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The desire for peace gains ground both in Athens and in Sparta. The reasons for this.

ξυνέβη τε: used to conclude and sum up what precedes, as in c. 10. 33. But the great importance attributed to the following presentation of the altered circumstances in the two hostile states, occasions first the use of the significant introductory particle ὥστε, and then the completely independent position of the second member of the sent., πρὸς δὲ τὴν εἰρήνην μᾶλλον τὴν γνώμην εἶχον κτἑ. This second member reaches with its subdivisions and explanations into the following chapters, and contains those observations which seemed to the author of most consequence in connexion with this important division between the two periods of the war. The first member of the result clause, πολέμου μὲν μηδὲν ἔτι ἅψασθαι μηδετέρους, is prefixed as a statement of fact (in the aor.) upon which depends the truth of the succeeding statements. This explains how the force of εὐθύς before μετὰ τὴν κτἑ. is felt only in connexion with the second consequence (πρὸς δὲ τὴν κτἑ.), and not with the first (μηδὲν ἔτι ἅψασθαι μηδετέρους), the neg. character of which is alone sufficient to preclude any relation to εὐθύς. — 3. ὥστε: an emphatic transition (though not after ξυμβαίνειν), also in i. 28. 18; 76. 17; 119. 7; iii. 75. 7; iv. 132. 17; Hdt.iii. 14. 24.

πρὸς δὲ...εἶχον : the repetition of the same words from the close of the preceding chap. is intentional. The state of mind there attributed to the Lacedaemonians is here expressly extended to both sides as the underlying reason for their subsequent conduct.

οἱ μὲν Ἀθηναῖοι: the reasons are given as far as γενήσεσθαι in partics.; then in the finite verbs ἐδεδίεσαν and μετεμέλοντο.—ἐπὶ Δηλίῳ: cf. iv. 100 f. See Grote, VI. p. 173 f.—δἰ ὀλίγου: after a short interval. Cf. i. 77. 22; v. 69. 19.

πιστήν: in pred. position receives the chief emphasis of the sent., so that ᾗπερ refers to ἐλπὶς πιστή.— πρότερον: cf. iv. 21. 5 ff.; 41. 16 f.— 8. καθυπέρτεροι: also in vii. 56. 7.

τοὺς ξυμμάχους...ἐδεδίεσαν...μὴ...ἀποστῶσι : proleptic as in ii. 67. 23. Not only was their confidence in their own strength diminished, but they feared more general (ἐπὶ πλέον) desertion by their allies, if they continued the war without success. See App.

μετεμέλοντο: elsewhere const. with the partic. (iv. 27. 13; v. 35. 17; vii. 50. 21), is here used with ὅτι to avoid the awkwardness of two parties. side by side.

παρασχόν: παρέσχεν and παρασχήσει (in Hdt. also παρέχει, iii. 73. 2; 142. 11) are used impers.: “the chance offers.” Cf. iv. 85. 8; vi. 86. 22, most freq. the partic. abs. as in i. 120. 18; iv. 85. 8; v. 60. 25; 63. 3.

οἱ δὲ Λακεδαιμόνιοι: sc. πρὸς τὴν εἰρήνην μᾶλλον τὴν γνώμην εἶχον, the reasons for which are given partly in the gens. abs. ἀποβαίνοντος πολέμου, ληστευομένης τῆς χώρας, αὐτομολούντων τῶν Εἱλώτων and προσδοκίας οὔσης, partly in the inserted clause with the nom. περιπεσόντες.

ὀλίγων ἐτῶν : gen. of time as in i. 3. 11; vii. 3. 5.— 14. εἰ τὴν γῆν τέμνοιεν: by the system of ἐσβολαί adopted in the first years of the war.

ἐν τῇ νήσῳ: Sphacteria. Cf. iv. 29 to 39.

ἐκ τῆς Πύλου: iv. 41. 5 ff.—καὶ Κυθήρων: iv. 54. 19. — 17. αὐτομολούντων τῶν Εἱλώτων: iv. 41. 11.

προσδοκίας οὔσης μή: as in ii. 93. 14.— τοῖς ἔξω: those who were beyond the border. Cf. iv. 66. 8.

ὥσπερ καὶ πρότερον: in the great revolt of the Helots, called the third Messenian war, mentioned in i. 101. 6.

ξυνέβαινε δὲ καί: “an additional consideration was,” or, more literally, it happened together with this also. Cf. c. 10. 33 and note.

τριακοντούτεις: after the analogy of i. 23. 19; 115. 3; ii. 2. 2; v. 27. 1 (the Mss. vary here between τριακονταέτεις and τριακονταετεῖς). The truce came to an end in the next year (cf. c. 28. 8) and had therefore been made in 451 B.C.—εἰ μή τις: a similar use occurs in ii. 37. 2; iii. 67. 33; iv. 68. 28, εἴ τε μὴ πείσεταί τις, αὐτοῦ τὴν μάχην ἔσεσθαι.—τὴν Κυνοσουρίαν: disputed territory on the borders of Laconia and Argolis. See on iv. 56. 12. Cf. c. 41.

ὥστ̓ ἀδύνατα...ἅμα πολεμεῖν : the emphasis rests upon ἅμα; “it was clearly impossible to carry on war against both at once.” The neut. pl. as in i. 59. 4, where meaning and expression are very similar, except that instead of ἅμα as here, the same effect is there produced by τε . . . καί. See App.

τῶν τε ἐν Πελοποννήσῳ κτἑ.: the general feeling against Sparta in the middle states of Peloponnesus, which came to a head after the conclusion of the peace (c. 27. 1 ff.; 29. 17 ff.), was gaining ground on account of the inclination to peace which had prevailed among them for some time. If the double war had arisen, Sparta would have been in the greatest danger.

ὅπερ καὶ ἐγένετο: cf. c. 29.

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