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[2] 14. ἐπικρεμασθέντοςimpending, as ii. 53. 4; 3.40. 7.

16. τῶν ξυμπολεμησάντων—this and ἡγήσαντο are ingressive; ‘assumed the leadership of those who entered on the war as allies.’ προύχοντες—causal.

19. καὶ ἀνασκευασάμενοι ... ἐσβάντες ... ἐγένοντο=ἁναλαβόντες τὰ σκεύη ἐσέβησαν καὶ ἐγένοντο. Observe the historical importance of ναυτικοὶ ἐγένοντο, which is emphasised hy its connexion with ἡγήσαντο τῶν Ἑλλήνων.

20. ἀπωσάμενοι ... διεκρίθησαν—the subject modified in the course of the sentence from ‘the confederates’ to the confederates exclusive of Athens and Sparta, and those Asiatic cities and islands that revolted from Persia after Salamis.

24. ταῦτα—Athens and Sparta. διεφάνηit had become clear that, denoting the singling out of these two from among the rest. The aor. in sense of plup. appears in (1) sentences introduced by ‘when,’ ‘since,’ ‘until’ regularly; (2) in rel. and other subord. sentences often, (3) in principal sentences oceasionally.

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