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[2] 8 αὐτοῖς—ethic: it is constantly placed early in this manner.

περιοίκων—the free, but dependent Lacedaemonians descended from the pre-Dorian inhabitants and living in separate towns.

11. τότεthe descendants of the M. of former times who had been enslaved in the war made up most of the helots. πλεῖστοι is pred.; τότε refers to a well-known occasion, as elsewhere in Thuc. (often too, to some event that has been already recorded by Thuc.)—here to the first Messenian war, after which the Messenians became, as Tyrtaeus says, ὥσπερ ὄνοι μεγάλοις ἄχθεσι τειρόμενοι: δουλωθέντων is epithet, the order being justified by παλαιῶν, cf. c. 11. 3 κατεσχηκότος.

12. ἐκλήθησανcame to be called; cf. c. 2. 4. οἱ πάντες, sc. Εἵλωτες.

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