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Conclusion of the thirty years' truce between Athens and Sparta; revolt of Samos. ἀποδόντες: aor. partic., expressing the condition. See on c. 101. 12; 108. 13.—Τροιζῆνα καὶ Ἀχαΐαν: we have not been told of the occupation of either; though the expeditions of c. 105 and 111. § 2. 3, may have had such results. For Ἀχαΐαν Cobet and Kr. needlessly propose Ἁλιάδα or Ἁλιᾶς, where, in c. 105. 1, the Athenians are defeated. Achaea, however, can have been only partially in possession of the Athenians. Cf. c. 111. 14. The same places are named in iv.21.13 as ceded by this treaty. Curtius, Pel. I. 422. Πελοποννησίων: cf. v.39.4, περὶ ὧν εἶχον ἀλλήλων. Kr. Spr. 47, 10, 2. περὶ Πριήνης: neither in Diod. xii. 27, nor Plut. Per. 24, do we learn any details.—ἐλασσούμενοι: partic. pres., not of a single defeat, but implying continued disadvantage. Cf. c. 77. 1; viii.89.27. κατεβόων: with gen., of indignant complaints. Cf. c. 67. 4; v.45.18. ξυνεπελαμβάνοντο: abs.; the object of the common effort is to be gathered from the context. So iii.74.3; viii.92.31.—ἰδιῶται: non-official. This word, which Kr. brackets, is amply defended by the usage noted on c. 74. 4, and the analogy of other such combinations of ἀνήρ in Thuc. So with στρατηγός and ξένος, c. 74. 4, 9; μάντις, iii.20.9; δημαγωγός, iv.21.9; φυγάς, iv.76.7; vi.12.4; τύραννος, vi.85.1; περίοικος, viii.6.21; στρατιώτης, ii.89.1; vii.61.1; 77. 34. νεωτερίσαι: elsewhere used only abs. or with neut. pron. obj., as τι (c. 102. 13; iii.75.23; iv.51.3; 80. 8), οὐδέν, μηδέν (c. 58. 3; ii.3.6; 73. 14; iii.4.15; 11. 2). So here τὴν πολιτείαν is probably to be taken, not as direct obj., but as acc. of specification, for which in ii.73.14 we have περὶ τὴν ξυμμαχίαν; vii.87.6, ἐς ἀσθένειαν. The constitution of Samos was at this time aristocratic. δημοκρατίαν κατέστησαν: opp. to καταλύειν, viii.47.17; 63. 10. Plut., Per. 25. 4, makes Pericles conduct this first expedition. ἴσους: after numbers, an equal number of. Cf. ii.97.6; iii.75.12; 113. 22; iv.1.2; v.20.12; 57. 12.—κατέθεντο: placed for safe keeping. Cf. iii.28.14; 35. 5; 72. 2; 102. 2; iv.57.19; viii. 3. 9. ἐγκαταλιπόντες: i.e. ἐν τῇ Σάμῳ. τῶν δὲ Σαμίων κτἑ.: on this involved const., see on c. 72. 1. The τινες of the parenthetical sentence must be taken also with τῶν Σαμίων as the subj. of ξυνθέμενοι...διέβησαν. οὐχ ὑπέμενον : would not remain in the island. So better than with the Schol. to supply τὴν δημοκρατίαν. Note the contrast of the neg. impf. and the aor.—ἐς τὴν ἤπειρον: probably occupying Anaea; see iii.19.8; 32. 4. Cf. iv.75.7; viii.19.3. τοῖς δυνατωτάτοις: i.e. the heads of the aristocracy; see on c. 24. 13. ὃς εἶχε Σάρδεις: as Satrap of Lydia. Cf. iii.31.9. ἐπικούρους τε: the third particular. Cf. 23; c. 50. 4; 69. 3; 76. 12. This term applied chiefly to hired soldiers in the service of despots or oligarchical factions. Cf. ii.33.5; 70. 14; iii.18.3; 34. 8; iv.46.9; vi.55.16; viii.28.17; 38. 13. ὑπὸ νύκτα: at the approach of night. Cf. ii.92.22. ἐπανέστησαν; rose against, of intestine party warfare. Cf. v.23.16; viii.63.15; 73. 4; and so ἐπανάστασις, ii.27.10; iv.56.16; viii.21.2. κλέψαντες: Cobet with some Mss. reads ἐκκλέψαντες, as the proper word for the stealthy removal of persons. Cf. Hom. E 390. τοὺς ἄρχοντας: also with Ἀθηναίων. See on c. 91. 26. The addition οἳ ἦσαν παρὰ σφίσιν (see on c. 20. 3) implies rather civil than military officers. Such under the name of ἐπίσκοποι or φύλακες (cf. iv.104.14, ὃς ἐκ τῶν Ἀθηναίων παρῆν αὐτοῖς φύλαξ τοῦ χωρίου) were established among the dependent allies. Böckh, Pub. Econ. p. 525. Stahl, De sociorum Atheniensium iudiciis, p. 4.
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