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τὸ βέλτιστον -- οἰκειότατον. Cf. Arist. Eth. Nic. X chapter 7 ad finem δόξειε δ᾽ ἂν καὶ εἶναι ἕκαστος τοῦτο (sc. τὸ κράτιστον τῶν ἐν αὐτῷ), εἴπερ τὸ κύριον καὶ ἄμεινον κτλ. The whole of the latter portion of that famous chapter, in which Aristotle comes nearer to the spirit of Plato than anywhere else throughout his writings, might be summed up in the pregnant saying τὸ βέλτιστον ἑκάστῳ, τοῦτο καὶ οἰκειότατον—a saying which reaches to the very foundations of Plato's philosophy: for if that which is best for each thing, is also most its own—most truly akin to it, part of its very being,—it follows that each thing truly is just in proportion as it is good. In other words the cause of all existence is the Good; see on VI 505 D, 509 B.

τῷ φιλοσόφῳ κτλ. τῷ φιλοσόφῳ is of course neuter, and not masculine. With μὴ στασιαζούσης κτλ. cf. IV 441 D— 444 A. Soul attains its true unity (so far as is possible in this life: see on X 611 B) when the two lower ‘parts’ obey the highest; only then does a man become εἷς ἐκ πολλῶν (IV 443 E note). δικαίῳ εἶναι: i.e. according to the definition of Justice in Book IV l.c.

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