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ἔτ᾽ ἐν καλῷ. See cr. n. ἐν καλῷ might well be written ἐγκαλῶ in early Greek script: see Meisterhans Gr. d. Att. Inschr.^{3} pp. 106—108. It is strange that Apelt (Berl. Philol. Woch. for 1895 p. 965) should defend ἔτ᾽ ἐγκαλῶ: “soll ich (das Fehlende) noch einklagen” gives a poor sense. For ἐν καλῷ see Jebb on Soph. El. 384 νῦν γὰρ ἐν καλῷ (i.q. εὔκαιρον) φρονεῖν.

παράνομοι is more like our ‘unnatural’ than ‘lawless’: cf. Phaed. 113 E, Phaedr. 254 A, Eur. Med. 1121 δεινὸν ἔργον παράνομόν τ᾽ εἰργασμένη (addressed to Medea after she has slain her children), and the author of the Διαλέξεις ἠθικαί in Mullach Frag. Phil. Gr. I p. 546 τοὶ δὲ Ηέρσαικαλὸν νομίζοντι καὶ τᾷ θυγατρὶ καὶ τᾷ ματρὶ καὶ τᾷ ἀδελφᾷ συνίμεν: τοὶ δὲ Ἕλλανες καὶ αἰσχρὰ καὶ παράνομα. The phrase οὐ κατὰ νόμον in Hdt. I 61 has the same connotation. Compare the ‘bestial’ states—θηριώδεις like θηριῶδες below in 571 C—described in Arist. Eth. Nic. VII 6. 1148^{b} 16 ff.

ἐγγίγνεσθαι παντί: ‘are born in,’ ‘form an original part of every one’ (D. and V.), not simply ‘arise in’ (as Bosan quet suggests, ignoring or forgetting ἀπαλλάττεσθαι and λείπεσθαι). Cf. ἐγγίγνεται in 572 A and ἑκάστῳ ἔνεστι 572 B. There is something of ‘the ape and tiger’ in every human being: see infra 588 C ff. These παράνομοι ἐπιθυμίαι doubtless represent “der verbrecherische Hang der menschlichen Natur” (Krohn Pl. St. p. 216), but we ought not to compare Plato's conception with the doctrine of ‘original sin,’ as Schleiermacher (Platons Staat p. 601) and Susemihl (Gen. Entw. II p. 238) appear to do. According to Plato, Man is an οὐράνιον φυτόν, οὐκ ἔγγειον.

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hide References (4 total)
  • Commentary references from this page (4):
    • Euripides, Medea, 1121
    • Plato, Phaedo, 113e
    • Plato, Phaedrus, 254a
    • Sophocles, Electra, 384
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