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τοῦ -- τρεφομένου. Masculine, not neuter.

τὴν -- ἄνεσιν. I formerly read εἰς τὴν (with ΠΞ and many other MSS) instead of τήν, but now believe that A is right. “Non est idem, εἰς δημοκρατικὸν μεταβάλλειν, et τὴνἐλευθέρωσιν μεταβάλλειν. Hoc prius, illud posterius, haec via, ille finis est” (Schneider). If Plato had written εἰς, it should have been followed by an accusative masculine, contrasting with ἐκ τοῦτρεφομένου, as in 553 A εἰς ὀλιγαρχικὸν ἐκ τοῦ τιμοκρατικοῦ ἐκείνου μεταβάλλει. For the use of μεταβάλλει cf. (with Schneider) IV 424 C et al. With the force of ἄνεσιν cf. IX 575 A (ἀνεθέντα) and 590 A.

εὐτυχὴς =‘if he is fortunate’ is much better than εὐτυχήσῃ (Cobet), which would mean ‘if he becomes fortunate.’ Cf. IX 578 C note

ἀλλά τι κτλ.: ‘but, owing also in some measure to the influence of years, when the tumult of the soul has mostly passed’ etc. Cf. I 329 C. Plato means that good fortune does something, and growing age the rest.

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