—this predicate, so often in neut. sing. whatever be gender and number of the subject, is practically a noun.
—answered by ἐπειδὴ δέ,
as e.g. in 6.83. 1
; 7. 81;
and c. 25. 3
—only so large as.
, support itself in the (enemy's) country.
—on their arrival,
i.e. immediately after they landed. (This passage, from this word to the end of 11.2
, is much disputed.)
26. μάχῃ ἐκράτησαν
—the conjecture ἐκρατήθησαν
reduces the words τοῖς αἰεὶ ... ὄντες
below to absurdity; and κρατοῦντες
would have to be changed to κρατήσαντες
. The Greeks were able to raise a rampart because they had won a victory.
This rampart is not that referred to in Il. vii. 336
as built in the tenth year by the counsel of Nestor, but one built immediately after the arrival of the Greeks, though this does not necessitate inserting εὐθύς
with Dittrich. Similarly the γεωργία τῆς Χερσονήσου
below is not heard of in the Il.
Thuc. doubtless got these details from a poem that related the earlier events of the war. Cf. the Schol. here: ἔρυμα λέγει νῦν οὐχ ὅπερ ἐν τῇ ή λέγει Ὅμηρος γενέσθαι, ἀλλὰ πρότερον μικρότερον διὰ τὰς τῶν βαρβάρων ἐπιδρομάς
. (Strabo quotes the opinion of Aristotle that the τεῖχος
7, which was so promptly destroyed by Poseidon, was in reality never built. It seems impossible that Thuc. can have had that τεῖχος
27. φαίνονται δέ
— this is δέ in apodosis
, and it is here apparently suggested by the contrast set up by the parenthesis: though
they fortified a camp, they did not employ their whole force. This δέ
generally follows a parenthesis; but not in 2.65. 1 ἐπειδὴ ὁ πόλεμος κατέστη, ὁ δὲ φαίνεται καὶ ἐν τούτῳ προγνοὺς τὴν δύναμιν
—before Troy; and consequently the Trojans held out.
—of their own accord.
τὰ δέκα ἔτη
—those ten years.
—in the field.
They were not penned up in the city.
—imperf., who at any given time were left behind.
7. ῥᾳδίως ἂν μάχῃ ... Τροίαν εἷλον
— does this passage refer to ‘the two natural stages of the expedition’— battle followed by siege, or two alternative
means of taking Troy,—either by pitched battle outside the gates, or by siege? Those who adopt the first, either (a) bracket the first εἷλον
with Kruger as spurious, and explain the δ᾽
as (a violent) apodotic δέ
, or, with Kruger bracket it; or else (b) make the first εἷλον
‘capture (Troy),’ but, with Herbst, ‘defeat (the Trojans).’ Those who adopt the second with Bauer, make μάχῃ κρατοῦντες
= ‘by superiority in the field,’ and not ‘being as they were superior in the field’; and πολιορκίᾳ προσκαθεζόμενοι
= ‘by a regular siege,’ instead of ‘by persisting in a siege.’ But the difficulties involved in this are insuperable; for—apart from the extraordinary way in which the supposed alternative methods are expressed, and joined by δέ
instead of ἤ
—the sense obtained, though at first sight attractive, makes περιουσίαν ἔχοντες τροφῆς
and ξυνεχῶς τὸν πόλεμον διέφερον
pointless in so far as the first
method— superiority in the field + assault—is concerned; it necessitates forcing the meaning by an immediate assault
) into μάχῃ κρατοῦντες
, and thus making this wholly distinct from μάχῃ ἐκράτησαν
; and it strains no less the meaning of πολιορκίᾳ προσκαθεζόμενοι
. We therefore prefer the first plan, but slightly modified; if the first εἷλον
is genuine, it is probably a mere anticipation of the second. Trans. If they had ... carried on the war persistently, they would easily have continued superior in the field and have taken the city, seeing that ... : if, then, they had persisted in a siege, they would have taken Troy.
—in contrast with περιουσίαν εἰ ἦλθον ἔχοντες τροφῆς
—i.e. τῶν Τρωικῶν
13. τῶν πρίν
—c. 1. 1
; 10. 3
—though it proved.
—attributive. When an attributive partic. is itself further defined—διὰ τοὺς ποιητὰς κατεσχηκότος
—it is frequently placed outside the art. This idiom is by no means confined to Thuc.