21. ἐν τοῖς πρῶτοι
—the undoubted exx of this idiom in Thuc are, besides this place (where Prof. Tucker wrongly says the evidence favours πρώτοις
), 3.82. 1
(στάσις）ἐν τοῖς πρώτη ἐγένετο
: 7.24. 3 μέγιστον καὶ ἐν τοῖς πρῶτον
: ib. 71. 3 ἐν τοῖς χαλεπώτατα
: 8.90. 1 ἐν τοῖς μάλιστα
. In 7.19. 4
the MSS. give ἐν τοῖς πρώτοις
): ib. 27, ἐν τοῖς πρώτοις
): in viii. 89 ἑν τοῖς πρώτοις
). Pre-eminence is not necessarily implied in any example, and Herbst is perhaps right in saying that prominence only is meant. If so, it may be that the nom.
is due only to attraction to the subject; the principle being naturally extended to the adverb.
22. ἀνειμένῃ τῇ διαίτῃ
—dat, of manner.
—ethic dat., very common in Thuc, where the gen. might be used.
—in the popular meaning
διὰ τὸ ἁβροδίαιτον
. For the long linen (Ionian) χιτων
worn by Ionians, Carians, Lydians see Gardner and Jevons, Gk. Ant.
p. 49. Cf. Aesch. Persae 41 ἁβροδιαίτων δ᾽ ἕπεται Λυδῶν ὄχλος
. Aften the Persian wars the short (Dorian) χιτών
of wool was substituted for it.
οὐ πολὺς χρόνος ἐπειδή
—no long time ago. ἀφ᾽ οὖ, ἐξ οὗ, ἐπεί, ὡς, ὅτε
are all found in such phrases.
27. χρυσῶν τεττίγων
seem to be pins with figures of grasshoppers at the end. Several might be used, apparently, for one κρώβυλος
, like hairpins. Helbig, however, thinks that metal spiral ornaments through which the ‘tail’ of the hair was passed are meant, and Studniczka supports this view; but it does not seem probable. The κρώβυλος
—which doubtless took different forms—is perhaps to be recognised on ancient monuments, since Xen. Anab. 5. 4. 13
speaks of leather helmets adorned with a κρώβυλος
and resembling a tiara (the various forms of which are well known). εἴρω
, twist, favours ‘coil’; but, if the pins had a bend in them, we can understand ἔνερσις.
(The v.l. ἐν ἔρσει
is prob. a false division like ἐν τομῇ
, c. 93. 5
.) Cf. Aristoph. Eq. 1325
28. ἀφ᾽ οὗ
—from this circumstance
It is likely that Thuc. is mistaken in saying that the Athenians carried the fashion to Asia Minor, and that it spread rather from the Ionians (Carrans, Lydians) to the Athenians. Cf. Herod. 5.88
1. ἐπὶ πολύ