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Soon after came the Persian wars. Athens and Sparta, after a brief alliance, fell into hostility, and each strove to augment her own power.

Chaps. 18 and 19 show that even the recent occurrences (τὰ πρὸ αὐτῶν, c. 1. 10) were important chiefly as preparations for the Peloponnesian war.

οἱ ἐκ τῆς Ἑλλάδος: followed by the supplementary description πλεῖστοι καὶ τελευταῖοι with repeated art. Cf. c. 2. 24; 23. 17; 108. 12; iii.23.8. ἐκ τῆς Ἑλλάδος is a proleptic attrib., caused by κατελύθησαν. See on c. 8. 9.

ἐπὶ πολὺ...τυραννευθείσης : for the order, see on c. 11. 19. ἐπὶ πολύ, generally, in local sense. Cf. ii.34.24. καὶ πρίν, even earlier than Athens. Before πρίν or πρότερον, καί = ἤδη. Cf. v.14.19; vi.88.23; vii.15.16; 68. 16.

πλὴν τῶν ἐν Σικελίᾳ: an exception to τελευταῖοι. In Sicily they maintained themselves to a later time. Besides the expulsion of the Pisistratidae (B.C. 510; cf. Hdt. v. 65) by Spartan help, we know only that after the death of Periander in Corinth (B.C. 585), of Clisthenes in Sicyon (B.C. 570), and of Theagenes in Megara (about B.C. 510), the Lacedaemonians favoured the restoration of the older order of things, and made an unsuccessful attack on Polycrates of Samos, about B.C. 525 (Hdt. iii. 39, 56). Therefore the words οἱ τύραννοι . . . κατελύθησαν are to be understood generally in the sense of the words in 10, τὰ ἐν ταῖς ἄλλαις πόλεσι καθίστασαν. Cf. Arist. Pol. viii.10.30 (1312 b 7), Λακεδαιμόνιοι πλείστας κατέλυσαν τυραννίδας. See Curtius, Hist. of Greece, I. p. 422.

τὴν κτίσιν: the settlement. Cf. the verb κτίσειν, c. 12. 5, 17; ii.68.6; v.16.32, etc.

ἐπὶ πλεῖστον χρόνον: i.e. down to the legislation of Lycurgus, which Thuc. places about B.C. 820 (Eratosthenes, 884); and so the unsettled period must have lasted two or three hundred years. Hdt. i. 65 agrees as to the fact. See Grote, II. c. 6, p. 340.

ὧν ἴσμεν: common in the historians with sup. or μόνος (cf. Hdt. i.142.3; 178. 12; ii.68.7; iii.60.15; iv.152.13; 197. 5, etc.); assimilated to an antec., usually obvious; as in c. 4. 1; 13. 13; here probably πασῶν πόλεων is to be supplied.—ἐκ παλαιοτάτου: after the longest period of disturbance Sparta was the earliest to reach a settled state; implied by the aor. ηὐνομήθη, to which is attached, as a natural result, ἀτυράννευτος ἦν. On this εὐνομία see C. Wachsmuth, Jahrbb. 14, p. 9.

μάλιστα: see on c. 13. 11.

τοῦδε τοῦ πολέμου: see Introd. p. 24.

δἰ αὐτό: the condition described in 7. The subj. of the rel. clause is to be repeated with καθίστασαν.

δυνάμενοι : = μέγα δυνάμενοι. Cf. c. 33. 20.

καθίστασαν: act., implying ‘among and for others.’ The mid., ‘at home’ or ‘for their own interest.’ Cf. c. 76. 2; 118. 8; ii.6.3; iii.18.6; 28. 17; 35. 7.—μετὰ δὲ τὴν...κατάλυσιν : a brief repetition of 1, ἐπειδὴ κτἑ. On the repeated δέ, see on c. 11. 6.

ἐκ τῆς Ἑλλάδος: for position, see on c. 11. 19.

ἐν Μαραθῶνι: see App.

τῷ μεγάλῳ στόλῳ: as the current designation of the expedition of Xerxes.

δουλωσόμενος: in c. 16. 6 the act. ἐδούλωσε has in view rather the sufferings of the conquered than the interests of the conqueror.

ξυμπολεμησάντων...ἡγήσαντο : aor., as in c. 3. 8; 4. 2; 14. 6 (joined in the war . . . took the lead). But ἡγοῦντο in c. 19. 2, they held the hegemony. The gen. implies that their control was normal or rightful.

δυνάμει προύχοντες: by the same natural law that had placed Agamemnon at the head of the Trojan expedition, c. 9. 1. It was on a similar basis of superior force already existing (c. 14. 12) that the Athenians after the second Persian war established their claim to leadership.

διανοηθέντες: this partic. and ἐσβάντες stand on a par as conditions of ναυτικοὶ ἐγένοντο, but ἀνασκευασάμενοιτὰ σκεύη ἀναλαβόντες, Schol.) is subordinate to ἐσβάντες as the necessary preliminary. διανοηθῆναι, resolve (c. 141. 2; iv.13.16; vii.40.17), διανοεῖσθαι, have a mind.

ἐσβάντες: for ἐμβάντες. See App.

κοινῇ τε: and so by joint effort. Cf. c. 4. 5.

διεκρίθησαν: = διέ- στησαν. Cf. 28; c. 15. 16. The subj. to ἀπωσάμενοι must be οἵ τε Λακεδαιμόνιοι καὶ οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι with their allies; but the allies alone form the subj. of διεκρίθησαν, and there are included also those who were set free from the Persian yoke by the battle of Salamis; and so to the subj. thus extended οἵ τε ἀποστάντες . . . ξυμπολεμήσαντες is an explanatory appos. (cf. c. 2. 24; 13. 18), while the Athenians and Lacedaemonians now stand in obj. relation. Cf. ii.16.4; iii.10.17; 23. 8; 53. 17, for a similar change of subj.

ταῦτα: these states. Cf. τῶν ναυτικῶν, c. 14. 2.—διεφάνη: had shown themselves among all. Cf. ii.51.9; iv.108.20; vi.17.20.

ξυνέμεινεν, ἐπολέμησαν : complexive aors., as in c. 6. 3. The latter refers to the struggle in B.C. 458-440, recorded in c. 107-115.—ὁμαιχμία: here only in Thuc. In Hdt. vii.145.11; viii.140.23. But ὅμαιχμος is used by the Plataean speaker in iii.58.19.

διασταῖεν: the iterative opt. after εἰὁπότε, ἐπειδή), followed as usual by the impf. GMT. 51; H. 894, 2. Cf. c. 49. 14; ii.10.5; vii.71.11. —ἤδη: now, by this time, the conditions described in c. 15. § 2 being now changed.

ὥστε κτἑ.: from hence to the end of the next chapter it is shown that the rivalry of the Athenians and Lacedaemonians after the Persian war caused the full development of their powers; and from this, with the increase of means of war, follows the preponderant importance of the Peloponnesian war.— ἀεί: belongs in effect to the following partics. as well as the finite verbs παρεσκευάσαντο and ἐγένοντο.

σπενδόμενοι : by concluding truces, πολεμοῦντες, by waging war. For τὰ μὲν . . . τὰ δέ, cf. ii.46.2.

ἀφισταμένοις: = ὁπότε ἀφισταῖντο. GMT. 109, 6; H. 902. Cf. c. 99. 13, and the whole of c. 89-118, where are the proofs of the brief statements here made.

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