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Remarks concerning the duration and the division of the whole war, and the author's personal relations to it.

γέγραφε δὲ καὶ ταῦτα: with reference to the introductory words of the whole work, i. 1. 1. The pf. serves to establish the identity of the author, like the aor. in i. 1. 1 and i. 97. 7, and, like γέγραπται in ii. 1. 4, anticipates the completion of the work. “The same Thuc. has written (i.e. is the author of) this also” does not necessarily imply that the work was ever finished, but is the natural expression of one who expects his work to be finished before these words come before his readers. So when the actual narrative is to begin, we find the fut. ἐξηγήσομαι in 30.

ἐξῆς...χειμῶνας : identical with ii. 1. 4 f., and accordingly ἐγίγνετο, which better expresses the successive development of events (ἑξῆς), is preferred to Ms. ἐγένετο.

τὰ μακρὰ τείχη καὶ τὸν Πειραιᾶ κατέλαβον : acc. to Plut. Lys. 15, ἕκτῃ καὶ δεκάτῃ Μουνυχιῶνος, i.e. the middle of April, 404 B.C.

ἐγένετο: used in comprehensive statements of numbers. See on ii. 20. 11.

τὴν διὰ μέσου ξύμβασιν: i.e. the time of truce between the earlier and the later war. See on iv. 20. 2.— ἀξιώσει: in characteristic opposition to δικαιώσει. “If any one thinks the period of truce does not deserve (ἄξιον) the name of war, he will ignore the relation which is founded upon the nature of the case (δίκαιον).”

ὡς διῄρηται: the only possible subj. appears to be διὰ μέσου ξύμβασις. The best rendering seems, then, to be: how this (so-called) period of truce was really interrupted and torn asunder by the actual circumstances. The usual meaning of διαιρεῖν, rend asunder, break through a fortification (cf. ii. 75. 24; 76. 2; iv. 48. 10; 110. 18; v. 2. 14; 3. 9), is transferred to the interruption of the state of peace; so that διαιρεῖν appears as the opposite of ξυμβαίνειν. See App.

οὔτ᾽ ἀπεδέξαντο: see App.

ἔξω τε τούτων: after thenegative infringements of the treaty (10), the more positive breaches of its provisions are mentioned; esp. of that in c. 18. § 4, by supporting insurrections of allies. See App.—πρὸς τὸν Μαντινικὸν: see c. 33 ff.—πρὸς τὸν Ἐπιδαύριον: see c. 53 ff.

ἐς ἄλλα: refers particularly to the Sicilian expedition.—ἁμαρτήματα ἐγένοντο: the pl. of the verb on account of the previously expressed reference to a variety of cases. H. 604 b. ἀμφοτέροις ἐγένοντο is equiv. to ἀμφότεροι ἐποιήσαντο.

πολέμιοι ἦσαν : sc. τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις.

ἐκεχειρίαν δεχήμερον : “a truce which was (or must be) renewed every ten days.” Βοιωτοὶ πρὸς δέκα ἡμέρας ἐκεχειρίαν ἐσπένδοντο πρὸς Ἀθηναίους. Schol. Cf. c. 32. 17; vi. 7. 23; 10. 13. See App.

ἐξ αὐτῆς: see on c. 20. 2.

κατὰ τοὺς χρόνους: see on c. 20. 6 and 10.—ἡμέρας οὐ πολλὰς παρενεγκούσας: see on c. 20. 2. The time is to be computed from the beginning of April, 431 B.C., to the middle of April, 404 B.C. See App. on ii. 2. 5.

ἀπὸ χρησμῶν: relying upon prophecies. See on iv. 67. 1.

μόνον δὴ τοῦτο: refers perhaps to the various interpretations of the oracle in ii. 54. § 2 and 3.—ἀεί: const. with προφερόμενον (cf. vii. 68. 6). It is explained by καὶ ἀρχομένου τοῦ πολέμου καὶ μέχρι οὗ ἐτελεύτησε. The whole is further explained by ἐπεβίων δέ, which serves to establish the credibility of μέμνημαι ἔγωγε, an essential element of the author's fitness for his task of writing the history of the Peloponnesian war.

τρὶς ἐννέα: a reminiscence of the original metrical form of the oracle. Also in Plut. Nic. 9.

αἰσθανόμενος (cf. i. 71. 21) τῇ ἡλικίᾳ: “having the necessary degree of understanding in consequence of my age” (his age was probably from about forty years upwards). See Introd. to Book I. p. 4. Dat. of cause. G. 188, 1; H. 776.

μετὰ τὴν ἐς Ἀμφίπολιν στρατηγίαν: see iv. 104 15 ff.; 106. 16 ff.; and Introd. to Book I. p. 11. —γενομενῳ...πράγμασι : since I became acquainted with the affairs of both sides. οὐχ ἧσσον, i.e. μάλιστα. Cf. c. 15. 3. The results of this accurate acquaintance with the circumstances of the various states of Peloponnesus are very evident in the subsequent narrative.

αἴσθεσθαι. see App. —διαφοράν τε καὶ ξύγχυσιν τῶν σπονδῶν: with these words Thuc. characterizes the period of uncertain peace, much as he calls the unstable condition before the breaking out of the war σπονδῶν ξύγχυσις (i. 146. 4). The διαφορά, which is closely connected with the ξύγχυσις τῶν σπονδῶν by the common art. (cf. i. 120. 10; iii. 82. 8 f.), refers particularly, as in i. 81. 10; 102. 7; 146. 1; v. 43. 1; viii. 85. 2, to the disagreements which presently arose.

τὰ ἔπειτα ὡς ἐπολεμήθη: i.e. the events of the second war.

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