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καὶ δὴ καὶ κτλ. See cr. n. The omission of καὶ δή was a natural slip, and a majority of MSS agree with II. For καὶ δὴ καί with οὐχ ἥκιστα following cf. (with Schneider) Soph. 216 B. The present passage brings out very clearly Plato's conception of the State as a living organism and no mere ‘dead machine.’ See on this subject Bluntschli Theory of the State E. T. pp. 18—24 and cf. 543 A note

ἄγαν δουλείαν. For the omission of the article cf. IV 434 C note We certainly should not read, with Schaefer, τὴν ἄγαν, or delete ἄγαν with Cobet.

οὐκ ἐξ ἄλλης κτλ. In early times, according to Aristotle (Pol. E 5. 1305^{a} 7 ff.) democracies used to give rise to tyrannies. The tyranny of Dionysius I of Syracuse is a notorious illustration from later history (see Grote c. 81). But tyranny had other origins as well: it constantly appeared for example during the transition from Aristocracy to an oligarchical form of government (Whibley Gk Olig. pp. 72—83). Plato deliberately selects that particular origin which accords with his psychological standpoint. In the decline of an individual soul, ‘lawless’ or unnatural (παράνομοι) desires succeed the ἰσονομία in which all desires are treated as equal. Hence tyranny, which is only the political expression of unnatural desire, succeeds democracy in the fall of a State. Granted that Plato thought Athens was still degenerating, he must certainly have expected her, unless the process of decay should be arrested, to end in a tyranny. See also on IX 576 B. With the position of οἶμαι cf. 568 C and other examples in Braun de hyperb. Plat. II p. 12.

ἀκροτάτης. Herwerden (with Flor. T) conjectures ἀκρατοτάτης: but ἄκρατος does not easily admit the superlative, and the word is less suitable here than in the elaborate similitude about the wine of freedom 562 D. For the superlative of ἄκρος cf. V 459 E al.

ἠρώτας: ‘you were asking about’ (doch wohl nicht danach fragtest du, Schneider), viz. when you said τί τὸ μετὰ τοῦτο; (563 E). Cf. Crat. 407 C τὸν Ἄρη ἐρώτα (‘ask about Ares’). καὶ τῷ ὄντιἀγριωτάτη (563 E—564 A) is a digression, and Adimantus' question is not answered until Socrates specifies what particular νόσημα was meant by the allusion in 563 E. J. and C. erroneously refer ἠρώτας to πῶςτὸ τοιοῦτον λέγομεν; (562 E).

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  • Commentary references from this page (2):
    • Plato, Cratylus, 407c
    • Plato, Sophist, 216b
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