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[3] 12. οἱ παρὰ θάλασσαν—cf. οἱ παρ᾽ ἔπαλξιν 2.13. 5, παρά with dat. not being used of inanimates except when persons are clearly implied.

15. τείχη περιεβάλλοντο—referring to cities already in existence, but hitherto without walls: hence not as in c. 7.

ὡς πλουσιώτεροι ἑαυτῶν γ.—the omission of αὐτοί in this idiom is rare: ‘as was natural, since they were now growing wealthier than they had been hitherto.’

16. γάρ refers to βεβαιότερον ᾤκουν. The double τε presents the same process under two different aspects.

18. δουλείανdependence. as often: so with δουλεύειν. The weaker states became tributaries of the stronger.

περιουσίας ἔχοντες—usually rendered ‘because they had wealth at their command’ and used it to extend their power; but more probably, ‘having funds in hand’ and being anxious to increase them. The more the funds increased, the more eager would they be to inerease them still further.

20 ἐν τοὐτῳ ... ὄντεςwhen they had now advanced to this condition, i.e. navigated the seas and were grown richer.

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