22. ταῦτα γάρ
—these, in fact, were the strongest navies,
i.e. the strongest possessed by Iomans (cf. 14.6
: ‘though these fleets were built ... we find’ etc.
—Gardner and Jevons, p. 652. It is plain from Herod. 1. 163 that penteconters counted as νῆες μακραί
, and stand in contrast to νῆες στρογγύλαι
, merchant-ships (cf. Thuc. 2.97. 1
). Therefore the πλοῖα μακρά
are doubtless long ships of larger and smaller size than penteconters. To their resemblance in size
to merchant - ships the word πλοῖα
seems to point.
—those existing in the time of the Trojan War.
27. τοῦ Δαρείου θανάτου
—485 B.C. ἐβασίλευσε
, ‘reigned,’ rather than ‘became king.’
29. περί τε Σικελίαν
—for the vague use of περί
cf. Isocr. v. 111 εῖχε μεγίστην δύναμιν τῶν περὶ τὴν Ἀσίαν
. This is the age of the great Sicilian tyrants—Thero, Gelo, Hiero.
30 ἐς πλῆθος ἐγένοντο
—reached a considerable number
; probably the lit. sense is ‘came to.’
3. εἴ τινες ἄλλοι
—sc. ἐκέκτηντο ναυτικά
, small fleets.
This sense of βραχύς
is fiequent in Thuc.
5. τὰ πολλά
—the greater part of these consisted of.
ὀψέ τε ἀφ᾽ οὗ
, it was late when.
For ἀφ οὗ
we should expect ὅτε
. but instead of saying ‘already when
they started to build, it was so late that they could not get a strong fleet before the invasion of Xeixes,’ he says ‘from the time that
they started’ etc. The building of the ships took place in 483-82 B C., the archonship of Nicodemus, and the invasion in 480 B.C. Herod. 7.33
does not say that Them, looked forward to a Persian invasion when he advised the building of the ships. It is thought that Herod, wanted to belittle Them
an adverbial expression like ἀπὸ τῆς ἴσης
, etc. (This is better than supplying νεώς
—the Homeric ship was covered only fore and aft, the part in which the men rowed being open. (Cf. on c. 10. 4
12. τὰ παλαιά
—i.e. the early fleets mentioned in c. 13
. τὰ ὕστερον γενόμενα
—i.e. those mentioned in c. 14.3