of his forces in the war, and is usually beaten and keeps his money’ (‘loses the prize and saves his money’ Jowett). The force of ξυμ- in ξυμμαχίαν may perhaps extend to φιλονικίαν (cf. 546 A note), which must not be translated ‘rivalry’ (with D. and V.): see on IX 581 B. ἡττᾶται καὶ πλουτεῖ has an epigrammatic effect somewhat like Juvenal's “probitas laudatur et alget.” ὁμοιότητι = ‘in virtue of similarity’: cf. IX 576 C. Baiter and others would expunge the word in both places as an ‘inutile glossema,’ and it is true that the meaning could be apprehended without ὁμοιότητι, as in 561 E—562 A. There are, however, many principles (e.g. ἀνομοιότης etc.) on which things can be τεταγμένα κατ᾽ ἄλληλα ‘ranged over against one another,’ and it is right that in summing up, Plato should emphasise the principle which has determined the form of his exposition from σκοπῶμεν δὴ εἰ ὅμοιος ἂν εἴη (554 A) onwards: see 554 B, D, E notes For the dative cf. IX 575 C note
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