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Of still less importance were the wars waged in early times on land.

τοιαῦτα: i.e. of small importance as compared with those of later times.

ἰσχὺν δὲ κτἑ.: i.e. though they were on a small scale, still those who paid attention to them gained greatly in wealth and power. Cf. c. 8. 11; 13. 1. On the spelling of προσσχόντες, see App.; and for the meaning, cf. vii.4.22. αὐτοῖς = τοῖς ναυτικοῖς.— 5. ὅσοι μὴ...χώραν : refers chiefly, perhaps exclusively, to the Athenians. Cf. c. 2. 26.

κατὰ γῆν δὲ πόλεμος κτἑ.: the remainder of the chapter states the natural inference to which the discussion in c. 4-14 leads, that only the sea could be the adequate scene of Hellenic development.—ὅθεν τις καὶ δύναμις παρεγένετο: from which any considerable amount of power resulted. Cl. and Kr. consider the meaning to be, “in consequence of which any large force was placed in the field,” the latter saying that προσεγένετο would have been used for the meaning given above. But cf. Xen. Mem. iv.2.2, τὸ προεστάναι πόλεως . . . παραγίγνεσθαι τοῖς ἀνθρώποις. Plat. Theaet. 197 c. δύναμιν αὐτῷ περὶ αὐτὰς παραγεγονέναι. Men. 99 e; Legg. 732 d. Besides for the latter meaning we should expect ἐς ὁν rather than ὅθεν. Under the influence of the neg. οὐδεὶς ξυνέστη there is no need of ἄν with παρεγένετο, as potential of the past, though v. H. reads κἄν. Cf. Xen. Hell. vii.5.17, οὐδὲν οὕτω βραχὺ ὅπλον ἑκάτεροι εἶχον οὐκ ἐξικνοῦντο ἀλλήλων. Isae. VI. 11.

ξυνέστη: implies the meeting of the parties engaged more forcibly than κατέστη. Cf. iv.78.29; vi.85.15.— ὅσοι καὶ ἐγένοντο: as many as did occur; the ‘emphasis-giving’ καί, as in 6, often implies that a thing, the reality of which might be doubted, did take place. Cf. c. 97. 11; 105. 17; ii.51.21; iii.67.4.

τοὺς σφετέρους: on the position, see on c. 1. 6. The refl. refers to a subj. implied in ἑκάστοις.

στρατείας...ἐξῇσαν : see App. on c. 3. 22.

τῆς ἑαυτῶν: sc. γῆς. Cf. c. 44. 8; 142. 11.— 10. ξυνειστήκεσαν...ὑπήκοοι : cf. c. 1. 6.

οὐδ̓ αὖ...ἐποιοῦντο : here the second mode of combining a large force is referred to, through a free alliance resting on equal rights, αὐτοὶ ἀπὸ τῆς ἴσης. Cf. iii.40.31.

κατ᾽ ἀλλήλους: connected with the distributive ὡς ἕκαστοι (sc. ἐπολέμουν), “their wars were only the wars of the several neighbouring tribes, one with another.” Jowett.

μάλιστα: i.e. within the time preceding the Peloponnesian war.— ἐς τὸν πάλαι κτἑ.: the war for the possession of the Λήλαντον πεδίον between Chalcis and Eretria. Cf. Hdt. v. 99; Strab. x.1.11; Grote, III. c. 12, p. 170. Curtius, Herm. 10, p. 220 ff., gives good reason for placing this in the eighth rather than in the seventh century.

Ἐρετριῶν: on the spelling, see App.

διέστη: cf. c. 1. 6; 18. 28.

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